ईश्वरकृष्ण  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

eeshvarakrishn ko sankhy ka pradhan darshanik kaha jata hai. sankhy darshan ki parampara atyadhik prachin hai, isilie eeshvarakrishn ko sankhy ka adi pravartak nahin kaha ja sakata. unake pahale kapil, asuri, pnchashikh adi ke nam ate hain. phir bhi eeshvarakrishn ko sankhy ka pradhan darshanik kah sakate hain. unaki pustak 'sankhyakarika' ko sankhy ka pramanik aur prachin grnth (chauthi shatabdi) mana jata hai. is par matharavritti, gaudapad bhashy, yuktidipika adi anek tikayen hain.

sankhyakarika ke tatv

sankhyakarika men do maulik tatv svikar kiye ge hain- 'purush' tatha 'prakriti'. sambhavat: yah isalie kiya gaya hai ki upanishadon men purush ya atma ko aparivartanashil kaha gaya hai. at: jagath ki srishti ke lie parivartanashil tatv prakriti ko manana avashyak pratit hua. advait vedant men isi prakriti ko trigunatmika maya kaha gaya hai. isi se sankhy ke mat men jagath saty aur vedant mat men jagath mithya mana gaya. sankhy ka vedant se doosara matabhed purush ki anekata ke vishay men hai.

sankhyakarika ke prarambh men hi yah kaha gaya hai ki adhyatmik, adhidaivik tatha adhibhautik tinon prakar ke du:khon se atyntik aur poorn mukti prapt karane ke lie tatvgyan hi ekamatr upay hai. shastriy any laukik upayon se du:kh se poorn aur sthayi mukti nahin mil sakati. unamen hinsa adi ka bhi dosh hai. du:kh agyan se hota hai, at: usaki atyntik nivritti gyan se hi ho sakati hai. us gyan ka arth hai- purush prakriti ka gyan ya purush-prakriti ke bhed ka gyan (vivekakhyati).

purush vishay

purush ke vishay men tin mukhy prashn uthate hain, purush ka astitv, usaka svaroop aur prakriti ke sath usaka sambandh. purush ke astitv-vishayak tark satrahavin karika men is prakar diye ge hain-

  1. pratham jagath men dekha jata hai ki jo kuchh snghat ke roop men hai, vah kisi any ke prayojan ke lie hota hai, jaise bistara, kursi adi. jaise ye sab vastuen apane liye nahin balki doosare ke prayojan ke lie hoti hai, vaise hi prakriti ke snghat apane liye nahin balki kisi any (purush) ke lie hote hain. at: prakriti ke atirikt purush hai. aisa manane se ki ek snghat doosare snghat ke lie hota hai, anavastha dosh utpann ho jaega.
  2. doosara tark yah hai ki trigunatmak prakriti aur usake vikar jisake lie hain, vah (purush) svayn trigunatmak n hokar usase bhinn hoga. vah avikari hoga.
  3. tisara tark yah hai ki jis prakar rath ko hankane ke lie rathi ki avashyakata hoti hai, usi prakar jad prakriti ke nirdeshan ke lie purush ki avashyakata hai.
  4. chautha tark yah hai ki sukh-du:khadi bhog kisi jad tatv ke lie nahin ho sakate. usake lie chaitany tatv ki avashyakata hai.
  5. panchavan tark yah hai ki mukti ki ichchha purush ki ho sakati hai, kyonki trividh du:khon ka anubhav chetan purush ko hi hota hai, jad prakriti ko nahin. at: purush hai.

