काग़ज़  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

lekhan samagri vishay soochi
lekhan samagri    pashaniy shilalekh    eent    svarn    rajat    kashth    kapada    dhatu    tadapatr    bhoorjapatr    agarupatr    kagaz    qalam    syahi
yoorop men kagaz-nirman (1662 ee. men prakashit ek vudakat se)

kagaz 'prachin bharat ki lekhan samagriyon' men se ek hai, jo bahut hi mahattvapoorn sthan rakhata hai. kagaz ki upalabdhi ne gyan-vigyan aur snskriti ke vikas men bahut yogadan diya hai. prachin jagath ki kisi bhi any upalabdhi ko kagaz ke avishkar aur usase janit mudran-kala ke samakaksh nahin rakha ja sakata. in donon hi avishkaron ne adhunik manav ke bauddhik jivan par dirghakalin prabhav dala hai. kalpana kijie ki achanak hi kagaz ka utpadan ruk jata hai aur mudran kary band pad jata hai, tab hamare adhunik samaj ka kya hal hoga? halanki snchar ke any sadhan upalabdh hain, magar ve kagaz aur mudran ka sthan nahin le sakate hain.

kagaz ka avishkar

chin men kagaz eesa ki arambhik sadiyon men upalabdh hua. kagaz ke avishkar ka shrey vahan ke tsai-lun namak vyakti ko diya jata hai. vah prachin chin ke poorvi han vnsh (20-220 ee.) ke rajadarabar men vastuon ke utpadan ka adhikari tha. pata chalata hai ki tsai-lun ne pedon ki chhal, san ke chithadon aur machhali pakadane ke jalon se kagaz banane ke tariqe ki 105 ee. men rajadarabar ko janakari di thi. parantu naye prapt pramanon se pata chalata hai ki tsai-lun se kam se kam do sau sal pahale kagaz ki janakari milati hai. magar resham, bans aur kashth-phalakon jaisi paramparagat lekhan-samagri ke sthan par vahan kagaz ka vyapak istemal eesa ki chauthi sadi se hi sambhav ho saka.

kagaz ka prachar-prasar

kagaz n keval chin men lokapriy hua, balki duniya men chahun or isaka prachar-prasar hua. eesa ki doosari sadi men kagaz koriya men pahuncha aur eesa ki tisari sadi men japan men. eesa ki tisari sadi ke antim varshon men hind-chin ke logon ne chin valon se kagaz nirman ki takanik hasil ki. 751 ee. men do chini kagaz nirmataon ko bandi banakar samaraknd le jaya gaya, to vahan par kagaz banana shuroo ho gaya. islami jagath ko kagaz nirman kala ki janakari mili. bagadad men kagaz banane ka karakhana 793 ee. men sthapit hua. vahan se kagaz nirman ki kala damishk aur misr men pahunchi. eesa ki barahavin sadi men kagaz kala ke yoorop men pahunchane tak arabon ka kagaz nirman par ekadhikar bana raha.

alamari men rakhe rngin kagaz

yoorop men kagaz ka pravesh

arabon (mooron) ne kagaz nirman ki kala ko 1150 ee. ke asapas spen men pahunchaya. terahavin sadi ke uttarardh men bhoomadhy sagar aur itali ke marg se bhi yah takanik yoorop men pahunchi. chaudahavin sadi men yah frans aur jarmani men pahunchi. kagaz nirman ka gyan nidaralaind, svitjaralaind aur inglaind men pandrahavin sadi men pahuncha. amariki upaniveshon men kagaz ki takanik satrahavin sadi men pahunchi.

eshiya men kagaz ka pravesh

bharat men kagaz ka pravesh sambhavatah eesa ki satavin sadi men hua. chini bauddh bhikshu ee-chin, jisane 671-694 ee. men bharat ki yatra ki, apane chini snskrit kosh men batata hai ki, kagaz ke lie prayukt hone vale chini shabd tve ke lie snskrit men kakali shabd chalata hai. kuchh vidvanon ne is kakali shabd ko kagad ya kagaz shabd se joda hai. magar kagaz arabi ka shabd hai. isi se farasi men ‘kagad’ shabd bana. kagaz ke lie snskrit men koee shabd nahin hai.

