गुरु नानक  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

guru nanak
Guru-Nanak.jpg
poora nam guru nanak dev
any nam guru nanak
janm 15 aprail, 1469
janm bhoomi talavndi, pnjab, bharat
mrityu 22 sitnbar, 1539
mrityu sthan bharat
abhibhavak pita- kaloo, mata- tripta
pati/patni sulakkhani
sntan shrichand, lakshmidas
karm bhoomi bharat
karm-kshetr samaj sudharak
mukhy rachanaen japuji, takhari' rag ke barahamahan
bhasha farasi, multani, pnjabi, sindhi , brajabhasha, khadiboli
prasiddhi sikkhon ke pratham guru
nagarikata bharatiy
uttaradhikari guru angad dev
any janakari guru nanak apane vyaktitv men paigambar, darshanik, rajayogi, grihasth, tyagi, dharm-sudharak, samaj-sudharak, kavi, sngitgy, deshabhakt, vishvabandhu adi sabhi ke gun utkrisht matra men samete hue the.

guru nanak (angrezi: Guru Nanak, janm: 15 aprail, 1469, talavndi, pnjab; mrityu: 22 sitnbar, 1539, bharat) sikkhon ke pratham guru (adi guru) the. inake anuyayi inhen 'guru nanak', 'baba nanak' aur 'nanakashah' namon se snbodhit karate hain. guru nanak 20 agast, 1507 ko sikkhon ke pratham guru bane the. ve is pad par 22 sitambar, 1539 tak rahe.

parichay

pnjab ke talavndi namak sthan men 15 aprail, 1469 ko ek kisan ke ghar guru nanak utpann hue. yah sthan lahaur se 30 mil pashchim men sthit hai. ab yah 'nanakana sahab' kahalata hai. talavndi ka nam age chalakar nanak ke nam par nanakana pad gaya. nanak ke pita ka nam kaloo evn mata ka nam tripta tha. unake pita khatri jati evn bedi vnsh ke the. ve krishi aur sadharan vyapar karate the aur ganv ke patavari bhi the. guru nanak dev ki balyavastha ganv men vyatit huee. balyavastha se hi unamen asadharanata aur vichitrata thi. unake sathi jab khel-kood men apana samay vyatit karate to ve netr band kar atm-chintan men nimagn ho jate the. inaki is pravritti se unake pita kaloo chintit rahate the.

arnbhik jivan

sat varsh ki ayu men ve padhane ke lie gopal adhyapak ke pas bheje gaye. ek din jab ve padhaee se virakt ho, antarmukh hokar atm-chintan men nimagn the, adhyapak ne poochha- padh kyon nahin rahe ho? guru nanak ka uttar tha- main sari vidyaen aur ved-shastr janata hoon. guru nanak dev ne kaha- mujhe to sansarik padhaee ki apeksha paramatma ki padhaee adhik anandayini pratit hoti hai, yah kahakar nimnalikhit vani ka uchcharan kiya- moh ko jalakar (use) ghisakar syahi banao, buddhi ko hi shreshth kagaz banao, prem ki qalam banao aur chitt ko lekhak. guru se poochh kar vicharapoorvak likho (ki us paramatma ka) n to ant hai aur n sima hai.[1] is par adhyapak ji ashcharyanvit ho gaye aur unhonne guru nanak ko pahuncha hua faqir samajhakar kaha- tumhari jo ichchha ho so karo. isake pashchath guru nanak ne skool chhod diya. ve apana adhikansh samay manan, dhyanasan, dhyan evn satsng men vyatit karane lage. guru nanak se sambandhit sabhi janm sakhiyan is bat ki pushti karati hain ki unhonne vibhinn sampradayon ke sadhu-mahatmaon ka satsng kiya tha. unamen se bahut se aise the, jo dharmashastr ke prakand pandit the. ant: sakshy ke adhar par yah bhalibhanti siddh ho jata hai ki guru nanak ne farasi ka bhi adhyayan kiya tha. 'guru granth sahab' men guru nanak dvara kuchh pad aise rache gaye hain, jinamen farasi shabdon ka adhiky hai.

bachapan

guru nanak ki antamunkhi-pravritti tatha virakti-bhavana se unake pita kaloo chintit raha karate the. nanak ko vikshipt samajhakar kaloo ne unhen bhainse charane ka kam diya. bhainse charate-charate nanak ji so gaye. bhainsen ek kisan ke khet men chali gayin aur unhonne usaki fasal char dali. kisan ne isaka ulahana diya kintu jab usaka khet dekha gaya, to sabhi ashchary men pade gaye. fasal ka ek paudha bhi nahin chara gaya tha. 9 varsh ki avastha men unaka ygyopavit snskar hua. ygyopavit ke avasar par unhonne pandit se kaha - daya kapas ho, santosh soot ho, snyam ganth ho, (aur) saty us janeu ki pooran ho. yahi jiv ke lie (adhyatmik) janeoo hai. ai pande yadi is prakar ka janeoo tumhare pas ho, to mere gale men pahana do, yah janeoo n to tootata hai, n isamen mail lagata hai, n yah jalata hai aur n yah khota hi hai.[2]

vivah

Blockquote-open.gif nanak sache ki sachi kar.
satyasvaroop bhagavan ki kriti snsar bhi saty hai.
Blockquote-close.gif