chaitany roop purush ke svaroop ke vishay men 19vin karika hoti hai ki purush sakshi hai, arthath isamen kartritv nahin hai. purush men kaivaly arthath du:kh se mukti hai. purush madhyasth hai, sukh-du:kh se aprabhavit hai. purush drashta hai aur kartritv shoony hai. arthath purush anek hai. spasht hai ki ye tark jivon ke vishay men sngat hai, shuddh chaitany ke vishay men inako lagoo nahin kiya ja sakata. isi se advait anek jiv manata hai, parantu atma nahin manata. 20vin karika men prakriti purush ke snyog ki bat kahi gee hai. jad chetan men snyog kaise hota hai ya ho sakata hai, yah spasht nahin kiya gaya hai. keval yahi kaha gaya hai ki purush ke snyog se jad prakriti chetan ke saman jan padati hai aur udasin purush men kartritv ka abhas hota hai. purush prakriti ka snyog lngade aur andhe manushy ke snyog ke saman hai. prakriti jad hone ke karan andhi hai aur purush nishkriy hone ke karan lngada hai. is snyog se hi srishti prarambh hoti hai. srishti ke do uddeshy hain- ek to purush ko karmon ka phalabhog pradan karata hai aur doosare purush ko moksh dena.

satkaryavad siddhant

prakriti trigunatmika hai aur sookshm hai. vah pratyaksh praman se gamy nahin hai. at: usake astitv ki siddhi anuman se ki jati hai. satkaryavad ke siddhant ke anusar kary ke adhar par karan ki siddhi ki jati hai. is siddhant ke anusar kary karan men sthit rahata hai aur un donon ki samanata hoti hai. is siddhant ko[1] isake virodhi siddhant asatkaryavad ka khndan karake siddh kiya jata hai. khndan ke lie diye ge tark is prakar hain-

  1. kary ka astitv avashy hi pahale se hi rahana chahie, kyonki jo asath hai usaki utpatti kisi bhi prakar nahin ki ja sakati hai.
  2. kisi bhi kary ke utpadan ke lie upayukt samagri ki avashyakata hoti hai, jaise tel ke utpadan ke lie til ki, dahi ke utpadan ke lie doodh ki. baloo se tel pani se dahi nahin banaya ja sakata. isaka arth yah hai ki karan men kary pahale se vartaman rahata hai.
  3. yadi kary-karan men bhed mana jaye to duniya ki kisi bhi vastu se kisi bhi any vastu ki utpatti sambhav honi chahie. parantu aisa sambhav nahin hai. kisi bhi vastu se koee bhi vastu utpann nahin ho sakati. at: karan aur kary men abhed manana avashyak hai.
  4. samarthyavan karan se hi kary ki utpatti dekhi jati hai. chane ke bij se hi chana aur jau ke bij se hi jau utpann hota hai. arthath karan men karyotpatti ki kshamata ya yogyata pahale se hi hoti hai.
  5. karan aur kary men samanata dekhi jati hai. jaisa soot vaisa kapada hota hai. dahi aur doodh men anek samanataen paee jati hain. at: karan men kary vartaman rahata hai.

gun

is siddhant ke adhar par ham yah kah sakate hain ki jagath ki vastuon men tin gun satv, rajash aur tamash paye jate hain. at: avashy hi ve unake karan prakriti men bhi honge. jo karan men nahin hai, vah kary men kaise ja sakata hai? anavastha dosh se bachane ke lie antim karan ke roop men prakriti ko man liya jata hai. 15vin karika men yah kaha gaya hai ki karan roop prakriti hai, kyonki jagath ki vastuen simit hain, trigunatmak roop se saman hai, shaktiman karan hi kary ko utpann karata hai tatha karan se kary ki utpatti tatha pun: usaka karan men vilay dekha jata hai. at: asimit svatntr, sarvavyapak, shaktiman prakriti ko mool karan ke roop men manana avashyak hai.