chin ke han rajavnsh (206 ee. poo.-220 ee.) men kagaz banane ki prakriya
1. ped ki chhal ya san ko pani men bhigona
2. lugadi ko ubalana
3. ubali lugadi se kagaz banana
4. kagaz ko garm karake sukhana

bharatiy lipiyon, guptakalin brahmi men kagaz par likhi huee hastalikhit pustaken madhy eshiya aur adhik nazadik ke gilagit, kashmir sthan ke bauddh stoopon men mili hain. puralipi vigyan ke pramanon ke adhar par in hastalipiyon ka samay eesa ki panchavin se athavin sadi tak nirdharit kiya gaya hai. tun-huanh (poorvi madhy eshiya, chin) se prapt eesa ki doosari sadi ki kagaz ki hastalipiyon ki tulana men bharatiy lipiyon men likhi gee gilagit hastalipiyon ka kagaz ghatiya qism ka hai. sambhav hai ki yah kagaz bharat men bana ho.

prachinatam ullekh

bharat men eesa ki gyarahavin sadi tak kagaz ka vyapak upayog nahin hua tha. kagaz ka prachinatam ullekh dhar nagari ke raja bhoj (1018-1060 ee.) ka hai. bharat men upalabdh kagaz par likhi gee sabase prachin snskrit pustak pncharaksh hai. nepal se prapt 1105 ee. ki yah hastalipi ab kolakata ke 'ashutosh sngrahalay' men surakshit hai. sambhav hai ki nepal ne kagaz nirman ki takanik chin se sidhe hasil ki aur phir vahan se eesa ki gyarahavin sadi men bharat ka isaka pravesh hua ho.

arabi shabd

bharat men, visheshatah pashchim bharat men, kagaz nirman ki janakari arabon ke jarie pahunchi. eesa ki athavin sadi men sindh par arabon ki vijay aur tadanntar uttari bharat par hue turkon ke hamalon ke bad islami deshon se bharat men kagaz ka ayat hone laga. eesa ki athavin sadi se eeran ka khurasani kagaz bharat men pahuncha aur kee sadiyon tak ayat kiya jata raha. sambhavatah usi samay arabi ka kagaz shabd aur farasi ka ‘kagad’ shabd bharat men prachalit hue.

jan padata hai ki ek laghu udyog ke roop men kagaz ka nirman dilli aur lahaur men muhammad bin tugalaq ke shasanakal (1325-1352 ee.) men arambh ho gaya tha. usane kagaz ki 'mudra' bhi chalaee thi. us samay bharat men achchhi qism ka kagaz banata tha aur khurasan ko niryat kiya jata tha. magar kagaz ki takanik ki dridhata se sthapana kashmir ke sultan 'jain-alh-abidin' (1417-1467 ee.) ke samay men huee. samaraknd se hasil ki gee takanik ke adhar par sultan ne apani rajadhani naushahar men kagaz ka karakhana sthapit kiya tha.

kashmiri kagaz

pathanon aur mugalon ke shasanakal men chithadon se taiyar kie ge kashmiri kagaz ki badi mang thi. us kagaz ko dhokar aur sukhakar punah istemal men laya ja sakata tha. "jis lugadi se kagaz taiyar kiya jata tha, use chithadon aur san ke reshon ke mishran ko kootakar prapt kiya jata tha. tadanntar lugadi ko patthar ke hauz men rakhakar usamen pani milaya jata. phir narakul ki bani ek halaki jali se lugadi ke us mishran ki ek parat uthaee jati. vah parat hi kagaz hoti thi, jise dabakar aur dhoop men sukhakar kagaz prapt kiya jata tha. phir jhavan-patthar se us kagaz ko chikana kiya jata tha aur mand lagakar chamakila banaya jata. ant men kagaz ko sulemani (oniks) patthar se paaulish kiya jata aur tab vah bikri ke lie taiyar ho jata tha. mazabooti aur tikaoopan kagaz ki mukhy visheshataen hoti thin."[1]

bharat men kagaz nirman ke kendr

lekhan ki samagri ke roop men kagaz ki mang dinon-din badhati gee, to isake nirman ka udyog jaldi hi desh ke any pradeshon men bhi phail gaya. yah pramukhatah ek shahari udyog tha, isilie satrahavin sadi tak desh ke bahut se shaharon men ham kagaz mahalle sthapit hue dekhate hain. madhyayugin bharat men kagaz nirman ke pramukh kendr the-pnjab men siyalakot, uttar pradesh ke jaunapur zile men jafarabad, agara, dilli, kalpi, lahaur. magar ahamadabad aur daulatabad ne badhiya kagaz ke nirman ke lie sabase adhik khyati arjit kar li thi. itani adhik ki in shaharon men bana kagaz videshon ko bhi niryat kiya jata tha.

