पंजाब  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

India-flag.gif
pnjab
Punjab-map.jpg
rajadhani chndigadh
rajabhasha(en) pnjabi bhasha, hindi bhasha
sthapana 1 navambar, 1956
janasnkhya 2,42,89,296[1]
· ghanatv 484 /varg kimi
kshetraphal 50,362[2]
bhaugolik nirdeshank 30.73°N 76.78°E
zile 22[2]
sabase bada nagar ludhiyana
bade nagar amritasar, jalndhar
ling anupat 1000:876 ♂/♀
saksharata 69.7%[2]%
· stri 63.55%
· purush 75.63%
rajyapal vi. pi. sinh badanaur[2]
mukhyamntri kaiptan amarindar sinh[2]
vidhanasabha sadasy 117
lokasabha kshetr 13
bahari kadiyan adhikarik vebasait
adyatan‎
Punjab-logo.png

pnjab (angrezi: Punjab) bharat ke uttar pashchim men sthit ek rajy hai, jisaki simaen pashchim men pakistan, uttar men jammoo aur kashmir rajy, uttar poorv men himachal pradesh aur dakshin men hariyana aur rajasthan rajy se milati hain. 'pnjab' shabd pharasi ke 'pnj' jisaka arth hota hai 'panch' aur 'ab' jisaka arth hota hai 'pani' ke mel se bana hai jisaka shabdik arth 'panch nadiyon ka kshetr' hai. isalie ise panch nadiyon ki bhoomi bhi kaha jata hai. ye panch nadiyan hain-

azadi ke bad sanh 1947 men bharat ke vibhajan ke samay chinab aur jhelam nadiyan pakistan ke pnjab prant men chali gayin thin. 20 zilon ke is khoobasoorat rajy men ab char nadiyan bahati hain-

  • sataluj
  • vyas
  • ravi
  • ghaggar

bhoomi upajaoo hone aur pani ki achchhi vyavastha hone ke karan ek muhavara prayog men laya jata hai ki yahan 'dharati sona ugalati' hai. pnjab ka kshetraphal 50,362 varg kilomitar hai. pnjab ki rajadhani chndigadh hai jo snyukt roop se pnjab aur hariyana pradesh ki rajadhani hai. pnjab men mukhy roop se pnjabi aur hindi bhasha boli jati hain. rajy ke mukhy nagar amritasar, jalndhar, ludhiyana aur patiyala hain.

itihas

prachin samay men pnjab bharat aur eeran ka kshetr tha. yahan maury, baiktriyan, yoonani, shak, kushan, gupt adi anek shaktiyon ka utthan aur patan hua. pnjab madhyakal men muslim shasakon ke adhin raha. yahan sabase pahale gazanavi, gori, gulam vnsh, khilaji vnsh, tugalak,lodi aur mugal vnsh ke shasakon ne yahan raj kiya. 15vin aur 16vin shati men guru nanakadev ji ki shikshaon se bhakti andolan ne zor pakada. sikh pnth ne ek dharmik aur samajik andolan ko janm diya, mool roop se jisaka uddeshy samajik aur dharmik kuritiyon ko door karana tha. dasaven guru govind sinh ji ne sikhon ko 'khalasa pnth' ke roop men sngathit kiya. mugalon ke daman aur atyachar ke khilaf sikkhon ko ekatr karake 'pnjabi raj' ki sthapana ki. pnjab men hi banavaridas ne uttaradi sadhuon ki mndali banaee thi. ek farasi lekhak ne likha hai ki 'maharaja ranajit sinh ne pnjab ko 'madam kada'('bag-e-bahisht')' arthath svarg men badal diya tha. unake dehant ke bad angrezon ki sazishon se yah samrajy samapt ho gaya. 1849 men do yuddhon ke bad pnjab british samrajy men a gaya tha.

gandhi ji ke svatntrata andolan se pahale hi british shasan ke khilaf pnjab men sngharsh prarambh ho gaya tha. svatntrata sngram men lala lajapataray ne mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhayi. svatntrata sngram men pnjab ke nagarikon ne badh chadh kar bhag liya. desh ho ya videsh, pnjab balidan men sabase age raha. vibhajan ka kasht bhi uthana pada jisake karan bade paimane par raktapat aur visthapan ka dnsh uthaya aur punarvas ke sath sath rajy ke naye sire se sngathit karane ki chunauti ka bakhoobi samana kiya. poorvi pnjab ki ath riyasaton ko milakar naya rajy 'pepsoo' banaya gaya aur 'poorvi pnjab rajy sngh, patiyala' ka nirman karake patiyala ko isaki rajadhani banaya gaya. 1956 men 'pepsoo' ko pnjab men mila diya gaya. 1966 men pnjab ke kuchh bhag se 'hariyana' rajy ka nirman kiya gaya.