- - nanak (japuji, 31)

san 1485 ee. men nanak ka vivah batala nivasi, moola ki kanya sulakkhani se hua. unake vaivahik jivan ke sambandh men bahut kam janakari hai. 28 varsh ki avastha men unake bade putr shrichand ka janm hua. 31 varsh ki avastha men unake dvitiy putr lakshmidas athava lakshmichand utpann hue. guru nanak ke pita ne unhen krishi, vyapar adi men lagana chaha kintu unake sare prayas nishphal siddh hue. ghode ke vyapar ke nimitt diye hue rupayon ko guru nanak ne sadhuseva men laga diya aur apane pitaji se kaha ki yahi sachcha vyapar hai. navambar, sanh 1504 ee. men unake bahanoee jayaram (unaki badi bahin nanaki ke pati) ne guru nanak ko apane pas sultanapur bula liya. navambar, 1504 ee. se aktoobar 1507 ee. tak ve sultanapur men hi rahen apane bahanoee jayaram ke prayas se ve sultanapur ke gavarnar daulat khan ke yahan madi rakh liye gaye. unhonne apana kary atyant eemanadari se poora kiya. vahan ki janata tatha vahan ke shasak daulat khan nanak ke kary se bahut santusht hue. ve apani ay ka adhikansh bhag garibon aur sadhuon ko de dete the. kabhi-kabhi ve poori rat paramatma ke bhajan men vyatit kar dete the. maradana talavandi se akar yahin guru nanak ka sevak ban gaya tha aur ant tak unake sath raha. guru nanak dev apane pad gate the aur maradana ravab bajata tha. guru nanak nity prat: beee nadi men snan karane jaya karate the. kahate hain ki ek din ve snan karane ke pashchath van men antardhan ho gaye. unhen paramatma ka sakshatkar hua. paramatma ne unhen amrit pilaya aur kaha- main sadaiv tumhare sath hoon, mainne tumhen anandit kiya hai. jo tumhare sampark men ayegen, ve bhi anandit hogen. jao nam men raho, dan do, upasana karo, svayn nam lo aur doosaron se bhi nam smaran karaon. is ghatana ke pashchath ve apane parivar ka bhar apane shvasur moola ko saunpakar vicharan karane nikal pade aur dharm ka prachar karane lage. maradana unaki yatra men barabar unake sath raha.

yatraen

guru nanak dev
  • guru nanak ki pahali 'udasi' (vicharan yatra) aktoobar , 1507 ee. men 1515 ee. tak rahi. is yatra men unhonne haridvar, ayodhya, prayag, kashi, gaya, patana, asam, jagannath puri, rameshvar, somanath, dvarika, narmadatat, bikaner, pushkar tirth, dilli, panipat, kurukshetr, multan, lahaur adi sthanon men bhraman kiya. unhonne bahuton ka hriday parivartan kiya. thagon ko sadhu banaya, veshyaon ka ant:karan shuddh kar nam ka dan diya, karmakandiyon ko bahyadambaron se nikalakar ragatmikata bhakti men lagaya, ahnkariyon ka ahnkar door kar unhen manavata ka path padhaya. yatra se lautakar ve do varsh tak apane mata-pita ke sath rahe.
  • unaki doosari 'udasi' 1517 ee. se 1518 ee. tak yani ek varsh ki rahi. isamen unhonne aimanabad, siyalakot, sumer parvat adi ki yatra ki aur ant men ve karatarapur pahunche.
  • tisari 'udasi' 1518 ee. se 1521 ee. tak lagabhag tin varsh ki rahi. isamen unhonne riyasat bahavalapur, sadhubela (sindhu), makka, madina, bagadad, balkh bukhara, qabul, kandhar, aimanabad adi sthanon ki yatra ki. 1521 ee. men aimarabad par babar ka akraman guru nanak ne svayn apani ankhon se dekha tha. apani yatraon ko samapt kar ve karatarapur men bas gaye aur 1521 ee. se 1539 ee. tak vahin rahe.

