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arabindo ghosh
Aurobindo-Ghosh.jpg
poora nam arabindo ghosh
janm 15 agast, 1872
janm bhoomi kolakata, bharat
mrityu 5 disambar, 1950
mrityu sthan pandicheri, bharat
abhibhavak da. krishna dhan ghosh, svarnalata devi
karm bhoomi pandicheri
karm-kshetr kavi, darshanik, svatantrata senani
mukhy rachanaen essez aaun gita (1928), d laif divain (1940), kalekted poyams end plez (1942), d sinthesis aauf yoga (1948), d hyooman saikil (1949), d aeediyal aauf hyooman yooniti (1949), e lijend end e sinbal (1950) aur aaun d veda (1956).
vishay darshanik chintan, kavita, natak aur any lekh
vidyalay eesaee kaaunvent skool, kainbrij vishvavidyalay
any janakari aravindo ghosh kavi aur bharatiy rashtravadi the jinhonne adhyatmik vikas ke madhyam se sarvabhaumik moksh ka darshan pratipadit kiya.
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

arabindo ghosh (angrezi: Aurobindo Ghosh, janm: 15 agast, 1872, kolakata - mrityu: 5 disambar, 1950, pandicheri) ka mool nam arabindo ghosh hai kintu aravind bhi kaha jata hai. adhunik kal men bharat men anek mahanh krantikari aur yogi hue hain, arabindo ghosh unamen advitiy hain. aravindo ghosh kavi aur bharatiy rashtravadi the jinhonne adhyatmik vikas ke madhyam se sarvabhaumik moksh ka darshan pratipadit kiya.

jivan parichay

arabindo ghosh ka janm bngal ke kalakatta, vartaman kolakata, bharat men ek sampann parivar men 15 agast, 1872 ko hua. unake pita ka nam daauktar krishn dhan ghosh aur mata ka nam svarnalata devi tha. inake pita pashchimi sabhyata men rnge hue the. isalie unhonne arabindo ko do bade bhaiyon ke sath darjiling ke ek angrezi skool men padhane ke lie bhej diya. do varsh bad sat varsh ki avastha men unake pita unhen inglaind le ge. aravind ko bharatiy evn yooropiy darshan aur snskriti ka achchha gyan tha. yahi karan hai ki unhonne in donon ke samanvay ki disha men ullekhaniy prayas kiya. kuchh log unhen bharat ki rishi parampara (snt parampara) ki navin kadi manate hain. shri aravind ka dava hai ki is yug men bharat vishv men ek rachanatmak bhoomika nibha raha hai tatha bhavishy men bhi nibhayega. unake darshan men jivan ke sabhi pahaluon ka samavesh hai. unhonne anek mahattvapoorn vishayon par bhi apane vichar vyakt kie hain, yatha snskriti, rashtravad, rajaniti, samajavad adi sahity, visheshakar kavy ke kshetr men unaki kritiyan bahucharchit huee hain.

shiksha

arabindo ghosh ki shiksha darjiling men eesaee kaaunvent skool men prarambh huee aur ladakapan men hi unhen age ki skooli shiksha ke lie inglaind bhej diya gaya. inglaind men ek angrez parivar men rahane aur padhane ki vyavastha kar tinon bhaiyon ko chhod vah vapas a gaye. inglaind men arabindo ghosh ki bhent badauda naresh se huee. badauda naresh arabindo ki yogyata dekhakar bahut prabhavit hue aur unhonne arabindo ko apana praivet sekretari niyukt kar liya. at: vah bharat laut aye. arabindo ne kuchh samay tak to yah kary kiya, kintu phir apani svatntr vicharadhara ke karan unhonne naukari chhod di. vah badauda kaaulej men pahale prophesar bane aur phir bad men vais prinsipal bhi bane. unhonne kaimbrij vishvavidyalay men pravesh liya, jahan par ve tin adhunik yooropiy bhashaon ke kushal gyata ban ge. 1892 men bharat lautane par unhonne badauda, vartaman vadodara aur kolakata men vibhinn prashasanik v pradhyapakiy padon par kary kiya. bad men unhonne apani deshaj snskriti ki or dhyan diya aur puratan snskrit sahit bharatiy bhashaon tatha yog ka gahan adhyayan prarambh kar diya.