prakriti aur lakshan

prakriti ko avyakt bhi kaha jata hai. usake parinamon ko vyakt kahate hain. vyakt kary, anity, avyapi, sakriy, anek ashrit, savayav paratntr tatha dyotak (ling) hai. thik isake viparit avyakt karanarahit, nity, vyapak, nishkriy, ek, anashrit, lingahin, avayavahin tatha svatntr hai.[2] vyakt aur avyakt men samanataen bhi hain. donon trigun roop, aviveki, vishay, samany, achetan tatha prasavadharmi hain.[3] purush in donon se bhinn hai. tinon gun vyakt aur avyakt men saman roop se rahate hain. unake lakshan is prakar hain- satvagun-sukharoop, prakashak, laghuroop, guru aur avaran karane vala. ye tinon padarth ya purush ke lie hain. in gunon men parthaky nahin, sahayog hai, jaise dipak men tel, batti adi ka sahayog hota hai. ek hi prakriti se tin prakar ke phal- sukh, du:kh aur moh- vaise hi nikalate hain, jaise ek sundar gunavati stri pati ke lie sukhad (sapatniyon) apani sauton ke lie du:khad tatha parapurush ke lie mohotpadak hoti hai. ye tinon gun ek doosare ka abhibhav, sahakaritv, utpadan tatha sahachar karane vale hain.[4]

purush snyog se prakriti ki samyavastha, jisamen parinam-lakshan kriya hoti rahati hai, bhng hoti hai. usase sarvapratham mahath (buddhi) se anhakar aur anhakar se satv ki pradhanata ke karan panch gyanendriyan, panch karmendriyan tatha man (jo donon hain) ki utpatti hoti hai aur tamash ki pradhanata se pnch tanmatraon (akash, vayu, agni, jal, prithvi) ya sookshmatatvon ki utpatti hoti hai. buddhi, anhakar aur tanmatraen, ye sat prakriti aur vikriti donon (utpann aur utpadak donon) hain. mool prakriti keval utpadak hai. pnch tanmatraon se utpann pnch mahabhoot tatha gyarah indriyan, ye solah keval vikriti (utpann) hain. purush in sabase bhinn hai.

buddhi ke prakar

buddhi do prakar ki hoti hai- 'satv-pradhan' evn 'tamash-pradhan'. satv-pradhan buddhi men adhyavasay[5] gyan, viram evn aishvary paye jate hain. tamash-pradhan buddhi men isake viparit gun paye jate hain. anhakar ka arth abhiman hai. man bhi indriy hai, kyonki isaka sambandh donon prakar ki indriyon[6] se hota hai. yah snkalp vikalp karane vala hai. jis prakar vibhinn gunon ke nyoonadhiky se vibhinn vastuen utpann hoti hain, vaise hi gunon se vibhinn indriyan bhi utpann hoti hain. buddhi, anhakar aur man tinon ka ant:karan kahate hain. any indriyon ko bahyakaran kahate hain. ant:karan ke karan pnch pran, pran, apan, saman, udan tatha vyan, kam karate hain. pratyaksh vishay ke prasng men (tinon) ant:karan aur ek indriy kabhi kramash: aur kabhi ek sath kam karate hain. kintu paroksh vishay ke prasng men keval ant:karan kramash: aur ek sath kam karate hain. inake karyon men ek samanvay ya ekata hoti hai, kyonki inaki vrittiyan purush ke lie hoti hain, any kisi ki prerana se ve prerit nahin hote. terah karanon ke kary-ahary, dhary aur prakashy hai.[7]

