मानवेन्द्र नाथ राय  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

manavendr nath ray
manavendr nath ray
poora nam manavendr nath ray
any nam narendr nath bhattachary
janm 21 march, 1887
janm bhoomi pashchim bngal
mrityu 26 janavari, 1954
nagarikata bharatiy
prasiddhi darshanik, krantikari vicharak
andolan 1905 ee. men 'bngal vibhajan' ke viruddh hue andolan men sakriy bhag liya.
jel yatra 'kanapur shadayntr kes' men apako chhah varsh jel ki saza huee thi.
vishesh yogadan apane bharat men 'kamyunist parti' ki sthapana men mahattvapoorn yogadan diya.
any janakari manavendr nath ray sashakt sngharsh dvara bharat ko videshi shasan se svatntr karana chahate the. isi uddeshy ki poorti ke lie unhonne anek varshon tak jarmani, roos, chin, amerika, maiksiko adi deshon ki yatraen bhi kin.

manavendr nath ray (angrezi: Manavendra Nath Roy, janm- 21 march, 1887 ee., pashchim bngal; mrityu- 26 janavari, 1954 ee.) vartaman shatabdi ke bharatiy darshanikon men krantikari vicharak tatha manavatavad ke prabal samarthak the. inaka bharatiy darshanashastr men bhi bahut mahattvapoorn sthan raha hai. manavendr nath ray ne svatntrata sngram ke dauran krantikari sngathanon ko videshon se dhan v hathiyaron ki taskari men sahayog diya tha. san 1912 ee. men ve 'havada shadayntr kes' men giraphatar bhi kar liye ge the. inhonne bharat men 'kamyunist parti' ki sthapana men mahattvapoorn yogadan diya tha. san 1922 ee. men barlin se 'd laingard aauf indiyan indipendenns' namak samachar patr bhi inhonne nikala. 'kanapur shadayntr kes' men unhen chhah varsh ki saza huee thi.

parichay

manavendr nath ray ka janm 21 march, 1887 ko pashchim bngal ke ek chhote-se ganv men ek brahman parivar men hua tha. unake pita dharmaparayan vyakti the aur dharmaprachar ke dvara jivikoparjan karate the. ray ka balyakalin nam 'narendr nath bhattachary' tha, jise bad men badalakar unhonne 'manavendr nath ray' kar liya aur isi nam se unhonne darshan tatha rajaniti ke kshetr men khyati prapt ki. yadyapi unaka palan poshan dharmaparayan parivar men hua tha, phir bhi balyakal se hi dharm men unaki astha nahin thi.

krantikari gatividhiyan

14 varsh ki alpayu men hi ve bharat ki svatntrata ke liye hone vale krantikari andolanon men sammilit ho ge the. 1905 ee. men bngal vibhajan ke viruddh hue andolan men unhonne sakriy bhag liya tha. ve sashakt sngharsh ke dvara bharat ko videshi shasan se svatntr karana chahate the aur isi uddeshy ki poorti ke lie unhonne anek varshon tak jarmani, roos, chin, amerika, maiksiko adi deshon ki yatraen bhi kin. in deshon men ve anek mahanh vicharakon tatha samyavadi netaon ke sampark men aye. jinake krantikari vicharon ka unake darshan par paryapt prabhav pada. ray ke darshan men bhautikavad, nirishvaravad, vyakti ki svatntrata, lokatntr, antarrashtriyata aur manavatavad ka vishesh mahattv hai.

bhautik vastuvad

adhikatar bharatiy darshanikon ke viparit ray poornat: bhautikavadi tatha nirishvaravadi darshanik the. unaka yah dridh vishvas tha ki sampoorn jagath ki vyakhya bhautikavad ke adhar par hi ki ja sakati hai. isake lie eeshvar jaisi kisi indriyatit shakti ke astitv ko svikar karane ki koee avashyakata nahin hai. prakritik ghatanaon ke samuchit prekshan tatha sookshm vishleshan dvara hi unake vasvatik svaroop aur karanon ko samajha ja sakata hai. vishv ka mool tatv bhautik dravy athava pudgal hai aur sabhi vastuen isi pudgal ke vibhinn roopantaran hain, jo nishchit prakritik niyamon ke dvara niyntrit hote hain. jagath ke mool adhar is pudgal ke atirikt any kisi vastu ki antim satta nahin hai. apane darshan ko paramparagat bhautikavad se prithakh karane ke lie ray use bhautikavad ke sthan par 'bhautik vastuvad' ki sngya dete hain. ve manaviy pratyaksh ko hi sampoorn gyan ka mool adhar manate hain. is sambandh men unaka spasht kathan hai ki 'manushy dvara jis vastu ka pratyay sambhav hai, vastav men usi ka astitv hai aur manav ke lie jis vastu ka pratyaksh gyan sambhav nahin hai usaka astitv bhi nahin hai.'