bharatiy svatntrata andolan men yogadan

bharatiy svatntrata andolan men pnjab ke anek svatntrata senaniyon ne yogadan diya hai jisamen se pramukh hain- karatar sinh sarabha, oodham sinh, bhagatasinh, sukhadev, lala lajapat ray, rajakumari amrit kaur, pratap sinh kairon, sohan sinh bhakana, indr vidyavachaspati, jagataram, bhaee paramanand, gurubakhsh dhillo, madan lal dhingara, guradayal sinh dhilh‍lon, pndit kanshiram, ram sinh, gokulachand narng, hari kishan sarahadi, balavnt sinh adi.

bhoogol

bhoo-akriti

pnjab ka adhikansh hissa samatal maidani hai, jo poorvottar men samudr tal se lagabhag 275 mitar se dakshin-pashchim men lagabhag 168 mitar ki oonchaee ki anuvarti dhalan vala hai. bhautik roop se is pradesh ko tin hisson men banta ja sakata hai. poorvottar men 274-914 mitar ki oonchaee par sthit shivalik pahadiyan rajy ka bahut hi chhota hissa hain. dakshin men shivalik pahadiyan snkare aur laharadar taraee kshetr ke roop men phaili huee hain, jinase hokar kee mausami dharaen bahati hain. inaka sthaniy nam chos hai aur inamen se kee maidanon men kisi nadi men shamil hue bina hi samapt ho jati hain. tisara kshetr jalodh upajaoo mitti vala vishal samatal maidan hai. maidani kshetr men nadiyon ke kinare nimnabhoomi par sthit badh ke maidan aur unake bich men kam oonchaee par sthit samatal kshetron ko alag-alag pahachana ja sakata hai. pahale ret ke tilon se dhake dakshini-pashchimi oonche kshetr ko sinchaee ke vyapak vistar ke sath hi lagabhag samatal kar diya gaya hai, jisase samoocha paridrishy parivartit ho gaya hai.

jalavayu

antardeshiy uposhn katibndhiy avasthiti ke karan pnjab ki jalavayu arddh shushk se arddh nam ke bich vividhatapoorn hai. garmi ka mausam behad garm hota hai; joon men ausat tapaman 34° se. hota hai aur vishesh roop se garm dinon men yah 45° se. tak pahunch jata hai. yahan shit ritu men sardi bhi kafi padati hai. janavari men ausat tapaman 13° se. hota hai aur kee bar rat ke samay tapaman jamav bindu tak gir jata hai. poorvottar men sthit shivalik pahadiyon men adhikatam varshik varsha 1,245 mimi. darj ki jati hai, jo kramash: ghatati huee, dakshin-pashchim men lagabhag 356 mimi. rah jati hai. varshik varsha ka lagabhag tin-chauthaee hissa dakshin-pashchim maaunasoon ke mahinon, julaee se sitambar ke bich hota hai. pashchimi vikshobh ke karan disambar se march tak shit ritu men hone vali varsha kul varsha ke ek-chauthaee hisse se bhi kam hoti hai.

vany evn prani jivan

sadiyon se manav bastiyon ke vikas ke karan pnjab ke maidani kshetr ke adhikansh jngal samapt ho ge hain. shivalik pahadiyon ke vishal hisse men jngalon ki vyapak kataee ke phalasvaroop vrikshon ki jagah ab jhadidar vanaspati paee jati hai. parvatiy dhalanon par van lagane ke prayas kie ja rahe hain. pramukh sadakon ke kinare aur oopar tatha bnjar bhoomi par yookaliptas v paaupalar ke vriksh lagae ge hain.

pradesh ke kul kshetraphal ke tin-chauthaee hisse men kheti hone ke karan vany jivon ke paryavas men bhari kami aee hai. isake bavajood pakshiyon, kritnk jantuon aur sanp v any janavaron ki kee prajatiyon ne krishi paryavaran ke anusar svayn ko anukoolit kar liya hai.

arthavyavastha

pnjab ki arthavyavastha men utpadan aur vanijyik krishi ki pramukhata hai aur yahan vibhinn laghu v madhyam akar ke udyog hain. bharat ke mukhy rajyon men se pnjab men prati vyakti ay sabase adhik hai. bharat ke kul kshetraphal ke matr 1.6 pratishat bhoo-bhag vala pnjab lagabhag bharat ke kul ann utpadan ka 12 pratishat hissa paida karata hai.