tin praman

eeshvarakrishn ko tin praman many hain-

  1. pratyaksh
  2. anuman
  3. shabd

anyatr svikrit any pramanon ka samavesh ve in tinon ke antargat kar lete hain. indriyon ke snyog par ashrit buddhi ka adhyavasay pratyaksh hai. abhav ka gyan bhi pratyaksh hi hai. upaman aur arthapatti ek prakar ke anuman hain. atindriy vishayon ka gyan anuman se hota hai aur usase bhi jo prapt n ho vah shabd praman se jana jata hai. pratyaksh men koee karanon se badha hoti hai, jaise yadi vastu atyant door ho, atyant samip ho, indriyan asvasth hon, man chnchal ho, vastu sookshm ho, avritt ho avibhav ho ya vastu sadrishyavastu men mil jaye, to pratyaksh nahin ho pata. buddhi ya ant:karan bahar jakar vishayon ka akar grahan karata hai. jab alochan matr hota hai, tab use nirvikalp pratyaksh kahate hain aur jab usamen man dvara vishishtata ati hai, tab use savikalp kahate hain. sankhy men pramany aur apramany donon svat: hote hain. bhram tab hota hai, jab ham kisi vastu ke ansh ko dekhakar poorn ki kalpana kar lete hain athava do vastuon ke bhed ko nahin manate. ye siddhant sankhy ke satkaryavad ke karan mane ge hain.

anuman ke bhed

anuman vyapy gyan par ashrit gyan hai. isake tin bhed hain- poorvavath, sheshavath tatha samanyatodrisht. poorvavath vah anuman hai, jisamen poorvadrisht ling aur lingon ke sahachary ke adhar par anuman kiya jata hai, jaise poorvadrisht dhoom agni ke sahachary gyan ke adhar par dhoom dekhakar agni ka anuman karana. sheshavath anuman vah hai, jahan sahabhav evn sah-astitv ke adhar par anuman kiya jata hai. kapada aur soot abhinn hai, kyonki kapade men soot paya jata hai. jahan bhinnatv hai, vahan yah sambandh nahin paya jata. is prakar vah anuman samavay sambandh ki bhav aur abhav par avalnbit hai. samanyatodrisht anuman ek kriya hai. usake lie karan ki avashyakata hai, kyonki har ek kriya ka ek karan hota hai. isase indriy aur indriy-vyapar siddh hota hai.

sankhy men shabd praman

sankhy men shabd praman ke antargat keval shrutivachan hi nahin ata balki kapil adi apt purushon ke vachan bhi ate hain, jo pramanik hain, kyonki unaka gyan shrutigyan par avalnbit hai. pratyaksh aur anuman se jin vakyon ka gyan nahin hota ye shabd praman se jane jate hain, jaise punarjanm adi.

sankhy men purush prakriti ka avivek ya unake bhed ka agyan hi bndhan ka karan hai. isi agyan ke karan ham apane ko sharir, indriy adi samajh lete hain, apane ko maranashil samajhate hain aur punarjanm hota hai. jab prakriti aur purush ke bhed ka gyan (vivek) dridh ho jata hai, tab prakriti bndhan nahin kar pati. gyan hone par prakriti ka nagn roop ya vastavik roop dikhaee pad jata hai. usaka mohak roop jisase bhog hota hai, door ho jata hai. vivek gyan satvik buddhi men hota hai. isi se prakriti ko bndhan aur moksh donon ka karan kaha gaya hai. bndhan prakriti se nahin balki usake mohak roop se hota hai. isi se sharir rahate hue bhi mukti (jivanamukti) ho sakati hai. prarabdh karm ke karan sharir ki kriya chalati hai, parantu mohakatv nahin rahata. sharir chhootane par videh mukti ki prapti hoti hai. yadi gyan ke pahale sharir chhoot jata hai, to sookshm sharir ke madhyam se jiv any lokon men jata hai aur karmaphal bhog ke lie phir sharir dharan karata hai, parantu gyan ho jane par phir sharir dharan nahin hota hai. mukti ki avastha men sukh ya annd ka anubhav nahin hota hai.  

panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

vishv ke pramukh darshanik (hindi) |lekhak: pro. ramakant tripathi |prakashak: vaigyanik tatha takaniki shabdavali ayog, nee dilli, 684 |prishth snkhya: 63 |

  1. karika snkhya 9 men
  2. karika snkhya 10
  3. karika snkhya 11
  4. karika 12
  5. aisa nishchay ki yah mujhe karana hai
  6. karmendriy aur gyanendriy
  7. karika snkhya 30, 31, 32

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