arabindo ka drishtikon

shri aravind ke anusar vartaman manasikatayukt vyakti, vikas ka charam lakshy nahin hai. vikas ka lakshy manasikata ka atikraman karake manushy ko vahan le jana hai, jo snskriti, janm-mrityu aur kal se pare ho. atimanasik gyan ki prapti ke lie antarik tivr abhipsa, daihik, pranik aur manasik angon ka divy ke prati poorn samarpan aur divy dvara unaka rupantaran nitant avashyak hai. yahi shri aravind ke sarvangayog ki poorv bhoomika hai. manasik se atimanasik gyan par ekaek nahin pahuncha ja sakata hai. adhyatmik vikas kramik abhivyakti ke tark par adharit hai. at: atmaroopantaran ke sopanon ko par karake hi atimanas athava divyavigyan tak pahuncha ja sakata hai. ye sopan ya shreniyan is prakar hain- samany manasikata, uchchatar manas, pradipt manas, sambodhi, adhimanas, atimanas.

tatvamimansa

shri aravind adhyatmik anubhootiyon ke srot ke roop men vedant ki vibhinn shakhaon ko manate hain. ve paramarth tatv ko adhyatmik manate hain. unake anusar jad tatv ek doosare ka nishedh nahin karate balki ve ek doosare ko svikar karate hain. vishv gyan prapt karane par hi buddhi ek aur anek ko samyakh pariprekshy men dekh pati hai. is gyan ki upalabdhi hone par donon, jad aur chetan paraspar virodhi nahin balki ek doosare ke abhinn pahaloo ke roop men dikhate hain. isi prakar shant nishchal brahm ke dhanatmak aur rinatmak pahaloo hain. aisi sthiti men shant nishchal aur atmasthit anandamay brahm jagath ki satta ka nirakaran n karake vah nad ya shabd utpann karata hai jo ki nirantar logon ka srijan karata hai.

shri aravind shnkar ki bhanti yah svikar karate hain ki brahm param satta hai. yah sabhi vastuon, gatiyon aur sattaon ka saty hai. yadyapi vah sabhi men abhivyakt aur saman roop se vidyaman rahata hai, tathapi manushy apani simit aur sapeksh buddhi ke karan isake svaroop ko poornat: grahan nahin kar pata. apane bauddhik pratyayon ka atikraman karane ke pashchath hi ham yah gyan prapt kar sakate hain ki brahm ke lie avayavi aur avayav ke snpratyayon ka prayog nahin kiya ja sakata. pratyek vastu vah mamay aur vah niravayav ya akhnd brahm men anupranit hai. yah brahm vishuddh sath aur nirapeksh hai. gyan ke bauddhik roopon ka atikraman kar saksham param tadatmy ke dvara hi usaka gyan prapt ho sakata hai. vah anant aparibhashy, pariman rahit aur aroop hota hua bhi vicharagamy aur jagath prapnch ka adhishthan hai. is prakar ki satta ko manane ka abhipray yah nahin ki gati shakti aur sambhooti asath hai. unhonne is dvividh saty ko svikar kiya ki sthanu roop shiv aur gatishil kali donon hi saty hain. shiv aur kali, brahm aur shakti abhinn hain. satta men shakti nirantar vidyaman rahati hai. vishram aur gati shakti ka svabhav hai. at: mahattvapoorn prashn yah nahin hai ki gati kaise arambh huee, apitu yah ki vah apane ko vibhinn roopon men abhivyakt kyon karati hai. shri aravind ke anusar nishchal aur nispnd brahm apane atmannd ko anant gati aur vaichity ko unmukt karata hai. usaki shakti ki srijanatmak kriya ka yahi uddeshy ya dhyey hai. sachchidannd brahm ne apane ap ko roop ke antargat prakshipt kiya hai.