krishi

pnjab krishi pradhan rajy hai. pnjab ki bhoomi bahut hi upajaoo hai. yahan genhoo aur chaval ki fasal mukhy roop se hoti haih. pnjab rajy men dish ke bhaugolik kshetr ke sirf 1.5 pratishat bhag men desh ke gehoon ke utpadan ka 22 pratishat, chaval ka 12 pratishat aur kapas ki bhi 12 pratishat paidavar ka utpadan karata hai. ajakal pnjab men fasal gahanata 186 pratishat se bhi adhik hai. pichhale do tin dashakon men pnjab ne gehoon ka 40 se 50 pratishat adhik utpadan karake 'desh ki khady tokari' aur 'bharat ka anaj bhndar' hone ka khitab le liya hai. pnjab ka vishv ke kul utpadan men, chaval ek pratishat, gehoon do pratishat aur kapas men 2 pratishat ka yogadan hai. pnjab men prati hekteyar khad ka utpadan 177 kilogram hai. rashtriy star par khad 90 kilogram prati hekteyar prayog ki jati hai. 1991-92 se 1988-99 tak aur 2001 se 2003-04 tak lagatar krishi vistar sevaon ka rashtriy utpadak puraskar prapt kiya hai. anndapur sahab men vishv ki sabase badi anaj mndi hai.

harit kranti

pnjab men krishi ka jabaradast vikas mukhyat: harit kranti ka parinam hai, jisane rajy men adhunik krishi praudyogiki ki shuruat ki. adhik paidavar vale gehoon aur chaval ke bijon ke agaman sath hi in phasalon ke utpadan men kee guna vriddhi huee. gehoon aur chaval ki kheti lagabhag tin-chauthaee krishi kshetr men hoti hai. any vanijyik phasalon men kapas, ganna, aloo, aur tilahan hain. makka, moongaphali, chana, bajara aur kuchh dalahanon ki kheti men pichhale kuchh varshon men kami aee hai. halanki gehoon v chaval ki upaj ab bhi kafi achchhi hai, isamen aur vriddhi nahin ho rahi hai. chaval ke lie adhik pani ki avashyakata hone ke karan bhoomi ke poshak tattv kam hote ja rahen. jisase mitti anupajaoo ho rahi hai. parinamasvaroop utpadakata banae rakhane ke lie adhik urvarak ka istemal karana padata hai. mitti ki urvarata ko phir se prapt karane ke lie aur krishi ko labhakari udyam banane ke lie krishi men vividhata lane ka prayas kiya ja raha hai. bagabani, phoolon ki kheti, murgipalan aur deyari udyogon ka dhire-dhire vikas ho raha hai.

sinchaee

pnjab men sinchaee ke lie 1134 sarakari naharen hain, jinase bhoomi ki sinchaee hoti hai. yahan sabhi prakar ki kheti hoti hai. krishi pradhan rajy hone ke karan krishi vikas ko prathamikata di jati hai. pnjab sarakar fasalon ke vividhikaran ke lie anek yojanaen chala rahi hai. pani ke sahi istemal ke lie protsahit karake vibhinn zilon ke sinchaee kshetr men 0.97 lakh hekteyar ko badhaya liya hai. rajy ka kul bhaugolik kshetr 50.36 lakh hekteyar hai. kul bhoomi men se 42.90 lakh hekteyar kshetr men kheti hoti hai. rajy men 33.88 lakh hekteyar kshetr men naharon se sinchaee ki jati hai. mukhy naharon aur unaki shakhaon ki kul lambaee 14,500 ki.mi. hai. ravi nadi par bana 'ranajit sagar bandh' ek bahuuddeshiy nadi ghati pariyojana hai. 160 mitar oonche is bandh men 3.48 lakh hekteyar kshetr ko sinchaee upalabdh karane ki kshamata hai.

vishv baink ki sahayata se pnjab men sinchaee aur jal pariyojanaon ka doosara charan poora ho gaya hai. 1,0920 ki.mi. naliyon ka nirman kiya ja chuka hai. 1260 ki.mi. lambi naliyon ki marammat aur 53 ki.mi. nee naliyon ka nirman kiya gaya hai. bhatinda nahar pranali ki tin naharon ki kshamata badhane ke lie 18.83 karod ki lagat ki pariyojanaen poori kar li hain.