vicharadhara

apani isi bhautikavadi vicharadhara ke adhar par ray eeshvar tatha atma ke astitv ko svikar karate hain. unaka vichar hai ki keval astha par adharit tathakathit indriyatit sattaon ko manadnd banakar is vishv ki utpatti aur usake vikas ki samuchit vyakhya kabhi nahin kar sakate. at: aisi kalpit sattaon ke vichar ka parityag karana bahut hi avashyak hai. sampoorn brahmand bhautik paramanuon ke snghat ka parinam hai, jisaka koee rachayita nahin hai. vaigyanik vicharadhara vishv ke rachayita ke roop men sarvashaktiman tatha sarvgy eeshvar ki prakkalpana ka samarthan nahin karati. isi prakar sharir se prithakh tatha svatntr atma ki prakkalpana bhi niradhar hai, kyonki prani ki mrityu ke pashchath usaka kuchh bhi shesh nahin rah jata. jise atma kaha jata hai, vah vastav men prani ki chetana hai, jo bhautik paramanuon ke snghat se hi utpann hoti hai. is prakar ray eeshvar ke astitv ke sath-sath atma ki satta tatha amarata ka bhi khndan karate hain aur isi karan unhonne punarjanm ke siddhant ko bhi asvikar kiya hai. ve punarjanm ke siddhant ko prashasak varg ke samarthak purohiton ki chaturyapoorn kalpana manate hain, jo samaj men unaki uchch sthiti ko banaye rakhane ke lie hi ki gee hai. unaka vichar hai ki punarjanm ka siddhant samaj men niyativad ko janm deta hai, jo manushy ko nishkriy tatha paurushahin bana deta hai.

bhautikavad ki prachinata

bhautikavad ki sudirgh parampara ka ullekh karate hue ray kahate hain ki bhautikavadi vicharadhara utani hi prachin hai, jitana svayn manaviy chintan. bharatiy tatha yoonani vicharak bahut prachin kal se is vicharadhara ka samarthan karate rahe hain. hamare vedon tatha upanishadon men bhi bhautikavad ke mool tatv vidyaman hain, apane isi mat ki pushti ke lie ray 'upanishad sootr-2' se nimnalikhit vaky uddhrit karate hain-

'koee avatar nahin hota, n eeshvar hai, n svarg aur n narak, samast paramparik dharmashastr ka sahity dambhi moorkhon ki kriti hai.'

isi prakar aipikyooras, heraklaitas, lyookrishias adi anek prachin yoonani darshanik bhi bhautikavad ka hi prabal samarthan karate rahe hain. isase spasht hai ki bhautikavad bahut prachin vicharadhara hai. ray ka kathan hai ki vartaman yug men manushy ki mahanh vaigyanik pragati bhi isi vicharadhara ki pushti karati hai. unhonne bhautikavad ke viruddh adhyatmavadi darshanikon ke aropon ka dridhatapoorvak khndan kiya hai. unaka mat hai ki bhautikavadi darshan 'khao, piyo aur mauj karo' ka darshan nahin hai, jaisa ki isake virodhi isaka upahas karate hue pray: kaha karate hain. yah saty hai ki bhautikavad tathakathit paralaukik jivan ke kalpanik sukh ke lie vartaman jivan ke vastavik sukh ke parityag ka samarthan nahin karata, kintu usaka yah arth nahin hai ki vah manushy ko atmakendrit tatha svarthi ho jane ke lie prerit karata hai. vastut: bhautikavadi darshan manushy ke sadagunayukt shubhacharan men koee badha nahin dalata. at: ray ke matanusar is darshan ke viruddh adhyatmavadiyon ke arop niradhar hain.