shri aravind ki in manyataon ke phalasvaroop jagath maya nahin hai. ve shnkar ke mayavad ko asvikar karate hain aur manate hain ki jagath sarvangasath hai. jo jad hai, vah achetan nahin, kintu poorvachetan hai. vah chaitany ki poorvavastha hai. vikas ki prakriya men chaitany men parinat hona usake lie svabhavik hai. is prakar shri aravind ne keval mayavad ka hi nahin apitu jad aur chetan ke dvaitavad aur shuddh jadavad ko bhi asvikar kiya aur siddh karane ka prayas kiya ki jagath svabhavat: adhyatmik hai brahm, jisaka svaroop sath, chith aur annd hai sarvatr vidyaman hai. shri aravind jagath aur jiv donon ko hi sath manate hain. ye donon do pramukh prakat tatv hain, jinamen agyey abhivyakt hota hai aur jinake dvara usaka gyan prapt hota hai. ye maya ya mithya nahin hai. shri aravind ke anusar vyakti ka jivan nirarthak nahin hai. jagath men manushy ki bhoomika yah hai ki vah jagath men rahata hua chaitany ke vikas ka avasar prapt karata hai. manushy pashu pravritti aur pashu kriyaon se jivan arambh karake apane dhyey, divy jivan aur divy astitv ko prapt karata hai.

ab prashn uthata hai ki yadi jo kuchh hai usamen sath, chith, shakti tatha anand nirantar vidyaman hain to vishv men du:kh kyon hai athava ashubh ka avirbhav kis prakar hota hai. shri aravind yah manate hain ki du:kh tatha ashubh vikas kram ki ek sthiti vishesh ko prakat karate hain. manushy ke sukh-dukh usake ahnkar ke dyotak hain. vikas kram aprakat men roop se karyarat divy chith shakti jab manushy ka vikas kar degi athava eeshvar ki agni jab prithvi ke kamanankuron ko jala degi tab vah sukh-du:kh ke mool men antarnihit aprakat tatv aur usake anand ras ka ne roop men anubhav karega. shri aravind ki is prakar ki vyakhya ka karan unaki yah manyata hai ki samast anubhavon aur roopon ke mool men annd vidyaman hai. sath ki chith shakti vikas kram men apana annd hi vastut: khojati rahati hai. satta ke anand ka vahi arth nahin hai, jis arth men ki ham sukh athava harsh ka sadharanataya prayog karate hain. satta annd ka sarvabhaumik, asim aur svaynbhoo hai. sukh harsh adi ki bhanti annd vishesh karanon par adharit nahin hai. jab manushy apane andar nihit is aprakat annd ko vikas kram men prapt kar lega tabhi yah upanishad vaky sarthak hoga ki annd se hi sabhi jivan utpann hote hain, annd men hi rahate hain aur antat: annd men hi vilin hote hain.

gyanamimansa

aravind ke anusar poorngyan atimanasik gyan hai. parantu yah gyan atindriy, atimanasik aur atibauddhik hote hue bhi aindriy, manasik aur bauddhik gyan ka nirakaran nahin karata hai. ve manate hain ki param sath ka gyan bauddhik upakaranon dvara sambhav nahin hai- naishatarken matirapaniya. is sndarbh men unaki aupanishadik se sahamati hai. shri aravind samyakh gyan ko sambodhimoolak gyan kahate hain. is gyan ka adhar hai gyata aur gyey ke madhy sachetan tadatmy. yah sarvabhaumik atm astitv ki vah sthiti hai, jisamen gyata aur gyey ke gyan ke dvara tadatmy sthapit ho jata hai. buddhi svat: sambodhimoolak gyan men parivartit ho jati hai. gyan ki is uchchatam sambhavy avastha ke antargat hi manas atimanas men apani paripoornata ko prapt karata hai.