vyaktitv

gurunanak ka vyaktitv asadharan tha. unamen paigambar, darshanik, rajayogi, grihasth, tyagi, dharm-sudharak, samaj-sudharak, kavi, sngitgy, deshabhakt, vishvabandhu sabhi ke gun utkrisht matra men vidyaman the. unamen vichar-shakti aur kriya-shakti ka apoorv samnjasy tha. unhonne poore desh ki yatra ki. logon par unake vicharon ka asadharan prabhav pada. unamen sabhi gun maujood the. paignbar, darshanik, rajayogi, grihasth, tyagi, dharmasudharak, kavi, sngitgy, deshabhakt, vishvabndhu adi sabhi gun jaise ek vyakti men simatakar a ge the. unaki rachana 'japuji' ka sikkhon ke lie vahi mahattv hai jo hinduon ke lie gita ka hai.

rachanaen aur shikshaen

'shri guru-granth sahab' men unaki rachanaen 'mahala 1' ke nam se snkalit hain. guru nanak ki shiksha ka mool nichod yahi hai ki paramatma ek, anant, sarvashaktiman, saty, kartta, nirbhay, nirvar, ayoni, svaynbhoo hai. vah sarvatr vyapt hai. moorti-pooja adi nirarthak hai. bahy sadhanon se use prapt nahin kiya ja sakata. antarik sadhana hi usaki prapti ka ek matr upay hai. guru-kripa, paramatma kripa evn shubh karmon ka acharan is sadhana ke ang hain. nam-smaran usaka sarvopari tattv hai, aur 'nam' guru ke dvara hi prapt hota hai. guru nanak ki vani bhakti, gyan aur vairagy se ot-prot hai. unaki vani men yatr-tatr tatkalin rajanitik, dharmik evn samajik sthiti ki manohar jhanki milati hai, jisamen unaki asadharan desh-bhakti aur rashtr-prem parilakshit hota hai. unhonne hinndooon-musalamanon donon ki prachalit roodhiyon evn kusnskaron ki tivr bhartsana ki hai aur unhen sachche hindoo athava sachche musalaman banane ki vidhi batayi hai. sant-sahity men guru nanak hi ek aise vyakti hain; jinhonne striyon ki ninda nahin ki, apitu unaki mahatta svikar ki hai. gurunanak dev ji ne apane anu‍yayiyon ko jivan ki das shikshaen di-

  1. eeshvar ek hai.
  2. sadaiv ek hi eeshvar ki upasana karo.
  3. eeshvar sab jagah aur prani matr men maujood hai.
  4. eeshvar ki bhakti karane valon ko kisi ka bhay nahin rahata.
  5. eemanadari se aur mehanat kar ke udarapoorti karani chahie.
  6. bura kary karane ke bare men n sochen aur n kisi ko sataen.
  7. sadaiv prasann rahana chahie. eeshvar se sada apane lie kshama mangani chahie.
  8. mehanat aur eemanadari ki kamaee men se zarooratamnd ko bhi kuchh dena chahie.
  9. sabhi stri aur purush barabar hain.
  10. bhojan sharir ko zinda rakhane ke lie zaroori hai par lobh-lalach v sngrahavritti buri hai.

bhakt kavi guru nanak

guru nanak dev

pnjab men musalaman bahut dinon se base the jisase vahan unake kattar 'ekeshvaravad' ka snskar dhire - dhire prabal ho raha tha. log bahut se devi devataon ki upasana ki apeksha ek eeshvar ki upasana ko mahatv aur sabhyata ka chihn samajhane lage the. shastron ke pathan pathan ka kram musalamanon ke prabhav se pray: uth gaya tha jisase dharm aur upasana ke goodh tatv ko samajhane ki shakti nahin rah gee thi. at: jahan bahut se log jabaradasti musalaman banae jate the vahan kuchh log shauq se bhi musalaman banate the. aisi dasha men kabir dvara pravartit 'nirgun snt mat' ek bada bhari sahara samajh pada.

nirgun upasana

gurunanak arnbh se hi bhakt the at: unaka aise mat ki or akarshit hona svabhavik tha, jisaki upasana ka svaroop hinduon aur musalamanon donon ko saman roop se grahy ho. unhonne ghar bar chhod bahut door door ke deshon men bhraman kiya jisase upasana ka samany svaroop sthir karane men unhen badi sahayata mili. ant men kabiradas ki 'nirgun upasana' ka prachar unhonne pnjab men arnbh kiya aur ve sikh snpraday ke adiguru hue. kabiradas ke saman ve bhi kuchh vishesh padhe likhe n the. bhaktibhav se poorn hokar ve jo bhajan gaya karate the unaka sngrah (snvath 1661) grnthasahab men kiya gaya hai. ye bhajan kuchh to pnjabi bhasha men hain aur kuchh desh ki samany kavy bhasha hindi men hain. yah hindi kahin to desh ki kavyabhasha ya brajabhasha hai, kahin khadi boli jisamen idhar udhar pnjabi ke roop bhi a ge hain, jaise chalya, rahya. bhakt ya vinay ke sidhe sade bhav sidhi sadi bhasha men kahe ge hain, kabir ke saman ashikshiton par prabhav dalane ke lie tedhe medhe roopakon men nahin. isase inaki prakriti ki saralata aur ahnbhavashoonyata ka parichay milata hai. snsar ki anityata, bhagavadbhakti aur snt svabhav ke snbndh men unhonne kaha hain -