gyan prakriya

apani uparyukt bhautikavadi vicharadhara ke anuroop hi ray ne gyan prapti ki pariksha ki vyakhya ki hai. ye vigyanavad tatha pratyayavad ka khndan karate hue keval vastuvad ke adhar par gyan ki utpatti ki vyakhya karate hain. unaka vichar hai ki indriy pratyaksh hi sampoorn manaviy gyan ka adi srot hai. ham apane anubhav ke dvara hi bhautik jagath ka gyan prapt kar sakate hain, apt-vaky hamen asndigdh gyan kabhi nahin pradan karate. indriy pratyay dvara ham vastuon ko usi roop men janate hain, jis roop men ve hain. kant ke viparit ray ka mat hai ki 'vastavik jagath' tatha 'pratitik jagath' men koee bhed nahin hai, ham apane anubhav dvara jis jagath ko janate hain, vahi vastavik jagath hai. isi prakar ke bakali ke mat ka bhi khndan karate hain ki bhautik vastuon ka astitv hamare pratyayon par hi nirbhar hai. ray ka kathan hai ki ham pratyayon ko nahin balki pratyakshat: bahy vastuon ko hi janate hain. bahy vastuon ka hamare man se prithakh aur svatntr astitv hai, at: gyan mimansa ki drishti se bakali ka yah mat doshapoorn hai ki antat: bhautik jagath ka astitv hamare manasik jagath par hi nirbhar hai. ray ke anusar bahy vastuon ke astitv ki vyakhya ke lie eeshvar ki satta ka adhar lena avashyak hai.

uparyukt vivechan se spasht hai ki ray bhautikavad, indriyanubhavavad tatha vastuvad ke prabal samarthak hain. parantu, jahan tak hamen gyat hai, unhonne in tinon darshanik siddhanton ki anek bahucharchit kathinaeeyon ka nirakaran karane ke lie koee sntoshaprad samadhan prastut nahin kiya. udaharanarth, ray tatha any bhautikavadiyon ki is manyata ka samarthan karana kathin hai ki chetana ki utpatti jad pudgal se hi huee hai. yah saty hai ki adhyatmavadi bhi chetana ki utpatti ki sntoshajanak vyakhya nahin kar pate, kintu isase chetana ki utpatti ke vishay men bhautikavadiyon ke mat ki satyata siddh nahin hoti. isake atirikt bhautikavadiyon ki yah manyata bhi uchit pratit nahin hoti ki brahmand ka antim tatv pudgal hi hai. vartaman yug men svayn vaigyanik bhi oorja ko hi antim tatv manate hain.

isi prakar indriyanubhavavad tatha vastuvad bhi gyan prakriya ki sntoshaprad vyakhya nahin kar pate. isamen sndeh nahin ki inndriy anubhav gyan ka sarvadhik mahattvapoorn adhar hai, kintu isaka yah arth nahin hai ki gyan prakriya men buddhi ka koee yogadan nahin hai. ham pratyakshon ke dvara kisi vastu ka gyan tab tak prapt nahin kar sakate, jab tak ye pratyaksh susngathit n hon aur unhen susngathit karana buddhi ka hi kary hai, indriy anubhav ka nahin. isi karan kant ne gyan ke lie indriy anubhav ke sath-sath buddhi ke yogadan ko bhi anivary mana hai. gyan prakriya ke sambandh men vastuvad bhi koee sntoshaprad siddhant nahin hai.

darshanik tatha manovaigyanik vichar

adhikatar samakalin darshanik tatha manovaigyanik ray aur kuchh any vastuvadiyon ki is manyata ko svikar nahin karate ki ham vastuon ko pratyaksh janate hain aur ve thik vaisi hi hain, jaisi ham unhen janate hain. in darshanik tatha manovaigyanikon ka vichar hai ki ham keval indriy snvedanon ka anubhav karate hain, jo bahy vastuon se sambandhit hamare gyan ke adharabhoot tatv hain. in indriy snvedanon ke bina ham kisi bahy vastu ko pratyakshat: nahin jan sakate. in indriy snvedanon tatha bahy vastuon ke sambandh ka svaroop aur karan kya hai, is prashn ka koee nishchit evn sarvamany uttar dena bahut kathin hai. ray ki is manyata ka auchity bhi sndigdh hi pratit hota hai ki ham sada bahy vastuon ko thik usi roop men janate hain, jaisi ve vastav men hain. ham is tathy se bhali-bhanti parichit hain ki bahy jagath sambandhi hamare gyan par hamari manodashaon tatha kuchh vishesh bhautik paristhitiyon ka bhi paryapt prabhav padata hai. aisi sthiti men nishchit roop se yah kahana bahut kathin hai ki bahy vastuen thik vaisi hi hain, jaisi ham unhen vibhinn paristhitiyon men bhinn-bhinn prakar se janate hain. isake atirikt yadi ray ke is mat ko svikar kar liya jaye ki indriy anubhav hi gyan ka ekamatr srot hai to hamare gyan ki paridhi bahut simit ho jayegi. isi karan gyan ke lie indriy pratyaksh ke sath-sath shabd tatha anuman ko bhi bahut hi avashyak mana gaya hai. bhautikavad, indriyanubhavavad tatha vastuvad ki uparyukt kathinaeeyon se yah spasht hai ki ye tinon darshanik siddhant poornat: sntoshaprad nahin hain.