shri aravind ki gyanamimansa men manav (maind) abhimanas (ovar maind) aur atimanas (supar maind) ke sampratyayon ka vishesh mahattv hai. jahan any darshanik keval manas ko manate hain, vahan ye manas ko vikasashil manate hue usake oopar adhimanas aur atimanas ko bhi manate hain. yadyapi adhimanas aur atimanas tatv hain tathapi unako ham unake gyan ya sampratyay se prithakh nahin kar sakate. ve tatv aur gyan- vyakti donon hain. vastav men manas star par gyata aur gyey ka jo bhed hai, vah in staron par nahin hai. is karan adhimanas aur atimanas ko manas ke sadrishy se nahin jana ja sakata hai. unako janane ke lie manas ki simaon ka atikraman kar gyan ki uchchatar bhoomika par pahunchana hoga. isake lie pratibha gyan, aparokshanubhav, rahasyanubhooti adi ka hi ashray liya ja sakata hai. upanishadon ke mahavaky tatha tatvamasi adi aise hi gyan par adharit hain. at: jab tak vyakti manasik star se oopar uthakar atimanas star par nahin pahunch jata, tab tak sambodhi use saty ka samyakh gyan pradan karane men saksham nahin ho sakati. poorn gyan atimanas gyan hai aur isaki prapti manushy ke poorn roopatantaran ke pashchath hi hoti hai. isake lie yog sadhana apekshit hai.

roopantaran ki sthitiyan

roopantaran ki tin pramukh sthitiyan hain- chaityikaran, adhyatmikaran aur atimanasikaran. poornaroopantar ke lie sabhi angon ki tatparata evn atimanasik prakash ka avarohan avashyak hai. isake lie chaityikaran avashyak hai. hriday ke antargat vidyaman divy prakash ko shri aravind 'chaityapurush' ki sngya dete hain. adhyatmik roopantaran ke lie chaityapurush ki abhivyakti avashyak hai. chaityapurush ke vikas ke phalasvaroop uchch chetana hamare andar pravesh karake hamare sampoorn astitv ka roopantaran kar degi. atimanas brahm ka brihath atm vistar hai. atimanas aur manas men antar hote hue bhi donon snbndhit hain. manas, atimanas se hi avirbhoot hua hai. parantu bij jis atimanas ko prapt karata hai, usamen aur sarvochch atimanas men, jo sarvgyata aur sarvashaktiman eeshvar ka yap hai, vibhed hai.

samaj darshan

samaj darshan samaj ke adhyayan dvara usamen antarnihit divyata ko samajhane aur pahachanane ka prayas hai. samaj darshanikon ne pray: apana dhyan bahy tathyon, yatha niyamon, snsthaon, paramparaon, rajaniti aur arthik paristhitiyon adi par hi kendrit kiya hai. unhonne un pramukh manovaigyanik tathyon ki avahelana ki hai, jo manushy jaise bhavanatmak aur vicharashil prani ke jivan men nitant mahattvapoorn hain. manushy aur samaj ka manovaigyanik vishleshan atyant jatil hai. lamaprekt ke anusar samaj ke vikas ki manovaigyanik sthitiyan ye hain- pratikatmak, prarupik, roodhiparak tatha vyaktiparak. samaj ka vikas in sthitiyon ke madhyam se is prakar ke manovaigyanik vrit ka roop dharan kar leta hai. is vrit se hokar hi rashtr aur sabhyata ko guzarana padata hai. parantu shri aravind ke anusar vikasakram ki is prakar ki nishchit vyakhya aur vargikaran vastut: prastut nahin kiya ja sakata. prakriti ki vakr gati ko sidhi rekha ki bhanti nahin samajhaya ja sakata hai. lamaprekt ka siddhant kramabaddh sthitiyon ke nihitarth evn unake anivary anukram ke dhyey ke vishay men kuchh bhi soochit nahin karata. parantu shri aravind ke anusar yadi lamaprekt dvara vivechit samaj ke vikas ki sthitiyon ke nihitarthon ka anushilan kiya jae, to ve aitihasik vikas ke sookshmatam rahasyon evn tathyon ki or snket karati hai. manav samaj ki arambhik sthitiyon ke adhyayan aur anushilan us manasikata ko prakat karate hain jo usaki paramparaon, vicharon aur snsthaon men aprakat roop men vidyaman rahati hain.