ranajit sagar bandh ke atirikt pani ke lie punarniman ki pariyojana prarambh ki gayi hai. 364.10ki.mi. lambi mukhy nahar ke nirman kary men se 298 ki.mi. ke lagabhag kary poora kiya ja chuka hai, 1,507 ki.mi. chhoti naliyon ka ka nirman 140 karod rupaye ki lagat se poora ho chuka hai. banur nahar men sadaiv pani rahe, 38.08 karod ki lagat ki yojana ka prastav nabard ke pas bheja hai. pnjab ke kandi kshetr ke vikas ke lie 11 chhote bandhon ko banaya gaya hai jinase 12,000 hekteyar bhoomi ki sinchaee ka lakshy hai. rajy men 1,615 tayoobavail lage hue hain. rajy ke kul sinchit kshetr men se 60 pratishat ki sinchaee niji aur sarakari tayoobavailon se aur 40 pratishat naharon se sinchaee hoti hai.

sinchit pradesh

pnjab ka lagabhag samoocha krishi kshetr sinchit hai aur is prakar yah desh ka sarvadhik sinchit pradesh hai. sarakari naharen aur nalakoop sinchaee ke pramukh sadhan hain. himachal pradesh men sthit bhakhada bandh pariyojana rajy ke sinchaee ka adhikansh jal upalabdh karati hai. dakshin aur dakshin-pashchim pnjab men mukhyat: naharon ke zariye sinchaee hoti hai, jabaki uttar aur poorvottar men nalakoopon (tin-chauthaee se adhik nalakoop bijali dvara chalit) ka vyapak upayog hota hai aur dakshin-pashchim men phuharon se sinchaee bhi prachalit hai. lagabhag 1970 men snpann huee chakabndi ke karan niji nalakoop sinchaee ka teji se vikas hua, sath hi yntron ke istemal samet krishi ki karyakushalata men bhi vriddhi huee. amataur par zyada kheton vale kisanon ko harit kranti ki karyakushalata men bhi vriddhi huee. zyada kheton vale kisanon ko harit kranti se zyada labh hua, jisamen rajy ke gramin kshetron men ay ki vishamata badhi. sooti,,ooni aur reshami vastr udyog, khady utpad , dhatu utpadan, parivahan upakaran v purje, dhatu v mishr dhatu udyogon men sabase zyada shramik karyarat hain.

bijali

bhakhada bandh, bhakhada men lain, nangal panabijali yojana, gngooval aur kotala pavar haus, harike bairaj, sarahind phidar, madhopur hedavark ko bairaj banana aur pog men vyas nadi ka bandh adi kuchh sinchaee aur panabijali pariyojana hain. madhopur vyas link ka nirman ravi nadi ke atirikt pani ko vyas men sthanantarit karane ke lie kiya gaya hai. vyas-sataluj nadi link pariyojana men vyas nadi ke pani ka prayog bijali ke utpadan ke bad is pani ko govind sagar jhil men bhejane ka prabndh kiya gaya hai. mukeriya aur anndapur sahib panabijali yojanaen mahattvapoorn sinchaee aur bijali pariyojanaen hain.

ranajit sagar bandh yojana ek bahu uddeshiy pariyojana hai jisamen ravi nadi par 160 mitar ooncha bandh banaya ja raha hai jisase 3.48 lakh hekteyarabhoomi ke lie sinchaee ki kshamata hai. ranajit sagar bandh ki charon ikaiyan saphalatapoorvak chal rahi hain. is pariyojana se 2100 miliyan yoonit bijali ka utpadan kiya ja sakega. kul utpadan ki 4.6 bijali jammoo aur kashmir ko di jaegi.

udyog

mahattvapoorn udyogon men hojari, saikil, silaee mashin, khel ke saman, bijali ki mashinen, upakaran v purjon ka nirman shamil hai. jivashm eendhanon ke abhav men pnjab ke udyogon ko oorja ki kami ka samana karana padata hai. rajy ke lagabhag tin-chauthaee gharon men bijali ka upayog hota hai. naye bijali ghar aur tapavidyut pariyojanaen kam kar rahi hain lekin mang apoorti se kahin adhik hai.

