महात्मा गाँधी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

mahatma gandhi vishay soochi
mahatma gandhi
Mahatma-Gandhi-1.jpg
poora nam mohanadas karamachnd gandhi
any nam bapoo, mahatma ji
janm 2 aktoobar, 1869
janm bhoomi porabndar, gujarat
mrityu 30 janavari, 1948
mrityu sthan nee dilli
mrityu karan hatya
abhibhavak karamachnd gandhi, putalibaee
pati/patni kastooraba gandhi
sntan harilal, manilal, ramadas, devadas
smarak rajaghat (dilli), birala haus (dilli) adi.
nagarikata bharatiy
parti kangres
shiksha bairistar
vidyalay bnbee yoonivarsiti, samaladas kaaulej
bhasha hindi, angrezi
puraskar-upadhi rashtrapita
vishesh yogadan bharat ki svatantrata, ahinsak andolan, satyagrah
snbndhit lekh asahayog andolan, namak satyagrah adi

mahatma gandhi (angrezi: Mahatma Gandhi, janm: 2 aktoobar, 1869; mrityu: 30 janavari, 1948) ko british shasan ke khilaf bharatiy rashtriy andolan ka neta aur 'rashtrapita' mana jata hai. inaka poora nam mohanadas karamachnd gandhi tha. rajanitik aur samajik pragati ki prapti hetu apane ahinsak virodh ke siddhant ke lie unhen antarrashtriy khyati prapt huee. mohanadas karamachnd gandhi bharat evn bharatiy svatntrata andolan ke ek pramukh rajanitik evn adhyatmik neta the. 'sabaramati ashram' se unaka atoot rishta tha. is ashram se mahatma gandhi ajivan jude rahe, isilie unhen 'sabaramati ka snt' ki upadhi bhi mili.

jivan parichay

mahatma gandhi ka janm 2 aktoobar 1869 ee. ko gujarat ke porabndar namak sthan par hua tha. unake mata-pita kattar hindoo the. inake pita ka nam karamachnd gandhi tha. mohanadas ki mata ka nam putalibaee tha jo karamachnd gandhi ji ki chauthi patni thin. mohanadas apane pita ki chauthi patni ki antim sntan the. unake pita karamachnd (kaba gandhi) pahale british shasan ke tahat pashchimi bharat ke gujarat rajy men ek chhoti-si riyasat ki rajadhani porabndar ke divan the aur bad men kramashah rajakot (kathiyavad) aur vankaner men divan rahe. karamachnd gandhi ne bahut adhik aupacharik shiksha to prapt nahin ki thi, lekin vah ek kushal prashasak the aur unhen sanaki rajakumaron, unaki duahkhi praja tatha sattasin kattar british rajanitik adhikariyon ke bich apana rasta nikalana ata tha.

shiksha

1887 men mohanadas ne jaise-taise 'bnbee yoonivarsiti' ki maitrik ki pariksha pas ki aur bhavanagar sthit 'samaladas kaaulej' men dakhila liya. achanak gujarati se angrezi bhasha men jane se unhen vyakhyanon ko samajhane men kuchh dikkat hone lagi. is bich unake parivar men unake bhavishy ko lekar charcha chal rahi thi. agar nirnay un par chhoda jata, to vah daauktar banana chahate the. lekin vaishnav parivar men chirafad ke khilaf poorvagrah ke alava yah bhi spasht tha ki yadi unhen gujarat ke kisi rajagharane men uchch pad prapt karane ki parivarik parampara nibhani hai, to unhen bairistar banana padega. isaka arth tha inglaind yatra aur gandhi ne, jinaka 'samaladas kaaulej' men khas man nahin lag raha tha, is prastav ko saharsh hi svikar kar liya. unake yuva man men inglaind ki chhavi 'darshanikon aur kaviyon ki bhoomi, sampoorn sabhyata ke kendr' ke roop men thi. sitnbar 1888 men vah pani ke jahaz par savar hue. vahan pahunchane ke 10 din bad vah lndan ke char qanoon mahavidyalay men se ek 'inar tenpal' men dakhil ho ge.

afrika men gandhi

daraban nyayalay men yooropiy majistret ne unhen pagadi utarane ke lie kaha, unhonne inkar kar diya aur nyayalay se bahar chale ge. kuchh dinon ke bad pritoriya jate samay unhen relave ke pratham shreni ke dibbe se bahar phenk diya gaya aur unhonne steshan par thithurate hue rat bitaee. yatra ke agale charan men unhen ek ghodagadi ke chalak se pitana pada, kyonki yooropiy yatri ko jagah dekar payadan par yatra karane se unhonne inkar kar diya tha, aur antatah 'sirf yooropiy logon ke lie' surakshit hotalon men unake jane par rok laga di gee. natal men bharatiy vyapariyon aur shramikon ke lie ye apaman dainik jivan ka hissa tha. jo naya tha, vah gandhi ka anubhav n hokar unaki pratikriya thi. ab tak vah hathadharmita aur ugrata ke paksh men nahin the, lekin jab unhen anapekshit apamanon se guzarana pada, to unamen kuchh badalav aya.

satyagrah

1906 men tansaval sarakar ne dakshin afrika ki bharatiy janata ke pnjikaran ke lie vishesh roop se apamanajanak adhyadesh jari kiya. bharatiyon ne sitnbar 1906 men johensabarg men gandhi ke netritv men ek virodh janasabha ka ayojan kiya aur is adhyadesh ke ullnghan tatha isake parinamasvaroop dnd bhugatane ki shapath li. is prakar satyagrah ka janm hua, jo vedana pahunchane ke bajay unhen jhelane, vidveshahin pratirodh karane aur bina hinsa ke usase ladane ki nee takanik thi.

dharmik khoj

gandhi ji ki dharmik khoj unaki mata, porabndar tatha rajakot sthit ghar ke prabhav se bachapan men hi shuroo ho gee thi. lekin dakshin afrika pahunchane par ise kafi bal mila. vah eesaee dharm par taaulsatay ke lekhan par mugdh the. unhonne quran ke anuvad ka adhyayan kiya aur hindoo abhilekhon tatha darshan men dubakiyan lagaeen. sapekshik karm ke adhyayan, vidvanon ke sath batachit aur dharmashastriy kritiyon ke niji adhyayan se vah is nishkarsh par pahunche ki sabhi dharm saty hain aur phir bhi har ek dharm apoorn hai. kyonki kabhi-kabhi unaki vyakhya starahin buddhi snkirn hriday se ki gee hai aur aksar durvyakhya huee hai. bhagavadagita, jisaka gandhi ne pahali bar inglaind men adhyayan kiya tha, unaka 'adhyatmik shabdakosh' ban gaya aur sambhavatah unake jivan par isi ka sabase adhik prabhav pada. gita men ullikhit snskrit ke do shabdon ne unhen sabase zyada akarshit kiya. ek tha 'aparigrah' (tyag), jisaka arth hai, manushy ko apane adhyatmik jivan ko badhit karane vali bhautik vastuon ka tyag kar dena chahie aur use dhan-sampatti ke bndhanon se mukt ho jana chahie. doosara shabd hai 'samabhav' (saman bhav), jisane unhen duahkh ya sukh, jit ya har, sabamen adig rahana tatha saphalata ki asha ya asaphalata ke bhay ke bina kam karana sikhaya.


inhen bhi dekhen: mahatma gandhi ke anamol vachan, dak tikaton men mahatma gandhi, mahatma gandhi antarrashtriy hindi vishvavidyalay evn mahatma gandhi ke prerak prasng


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