kagaz

kagaz ke prakar

yah janana bhi upayogi hoga ki desh men tarah-tarah ka kagaz banata tha aur use nam diya jata thaah

  1. us chiz ko jisase vah banata tha. jaise- bans se ‘bas’, san se ‘sanni’, machhuaron ke jal se ‘mahajal’.
  2. us sthan ko jahan vah banata tha. jaise- patan se ‘patani’, kashmir se ‘kashmiri’.
  3. us snrakshak ka jisaki chhatrachhaya men vah banata tha. jaise- nizamashah se ‘nizamashahi’, manasinh se ‘manasinhi’.

siyalakot men kagaz nirman ke kee sthal the, jahan par mazaboot aur safed rng ka kee qism ka kagaz banaya jata tha. jafarabad, jahan par arambhik shirki shasakon ki rajadhani thi, kagadi shahar ke nam se jana jata tha. bans se nirmit yahan ka kagaz uttam, chikana aur mazaboot hota tha. bihar men kagaz nirman ke do mukhy kendr the- gaya zile men araval aur ajimabad patana zile men bihar sharif. bngal men kagaz nirman ke pramukh the- murshidabad, hugali aur dinajapur.

gujarat men ahamadabad, khnbhat aur patan men kagaz taiyar hota tha. gujarat ki rajadhani ahamadabad kagaz nirman ka sabase bada kendr tha. vahan par itana adhik kagaz taiyar hota tha ki usaka pashchim eshiya ke deshon aur turki ko bhi niryat kiya jata tha. vahan ka kagaz bahut hi safed aur chikana hota tha. sabhi akar ka, patala v mota, aur rngon ka kagaz vahan banata tha. vyapariyon ke upayog ke lie bhoore hare rng ka kagaz bhi banaya jata tha.

yatri vivaran

patan men bana kagaz patani kahalata tha. italavi yatri nikolo konti, jisane pandrahavin sadi ke arambhik varshon men gujarat ki yatra ki thi, likhata hai- "keval kainbe (khambat) ke nivasi hi kagaz ka istemal karate the. baki sabhi bharatavasi pedon ke patton se banae ge khoobasoorat kagaz (tadapatr) par likhate hain." us samay khambat ek bndaragah tha aur vahan par kam se kam terahavin sadi se arabon ki ek basti thi. ahamadabad (sthapana-1411 ee.) ke nazadik ke kocharab (vastutah koocha-e-arab, yani arabon ki gali ya basti) ganv men bhi arabon ki vasavat thi. kocharab ganv, jo ab ahamadabad ka ek hissa ban gaya hai, kagaz nirman ka ek mahattvapoorn kendr ban gaya tha. ahamadabad men kagaz ab bilkul nahin banata, lekin kocharab kshetr men kagadi parivar ab bhi basate hain.

kagaz nirman ke prasiddh nagar

sanganer (jayapur ke nazadik) men hath-kagaz ka nirman

mugal kal men aurngabad ke nazadik ka daulatabad shahar dakshin bharat men kagaz nirman ka ek pramukh kendr ban gaya tha. vahan ka kagaz apane chikanepan aur tikaoopan ke lie kafi prasiddh tha. daulatabad men kagaz banane ke kee kendr the, jahan vibhinn qism ka kagaz taiyar kiya jata tha. daulatabad se kuchh doori par, vahan se verool, elora jane vali sadak ke kinare, kagazipura namak ek ganv aj bhi maujood hai.

vidarbh ke akola zile ka balapur shahar bhi kagaz utpadan ka ek mahattvapoorn kendr tha. vahan ‘kagadapura’ mauhalla aj bhi maujood hai. tipoo sultan ke shasanakal men maisoor men kagaz ka karakhana sthapit ho gaya tha. usi tarah, peshava kal men pune men bhi kagaz banane laga tha.