parivahan

pnjab ka manachitr
sadak marg
  • pnjab rajy ki sadakon ki kul lambaee 50,506 ki.mi. hai.
  • sabase mahattvapoorn bat yah hai ki lagabhag sabhi ganv sadakon se jude hue hai.
  • pnjab rajy sarakar ki sadakon, pulon aur bhavanon ke rakharakhav ka dayitv pi.dabloo.di. ki hai.
  • 'pnjab sadak aur bandh vikas bord' ki sthapana 1998 men huee. isaka uddeshy rajy ki sadakon ke lie atirikt sadhan jutana tha.
rel marg
  • desh ki rel pranali ke ek hisse, uttari relave ka karyakushal vyapak snjal pnjab men hai.
  • rel seva ki tarah hi dak v tar seva aur rediyon tatha telivishzan ka prasaran kendr sarakar ke niyntran men hai.
  • rajy men relave marg ki kul lambaee 3,726.06 ki.mi. hai.
  • pakistan se juda rel marg bhi pnjab ke amritasar se hai.
bndaragah
  • dilli se chndigadh aur amritasar, ludhiyana aur bhatinda nagaron ke lie bhi niyamit havaee sevaen upalabdh hain.
  • pnjab rajy men char nagarik viman klab amritasar, ludhiyana, patiyala aur jalndhar men hain. inake atirikt chndigadh men ek antararajyiy havaee adda, rajasansi (amritasar) men ek antararashtriy havaee adda aur patiyala, sahaneval (ludhiyana) men do havaee adde hain.

shiksha

sarakar ke sath- sath men niji sngathanon ne bhi skool aur mahavidyalay star par balak- balikaon ki shiksha ke vistar men mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhaee hai. manyata prapt niji prabndhan vale snsthanon ko kafi had tak sarakar se madad milati hai. chhah se gyarah sal tak ke bachchon ke lie prathamik shiksha anivary hai. vastut: pratyek ganv ke nikat prathamik vidyalay aur rajy men uchchatar madhyamik, uchch aur madhy vidyalayon ke sadhan netavark ke bavajood pnjab men 1991 tak sirf 58.5 pratishat janasnkhya (sat sal aur usase adhik ayoo ke) sakshar thi, jabaki bharat ka ausat 52.2 pratishat hai. saksharata dar anusoochit janajati (41 pratishat), visheshakar mahilaon men (31 pratishat ), kafi kam hai.

pnjabi poshak

pnjab men chhah vishvavidyalay hain: patiyala men pnjabi vishvavidyalay, amritasar men gurunanak dev vishvavidyalay, chndigadh men pnjab vishvavidyalay (kendr dvara snchalit aur chndigadh kendrashasit pradesh men sthit), ludhiyana men pnjab krishi vishvavidyalay, jalndhar men pnjab takaniki vishvavidyalay (rajy ke sabhi injiniyaring aur praudyogiki snsthan isase snbaddh hain), aur faridakot men baba pharid yoonivarsiti aauf helth sainsez (sabhi medikal/ dental aur ayurvedik kaaulej isase snbaddh hain). rajy men 225 se adhik kaaulej aur vyavasayik snsthan hain. vyavasayik snsthanon men beant kaaulej aauf injiniyaring aind teknolaauji (guradasapur), bi. bi. es. kaaulej aauf injiniyaring (fatehagadh), bi. je kaaulej aauf injiniyaring aind teknolaauji (ropad), kaaulej aauf egrikalcharal injiniyaring (ludhiyana), bi. ar. e. rijanal injiniyaring kaaulej (jalndhar), ji. en. di. injiniyaring (ludhiyana), ji.ar. skool aauf planing aind arkitekchar (amritasar), es. bi. es. kaaulej aauf injiniyaring aind teknolaauji (firozapur), es. el. instityoot aauf injiniyaring aind teknolaauji (sngaroor), es. yoo. es. kaaulej aauf injiniyaring aid teknolaauji (mohali), thapar instityoot aauf injiniyaring aind teknolaauji (patiyala), adesh instityoot aauf injiniyaring aind teknolaauji aur ji. zed. es. kaaulej aauf injiniyaring aind teknolaauji (bhatinda) shamil hain.

prabndhan aur knpyootar vigyan aiplikeshan men snatak aur snatakottar pathyakram ki shuruat karane par bal diya ja raha hai. sath hi prasaran ke zariye rozagaronmukh tatha sanskritik shiksha ka prasar bhi mahattvapoorn hai. pnjab men vyavasayik aur takaniki shiksha prapt log badi snkhya men hone chahie, lekin avashyakata is bat ki hai ki sabhi staron par vishashakar skoolon men shaikshik prabndhan sunishchit kiya jae.