is dam da mainoon kibe bharosa, aya aya, n aya n aya.
yah snsar rain da supana, kahin dekha, kahin nahi dikhaya.
soch vichar kare mat man main, jisane dhoondha usane paya.
nanak bhaktan de pad parase nisadin ram charan chit laya

jo nar du:kh men du:kh nahin manai.
sukh saneh aru bhay nahin jake, knchan mati janai
nahin ninda nahin astuti jake, lobh moh abhimana.
harash sok ten rahai niyaro, nahi man apamana
asa manasa sakal tyagi kai jag ten rahai niras.
kam, krodh jehi parase nahi n tehin ghat brahm nivasa
guru kirapa jehi nar pai kinhin tinh yah juguti pichhani.
nanak lin bhayo gobind so jyon pani sng pani.[3]

prakriti chitran

guru nanak dev, talavndi, pnjab

guru nanak ki kavita men kahin-kahin prakriti ka bada sundar chitran milata hai. 'takhari' rag ke barahamahan (barahamasa) men pratyek mas ka hridayagrahi varnan hai. chaitr men sara van praphullit ho jata hai, pushpon par bhramaron ka gunjan bada hi suhavana lagata hai. vaishakh men shakhaen anek vesh dharan karati hain. isi prakar jyeshth-ashadh ki tapati dharati, savan-bhadon ki rimajhim, dadar, mor, koyalon ki pukaren, damini ki chamak, sarpon evn machchharon ke darshan adi ka rochak varnan hai. pratyek ritu ki visheshataon ki or snket kiya gaya hai.

pnjasahab

sikkh tirth peshavar jane vale marg par takshashila se ek steshan age tatha hasan abdal se do mil dakshin men pnjasahab sthan sthit hai.

rag aur ras

guru nanak ki vani men shant evn shrringar ras ki pradhanata hai. in donon rason ke atirikt, karun, bhayanak, vir, raudr, adbhut, hasy aur vibhats ras bhi milate hain. unaki kavita men vaise to sabhi prasiddh alnkar mil jate hain, kintu upama aur roopak alnkaron ki pradhanata hai. kahin-kahin anyoktiyan badi sundar ban padi hain. guru nanak ne apani rachana men nimnalikhit unnis ragon ke prayog kiye hain- siri, majh, goodi, asa, goojari, badahns, sorathi, dhanasari, tilng, sahi, bilaval, ramakali, maroo, tukhari, bhareu, vasant, sarng, mala, prabhati.

bhasha

bhasha ki drishti se guru nanak ki vani men farasi, multani, pnjabi, sindhi , brajabhasha, khadiboli adi ke prayog hue hain. snskrit, arabi aur farasi ke anek shabd grahan kiye gaye hain. 1521 tak inhonne tin yatrachakr poore kie, jinamen bharat, faras aur arab ke mukhy-mukhy sthanon ka bhraman kiya.

mrityu

guru nanak ki mrityu sanh 1539 ee. men huee. inhonne gurugaddi ka bhar guru angadadev (baba lahana) ko saunp diya aur svayn karatarapur men 'jyoti' men lin ho ge. guru nanak antarik sadhana ko sarvavyapi paramatma ki prapti ka ekamatr sadhan manate the. ve roodhiyon ke kattar virodhi the. guru nanak apane vyaktitv men darshanik, yogi, grihasth, dharmasudharak, samajasudharak, kavi, deshabhakt aur vishvabndhu-sabhi ke gun samete hue the.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. jali moh ghasi masu kari, mati kagadu kari saroo. bhau qalam kari chitu lekhari, guru puchhi likhu bicharoo. likhu nam salah likhu likhu ant n paravaroo".1.6 (shri guru granth, siri ragu, mahala 1,prishth 16
  2. diya kapah santokhu sritu gndhi satu batu, ehu janeoo ji aka hee ta pade dhatu.. na ehu tutai n malu lagai na ehu jale n jae.. (shri guru granth sahib, asa ki var, mahala 1, pri0 471
  3. achary, ramachndr shukl “prakaran 2”, hindi sahity ka itihas (hindi). bharatadiskavari pustakalay: kamal prakashan, nee dilli, prishth sn. 68.

sahayak granth-

  1. d sikh rilijan : maiks arthar maikaliph (khand 1) klairendan pres aksaphord, 1909 ee.;
  2. laiph aauf guru nanak dev: karatar sinh, sikh pablishing haus, amritasar.

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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