prarupik samaj ki mahattvapoorn visheshata yah hai ki isane un udatt samajik adarshon ko janm diya hai, jo nirantar hi manushy ko prabhavit aur anupranit karate rahate hain. prarupik sthiti ke pashchath samaj ki roodhiparak sthiti ati hai. isamen vichar aur adarshon ka sthan bahy roop yatha vesh-bhoosha, rahan-sahan adi grahan kar lete hain. parantu roodhi aur saty ka bhed asahy ho jane par manushy ki buddhi mukhar ho jati hai. aisi sthiti men vah roodhiyon, pratikon aur praroopon ka virodh karati hai. phalat: manushy apane khoye hue naitik bodh aur bhavatmak ichchha ko pun: khojane ka prayas karata hai. yah samaj ki vyashtiparak sthiti hai. yah vidroh unnati, svatntrata aur vishleshanatmak buddhi tatha bhautik vigyanon ke vikas ka yug hai. atm-vikas, astitv ke niyam aur shakti ko janakar unhen karyaroop men parinat karana hi vastut: vyakti ke jivan ka pramukh dhyey hai. parantu pashchaty manavata ke aitihasik yug men atma ko usake uchit arth men nahin grahan kiya gaya. isaka parinam yah hua ki jivan tamam poorvagrahon se grast hokar yuddh se akrant ho utha. at: hamare liye ye nitant vanchhaniy hai ki ham vastavik atmavishamatavad ko jhoothe atmanishthavad se alag karen aur pahachanen. sachcha atmanishthavad manushy ki prithakh satta ka anumodan karane ke sath sath doosare vyaktiyon ki prithakh satta aur svatntrata ka anumodan karata hai. samaj jab atimanasik jyoti se prakashit hoga tabhi manavata us divyatv ko prapt karegi, jo usaki amar dharohar hai. isi prapti ke lie hamen yog ko apanana hoga. yog atma ki khoj ka sachetan madhyam hai.

siddhant

arabindo ghosh ke sarvabhaumik moksh ke siddhant ke anusar, brahm ke sath ekakar hone ke domukhi raste hain- bodhatv oopar se ata hai (pramey), jabaki adhyatmik mastishk yaugik prakash ke madhyam se niche se oopar pahunchane ki koshish karata hai (apramey). jab ye donon shaktiyan ek–doosare men milati hain, tab snshay se bhare vyakti ka srijan hota hai (snshleshan). yah yaugik prakash, tark v antarbodh se pare antatah vyakti ko vaiyaktikata ke bndhan se mukt karata hai. is prakar, arabindo ne n keval vyakti ke lie, balki samoochi manavata ke lie mukti ki tarkik paddhati ka srijan kiya.

sahityik kritiyan

arabindo ghosh

shri aravind ke darshan ko bhi vedant ke pariprekshy men hi samajha ja sakata hai. svanubhooti ke atirikt ved, upanishad aur puran vastut: unake darshan ke srot hain. unaka darshan sarvasvikriti ka varnan hai. unake anusar vishvatit saty ki svikriti men hi vishv aur vyakti ki satyata bhi antarnihit hai. ve darshanik aur vicharak hone ke sath-sath yogi bhi hain. unaka darshan aur yog jivan ki divyata par bal deta hai. arabindo ghosh ki vrihad aur jatil sahityik kritiyon men darshanik chintan, kavita, natak aur any lekh sammilit hain. unaki kritiyan hain—

  • essez aaun gita (1928)
  • d laif divain (1940)
  • kalekted poyams end plez (1942)
  • d sinthesis aauf yoga (1948)
  • d hyooman saikil (1949)
  • d aeediyal aauf hyooman yooniti (1949)
  • e lijend end e sinbal (1950)
  • aaun d veda (1956)
  • d faundeshan aauf indiyan kalchar

rajanitik gatividhiyan

arabindo ke lie 1902 se 1910 ke varsh halachal bhare the, kyonki unhonne british shasan se bharat ko mukt karane ka bida uthaya tha. badauda kaaulej ki naukari chhodakar vah kolakata chale ge aur kolakata ke 'neshanal kaaulej' ke prinsipal bane. is samay tak unhonne 'sada jivan aur uchch vichar' jivan apana liya. un par ramakrishn paramahns aur svami vivekannd ke sahity ka bahut gahan prabhav hua. sanh 1905 men laaurd karzan ne poorvi bngal aur pashchimi bngal ke roop men bngal ke do tukade kar die taki hindoo aur musalamanon men phoot pad sake. is bng-bhng ke karan bngal men jan jan men asntosh phail gaya.