sanskritik jivan

bhangada, pnjab

lokagit, prem aur yuddh ke nrity mele aur tyohar, nrity, sngit tatha sahity is rajy ke sanskritik jivan ki visheshataen hain. pnjabi sahity ki utpatti ko 13 vin shatabdi ke musalaman soophi snt shekh pharid ke rahasyavadi aur dharmik dohon tatha sikkh pnth ke snsthapak, 15vin-16vin shatabdi ke guru nanak se joda ja sakata hai. jinhonne pahali bar kavy abhivyakti ke madhyam ke roop men vyapak rup se pnjabi bhasha ka upayog kiya. 18vin shatabdi ke uttarardh men pnjabi sahity ko samriddh banane men varis shah ki bhoomika atulaniy hai. 20vin shatabdi ke arnbh men kavi v lekhan bhaee virasinh tatha kavi pooran sinh aur dhani ram chaitrik ke lekhan ke sath hi pnjabi sahity ne adhunik kal men pravesh kiya. hal ke varshon men pnjabi snskriti ke vibhinn pahaluon ko chitrit karane vali vibhinn lekhakon, kaviyon aur upanyasakaron ki bhoomika bhi kafi mahattvapoorn hai. kaviyon men sabase prasiddh mohan sinh mahir aur shiv kumar batalavi the; upanyasakaron men jasnvatasinh knval, guradayal sinh aur sohan sinh shital ullekhaniy hain; kulavnt sinh virk ek vikhyat lekhak hain. pnjab ke gramin jivan ka chitran karane vale sarvashreshth upanyason men se ek gyani guradit sinh ki mera pind hai, jo pnjabi sahity ki utkrisht rachana hai.

pnjab men kee dharmik aur mausami tyohar, jaise- dashahara, dipavali, baisakhi aur vibhinn guruon tatha snton ki varshaganth-manae jate hain. bhangada, jhoomar aur sammi yahan ke lokapriy nrity hain. pnjab ki sthaniy nrity shaili gidda, mahilaon ki vinodapoorn git-nrity shaili hai. sikkhon ke dharmik sngit ke sath-sath upashastriy mugal shaili bhi lokapriy hai, jaise khayal, thumari, gajal aur kavvali.

rajy ke ullekhaniy vastushilp smarakon men amritasar men sthit svarn mndir (haramndir) hai, jo uttar mugal shaili ke anuroop nirmit hai. isake gunbad aur jyamitiy rupankan jaisi pramukhataen sikkhon ke adhikansh pooja sthalon men duharaee gee hain. svarn mndir men sone ki jaradoji ka kam, bootedar phalak aur rngin pattharon se sajjit sngamaramar ki divaren hain. any mahattpoorn bhavanon men amritasar men jaliyanvala bag men shahid smarak, durgiyana (amritasar men bhi) ka hindoo mndir, kapoorathala men sthit moor shaili ki masjid aur bhatinda tatha bahaduragadh men sthit purane qile hain.

tyohar
  • dashahara
  • dipavali
  • holi
  • muktasar ka maghi mela
  • qila rayapur men gramin khel
  • patiyala ka basnt
  • anandapur sahib ka hola mohalla
  • talavndi saboo men vaishakhi
  • sarahind men roza sharif par urs, chhappar mela
  • faridakot men shekh farid agam parv
  • ganv ramatirath men ram tirath
  • sarahind men shahidi zor mela
  • hari vallabh sngit sammelan
  • jalndhar men baba sodal adi

paryatan

  • pnjab ki pavan bhoomi se snt bhi paida hue aur aitihasik yuddh bhi hue. puratattv gyan ka yahan bhndar hai.
  • rajy men paryatakon ki ruchi ke bahut se sthan hain.
  • inamen amritasar ka svarnamndir, durgiyana mndir, jaliyanvala bag, stil siti- govindagadh men, anndapur sahab men takht shri keshagadh sahab, khalasa sanskritik parisar, bhakhada-nangal bandh, patiyala men qila andaroon, motibag rajamahal, harike pattan men ardr bhoomi, puratatvik mahattv ka sngol aur chhatavir chidiyaghar, am khas bag men mugalakalin smarak parisar aur sarahind men afagan shasakon ki qabren aur shekh ahamad ka roza shariph, jalndhar men sodal mndir aur maharshi valmiki ka smarak adi mukhy hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 2001 ki janaganana ke anusar
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 State Profile (angrezi) (ech.ti.em.el) pnjab ki adhikarik vebasait. abhigaman tithi: 14 mee, 2012.

snbndhit lekh