ek aur jagah, jahan par kagaz banata tha aur aj bhi banata hai, jayapur ke nazadik ka sanganer ganv hai. savaee jayasinh ke bete savaee eeshvarisinh ke samay men yahan ke kagaz udyog ko rajyashray mila. yahan par bana kagaz eeshvarasinhi kahalata tha. kagaz ki gunavatta aur usake chikanepan ko pramanit karane ke lie us par rajy ki muhar lagaee jati thi.

kagaz banane ki takanik

sare desh men kagaz banane ki takanik lagabhag ek-si thi, keval un chizon men hi antar tha, jinase lugadi taiyar ki jati thi. lugadi banane ke lie amataur par purane rasson, machhuaron ke jalon, chithadon, san aur usake boron ka istemal kiya jata tha. unhen saf karake, katakar, ubalakar aur dhenkali se kootakar lugadi taiyar ki jati thi. phir us lugadi ko nadi men ya hauz ke pani men dhoya jata tha. isake lie do adami lugadi ko dhoti-jaise kapadon men rakhakar usake siron ko apani kamar men bandh lete the.
unnisavin sadi ke madhyakal ka ek kashmiri chitr, jisamen kagaz-nirman ke sabhi star dikhae ge hain
ekadam safed kagaz prapt karane ke lie lugadi ko saf pani se dhona avashyak hota tha. usake bad lugadi ko choona aur kshar (sajji) se snsadhit kiya jata. tab us lugadi ko punah koota jata tha. phir use chabootare par dhoop men sookhane ke lie rakh diya jata tha. usake bad us lugadi ke pind banae jate. tab kee shit kagaz banane ke lie lugadi ki ek nishchit matra lekar use zamin men gade ge ek kund men dalakar pani milaya jata tha. tab lakadi ki bani ek chaukhat par rakhe ge narakulon ya sikon se banae ge ek jal (chik) se lugadi ki ek nishchit matra ko us kund se uthaya jata tha. phir lugadi ki us parat ko ek kapade par dala jata tha. is tarah, kapadon aur kagazon ki ek dheri taiyar ho jati thi, to us par bhari vazan rakhakar ya any kisi tariqe se usamen se pani ko bahar nikala jata tha. usake bad kagaz ki un nam shiton ko kapadon se alag karake choone se poti gee divar par lagaya jata tha. usake bad kagaz ki un shiton par mand lagaee jati thi ya unhen kisi gond men duboya jata tha. ant men lakadi ke takhte par rakhakar aur patthar se ragadakar kagaz ki un shiton ko chikana banaya jata tha. chakoo se kinaron ko thik se kat dene par kagaz bikri ke lie taiyar ho jata tha.

kagaz ka ayat

unnisavin sadi ke antim dashakon men bharat se patasan aur kapadon ka bade paimane par niryat hua aur sath hi ayatit kagaz ko adhik pasand kiya jane laga. isase bharat men hath kagaz ka utpadan ghatata gaya. san 1884-1885 men desh se 3,70,533 rupaye mooly ke chithadon aur kagaz nirman ki any chizon ka niryat hua. jabaki 48,92,121 rupaye ke kagaz ka aur daphti ka ayat hua.

kagaz mil ki sthapana

purtagaliyon ne pahali bar 1556 ee. men gova men chhapakhana sthapit kiya. angrezon ne arambh men bharat men bane hath kagaz ka istemal kiya, magar bad men unhonne yahan apane kagaz mil sthapit kie aur ve inglaind se bhi kagaz mngane lage. shriramapur (seramapur) men 1820 ee. men pahali bar kagaz nirman men ek bhap-injan ka istemal hone laga. usake bad desh men kee pepar mil sthapit hue- giraganv pepar mil, mumbee (1862), raauyal pepar mil, kolakata (1867), sindhiya pepar mil, gvaliyar (1882-1892), titaghar pepar mil, kolakata (1882-94).

aj bharat men kagaz utpadan prativarsh lagabhag 13 lakh tan hai. usamen hath kagaz ka utpadan qarib 7000 tan hai. bharat men qarib 250 kendron men hath kagaz ka utpadan hota hai aur usamen lagabhag 6000 log lage hue hain.


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