naitikata aur dharm

ray ne apane bhautikavadi darshan ke anuroop hi naitikata aur dharm ke vishay men vichar kiya hai. ve vyakti tatha samaj ke lie naitik niyamon ke mahattv ke poornatv ko svikar karate hain, kintu unaka mat hai ki naitikata ka srot eeshvar athava koee any indriyatit satta nahin hai. isi prakar manasik bhay aur koee any bahari dabav bhi vastavik naitikata ka adhar nahin ho sakata. sachchi naitikata ant:prerit hi hoti hai aur bauddhik prani hone ke karan manushy kisi tathakathit devi shakti ka adhar lie bina svayn apane jivan men aisi naitikata ka vikas kar sakata hai. ray marksavadiyon ke is mat ko svikar nahin karate ki samajik tatha rajanitik kranti ke lie saty, eemanadari, nishtha adi sadgunon ka parityag kiya ja sakata hai. is sambandh men ve spasht kahate hain ki 'main is vichar ke sath samajhauta nahin kar sakata ki krantikari sadgunon ki soochi men saty, eemanadari tatha nishtha jaise gunon ka koee sthan nahin hai.' ray ke matanusar manushy ki svatntrata sarvochch mooly hai aur yah svatntrata hi samast moolyon ka srot hai. svatntrata ke pashchath gyan tatha saty ka sthan hai aur ye donon bhi manushy ke naitik jivan ke lie avashyak hain. asaty, chhal, kapat adi anaitik upayon ke dvara svatntrata prapt nahin ki ja sakati.

bhrant dharanaen

ray ka kathan hai ki manav svabhav ke sambandh men pray: do bhrant dharanaen prachalit hain. pratham dharana yah hai ki manushy svabhavat: svarthi hai aur doosari dharana yah hai ki vah eeshvar tatha kisi any alaukik shakti men avashy vishvas karata hai. in donon bhrant dharanaon athava inamen se kisi ek dharana ke adhar par manushy ke naitik jivan ki jo vyakhya ki jati hai, vah bhramak hi hogi. ray yah manate hain ki n to svabhavat: svarthi hai aur n eeshvar bhakt, at: ve naitikata ki svarthavad athava eeshvaravad par adharit vyakhya ko svikar karate hain. inaka vichar hai ki naitikata ka adhar manushy ki tarkabuddhi tatha ant:prerana hi hai, koee bahy shakti nahin. ray yah naitik darshan vartaman vaigyanik yug ke anuroop tatha yuktisngat hi pratit hota hai.

punarjanm ka siddhant

manavendr nath ray eeshvar aur atma ki satta tatha punarjanm ke siddhant ko asvikar karate hain. aisi sthiti men yah samajhana kathin nahin hai ki unake bhautikavadi darshan men dharm ke lie koee sthan nahin hai. ek aitihasik tathy ke roop men unhonne yah avashy svikar kiya hai ki prachin kal se hi manav samaj par dharm ka vyapak prabhav raha hai. ray ke matanusar yah ek du:khad tathy hai ki manushy apane samajik sambandhon ki apeksha eeshvar ke sath apane sambandh ke vishay men tatha apane vartaman jivan ki apeksha mrityu ke pashchath apane paralaukik jivan ke vishay men hi adhik chintit raha hai. adhikatar dharmik manyataen tatha siddhant keval astha par hi adharit hai, jinake vishay men tark karana anuchit hai, at: dharm ke phalasvaroop manushy ka svatntr bauddhik chintan pray: kunthit ho jata hai.

vyaktigat svatntrata

ray manushy ki vyaktigat svatntrata ko vishesh mahattv dete hain, kyonki unake vichar men is svatntrata ke bina vyakti vastav men sukhi nahin ho sakata. unake rajanitik darshan ka mool adhar manushy ki vyaktigat svatntrata hi hai. vyaktigat svatntrata se unaka tatpary yah hai ki manushy ke karyon tatha vicharabhivyakti par rajy evn samaj dvara anuchit tatha anavashyak pratibndh n lagaye jaen aur samaj ko unnati ka sadhan matr n manakar usake vishesh mahattv ko svikar kiya jaye. is sambandh men ray ka marksavadiyon se tiv matabhed hai, kyonki marksavad men manushy ki vyaktigat svatntrata ka koee sthan nahin hai. apani yuvavastha men ve marksavad se bahut prabhavit hue the, kintu bad men unake vicharon men parivartan hua aur ve is vicharadhara ko ekangi tatha doshapoorn manane lage.