arabindo ghosh

ravindranath thakur aur arabindo ghosh ne is jan andolan ka netritv kiya. is andolan ke vishay men lokamany tilak ne kaha - bngal par kiya gaya angrezon ka prahar sampoorn rashtr par prahar hai. arabindo ghosh ne rashtriyata ki bhavana jagrat karane tatha angrezon ka virodh pradarshit karane ke lie patr - patrikaon men vicharottejak aur prabhavashali lekh likhe. unake lekhon se jan jan men jagriti a gayi. british sarakar unake is kriya kalapon se chintit ho gee. sarakar ne "alipur bam kand" ke antargat unhen jel bhej diya. jel men unhen yog par chintan karane ka samay mila. unhonne sanh 1907 men rashtriyata ke sath bharat ko "bharat mata" ke roop men varnit aur pratishthit kiya. unhonne bngal men "krantikari dal" ka sngathan kiya aur usaka prachar aur prasar karane ko anek shakhaen kholi aur ve svayn usake pradhan snchalak bane rahe. khudiram bos aur kanaeelal datt, yah krantikari unake sngathan ke hi krantikari the. in gatividhiyon ke karan arabindo ghosh adhik dinon tak sarakar ki nazaron se chhipe nahin rah paye aur unhen phir se jel jana pada. vah apani rajanitik gatividhiyon aur krantikari sahityik prayason ke lie 1908 men bandi bana lie ge. 1906 se 1909 tak sirf tin varsh pratyaksh rajaniti men rahe. isi men desh bhar ke logon ke priy ban ge. netaji subhash chandr bos likhate hai- jab main 1913 men kalakatta aya, arabindo tab tak kinvadnti purush ho chuke the. jis annd tatha utsah ke sath log unaki charcha karate shayad hi kisi ki vaise karate.[1] do varsh ke bad british bharat se bhagakar unhonne dakshin–poorvi bharat men fransisi upanivesh pandicheri men sharan li, jahan unhonne apana shesh jivan poori tarah se apane darshan ko vikasit karane men laga diya. unhonne vahan par adhyatmik vikas ke antarrashtriy sanskritik kendr ke roop men ek ashram ki sthapana ki, jisaki or vishv bhar ke chhatr akarshit hue.

Blockquote-open.gif arabindo ghosh ne bngal men "krantikari dal" ka sngathan kiya aur usaka prachar aur prasar karane ko anek shakhaen kholi aur ve svayn usake pradhan snchalak bane rahe. khudiram bos aur kanaeelal datt, unake sngathan ke hi krantikari the. Blockquote-close.gif

bharat ke svatantr hote hi rashtriy aur antarrashtriy paristhitiyon ka akalan karate hue shri arabindo ne bhavishyavani ki thi - bharat ek bar phir eshiya ka neta hokar samast bhoomndal ko ekatma ki moolabhoot shrinkhala men abaddh karane ka mahanh kary sampann karega. bharat ki adhyatmikata yoorop aur amerika men pravesh kar rahi hai. isaki gati thamegi nahin, din pratidin badhati hi jaegi. vartaman vipadaon ke bich logon ki ankhen asha ke sath adhikadhik usaki or mud rahi hain aur log keval shastron ka hi nahin, balki usaki antarik aur adhyatmik sadhana ka adhikadhik ashray grahan kar rahe hain. [2]

mrityu

pandicheri ane ke bad ve sansarik karyon se alag hokar atma ki khoj men lag ge. pandicheri ane ke bad arabindo ghosh ant tak yogabhyas karate rahe aur unhen paramatma se sakshatkar ki anubhooti huee. unake adhyatmik anubhavon se asnkhy log prabhavit hue. unaka dridh vishvas tha ki snsar ke du:kh ka nivaran keval atma ke vikas se hi ho sakata hai jisaki prapti keval yog dvara hi snbhav hai. ve manate the ki yog se hi nee chetana a sakati hai. arabindo ghosh ki mrityu 5 disambar, 1950 men pandicheri men huee thi.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. mahan yogi shri aravind (hindi) (pi.ech.pi.) bharatiy sahity sngrah. abhigaman tithi: 14 march, 2011.
  2. yug pravartak banega bharat (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el.) lakesparadise. abhigaman tithi: 14 march, 2011.

snbndhit lekh