marksavad pranali

roos, chin tatha any samyavadi deshon men marksavad par adharit shasan pranali ka vikas hua hai. use ray samaj ke lie upadey nahin manate, kyonki isamen vyakti rajy ki pragati ka sadhan matr mana jata hai. aur is prakar unaki mahatta evn svatntrata ko svikar nahin kiya jata hai. samyavadiyon ke viparit ray ke samajik tatha rajanitik darshan ka kendr vyakti hai, jisaki svatntrata ke lie ve sadaiv un adhinayakavadi shaktiyon ke viruddh sngharsh karate rahe jo manushy ko us ki vyaktigat svatntrata se vnchit karati hai. unaka vichar hai ki svatntratakankshi sabhi vyaktiyon ko in shaktiyon ke viruddh sngathit roop se nirantar sngharsh karana hoga, anyatha vyakti ki svatntrata surakshit nahin rah sakati. parantu yahin yah spasht kar dena avashyak hai ki ray vyakti ki svatntrata ko asimit n manakar samajik hit dvara maryadit hi manate hain. samaj men rahate hue pratyek vyakti ko apani svatntrata ke sath-sath doosaron ki svatntrata ka bhi samman karana hoga, at: kisi bhi vyakti ko manamane dhng se vyavahar karane ki svatntrata nahin di ja sakati. aisi asimit svatntrata vastav men vyakti ki svatntrata ka nishedh karati hai.

antarrashtriyatavad aur manavatavad

ray manushy ki vyaktigat svatntrata ke sath-sath atarrashtriyatavad ke bhi prabal samarthak hain. unaka vichar hai ki vartaman yug men manav samaj ke samaksh sabase badi samasya vibhinn rashtron ke nagarikon men snkuchit rashtriyata ki tivr bhavana hai, jo unhen sampoorn manav jati ke kalyan ke lie sochane tatha prayas karane se rokati hai. pratyek desh ke neta doosare deshon ke hit ki chinta kiye bina keval apane desh ki pragati ke lie hi prayatn karate hain. phalat: manav samaj bhinn-bhinn tukadon men vibhakt ho gaya hai, jo pray: ek doosare ke viruddh kary karate hain. aj vishv men jo sngharsh, nirdhanata, berozagari tatha parasparik avishvas hai, usaka mukhy karan yah snkuchit rashtriyata ki bhavana hi hai. ray ka mat hai ki jab tak manav jati is snkuchit rashtravad se mukt nahin hoti tab tak in samasyaon ka samadhan sambhav nahin hai. vishv men ekata aur shanti tabhi sthapit ho sakati hai. jab ham keval apane desh ke hit ki drishti se nahin balki sampoorn manav jati ke kalyan ki drishti se samajik, arthik tatha rajanitik samasyaon par vichar karen. ray yah manate hain ki vartaman vaigyanik yug men snkuchit, rashtravad ke lie koee sthan nahin hai, kyonki isake anusar acharan karana antat: manav jati ke lie ghatak siddh ho sakata hai. yahi karan hai ki manav samaj men antarrashtriyata ki bhavana ke vikas ko vishesh mahattv dete hain.

ant men yahan 'nav manavatavad' ke vishay men bhi ray ke vicharon ka ullekh hai, jo unake darshan ki pramukh visheshata hai. ray ne apane manavatavadi darshan ko 'nav manavatavad' athava 'vaigyanik manavatavad' ki sngya di hai, kyonki vah manushy ke svaroop tatha vikas ke sambandh men vigyan dvara upalabdh navin gyan par adharit hai.

ray ke is vigyanasammat nav manavatavad men eeshvar athava kisi any daivi shakti ke lie koee sthan nahin hai. manushy ke lie yah samajh lena bahut avashyak hai ki vah svayn hi apane sukh-du:kh ke lie uttaradayi hai aur vahi apane bhagy ka nirmata hai, isamen koee daivi shakti usaki sahayata nahin kar sakati. is snsar men manushy ke jivan ki kahani usake sharir ke sath hi samapt ho jati hai, at: moksh ki paramparagat avadharana mithya evn bhramak hai. ray ke mat ke anusar hamen kalpit paralaukik jivan ki chinta kiye bina isi snsar men manushy ki vartaman samasyaon ke samadhan ke lie vaigyanik dhng se prayas karana chahie. antat: isi men sampoorn manav jati ka kalyan nihit hai aur manushy ke lie yah vyavaharik manavatavadi darshan hi vastav men sarthak ho sakata hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

vishv ke pramukh darshanik |lekhak: shri ved prakash varma |prakashak: vaigyanik tatha takaniki shabdavali ayog, nee dilli, 684 |prishth snkhya: 475 |


snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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