शबर  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

shabar mimansa darshan ke pramukh achary hain. inhonne jaimini ke sootron par brihat bhashy likha hai. kaha jata hai ki mimansa sootron par shabar-bhashy ke poorv bhi kuchh tikaen likhi gee thin, kintu is samay unamen se koee bhi tika upalabdh nahin hai.

parichay

shabar svami ke jivanavrint ke vishay men koee pramanik janakari upalabdh nahin hai. kuchh log inhen eesa ki doosari sadi ka manate hain to kuchh log chauthi sadi ka. shabar svami ka vastavik nam 'adity dev' tha. yah kaha jata hai ki jainon ke bhay se ve jngal men bhag ge the aur vahan vesh badal kar rahane lage the. vahin par inhonne apana nam 'shabar' rakh liya. inaka bhashy 'shabar bhashy' ke nam se prasiddh hai. inake sthan ke sambandh men koee nishchit mat nahin hai. pndit gnganath jha ke anusar inaka sthan uttar bharat men kashmir ya takshashila men raha hoga. shabar bhashy par mukhy tin mat ho jate hain. kumaril bhatt ki vyakhya ke adhar par 'bhatt mat' ki sthapana huee hai. prabhakar ki vyakhya ke adhar par 'prabhakar mat' ya 'gurumat' sthapit hua hai tatha murari mishr ki vyakhya par 'mishramat' sthapit hua hai.

darshanik siddhant

shabar ke darshanik siddhanton ka snkshipt parichay nimnalikhit roop men diya ja sakata hai-

atma

vedamntron men kaha gaya hai ki ygy karane vala yajaman ygy ke puny se svarg ko jata hai. yahan par yah prashn uthaya jata hai ki ygy sharir se hota hai aur sharir yahin nasht ho jata hai. tab svarg kon jata hai? is prashn ke uttar men kaha jata hai ki yah nirdesh sharir ke lie nahin hai, balki sharir dharan karane vali atma ke lie hai. yah atma sharir, indriy adi se bhinn hai. isaka anuman shvas-prashvas adi kriyaon se kiya ja sakata hai. sath hi hamen apane sukh-du:kh ka hi anuman hota hai aur doosare ke sharir ke roop-rng adi ka gyan hota hai. isase yah spasht ho jata hai ki atma jo ygy ke puny se svarg jata hai, sharir se bhinn hai. isi prakar smriti ke adhar par bhi yah siddh kiya jata hai ki anubhavav ke pashchath smaran karane vala atma hai aur sharir adi se bhinn hai, kyonki parivartanashil sharir se smaran ki vyakhya sambhav nahin hai. atma gyan, ichchha evn snvedan adi ka adhar evn karta hai. pratyek vyakti apani atma ka sakshath gyan prapt karata hai. isi arth men atma ko svayn vedy kaha jata hai. atma doosare ke dvara sakshath roop men vedy nahin hai, kintu upanishad ki neti-neti prakriya ke dvara is atma ka gyan doosare ko bhi karaya ja sakata hai. apani atma ke sakshath gyan ke adhar par doosare ki atma ka anuman dvara gyan prapt ho sakata hai. atma nity evn avinashi hai. kintu isaka sambandh vinashi sharir, indriy, dharm evn adharm athava puny aur pap se ho jata hai.

eeshvar mimansa darshan men eeshvar ya paramatma ka niroopan nahin hai. shabar bhashy men shabd tatha arth ke sambandh ke vichar ke prasng men yah siddh karane ka prayas kiya hai ki shabd aur arth ke sambandh ka karta nahin hai, kyonki is prakar ke karta ki kisi ko bhi janakari nahin hai. yadi karta hota to use bhulaya nahin ja sakata tha. is karta ko siddh karane ke lie anuman aur arthapatti adi praman bhi samarth nahin hain. at: shabd ke sambandh ke karta ke roop men eeshvar ko siddh nahin kiya ja sakata. isi adhar par kumaril jagat ke karta ke roop men bhi eeshvar ko nahin svikar karate. kyonki jagat anadi hai, isaki srishti nahin huee hai aur isaka pralay bhi snbhav nahin hai. at: srishtikarta ya pralayakarta ke roop men bhi eeshvar ko siddh nahin kiya ja sakata. ved ki apaurusheyata se bhi yahi siddh hota hai ki ved ka karta koee nity sarvgy eeshvar nahin hai. ved nity evn anadi hai, at: apaurushey hai.

padarth

shabar bhashy men padarthon ka spasht niroopan nahin kiya gaya hai. padarth ke vargikaran men keval dravy, gun, karm aur avayav ki charcha ki gee hai.

praman

pratyaksh, anuman, shabd, upaman, arthapatti aur abhav men chh: praman shabar ko many hain.

pratyaksh

indriy ka vishay ke sambandh se utpann hone vala gyan pratyaksh hai. at: isamen dharm ka gyan snbhav nahin hai. jo vastav men pratyaksh hai, vah kabhi galat nahin ho sakata hai aur jo galat gyan hai, vah kabhi pratyaksh nahin ho sakata. at: bahy jagat ke sambandh men hi pratyaksh praman hai.

anuman

shabar ke anusar vyapti sambandh par adharit vah gyan hai, jisamen ek pratyaksh vastu ke adhar par doosari paroksh vastu ka gyan prapt kiya jata hai. yah anuman do prakar ka hota hai. ek sakshath pratyaksh sambandh ke adhar par aur doosara samanyikrit pratyaksh ke adhar par. pahale ke udaharan ke roop men dhoom ke dvara agni ke anuman ko rakha ja sakata hai, jahan in donon ka vyapti-sambandh pratyaksh ke dvara gyat hota hai. doosare ke udaharan ke roop men ham chandrama ki gati ke anuman ko de sakate hain, jo usake sthan ke parivartan ke adhar par samanyikrit sambandh ke dvara prapt kiya jata hai.

shabd

shabar bhashy men samany shabd-praman ki charcha nahin hai. shabd praman men keval shastr ko liya gaya hai. shabar ke anusar shastr ya shabd praman vah hai, jisake dvara aparoksh dharm-adharm ka gyan hota hai. is prakar shabar bhashy men shabd se vaidik shabd aur arth se dharm-adharm ka bodh hota hai. shabar shabd aur arth ke sambandh ko nity manate hain. inake anusar vividh vaky dharm janane ka ekamatr sadhan hai. bhashy men shabar ne vistar ke sath shabd aur arth ke sambandh ka varnan kiya hai. shabd aksharon ke samooh se bani huee ikaee hai. shabd ke arth ke vishay men shabar ka mat hai ki shabd ke dvara samany (jati) ya samany visheshataon ka bodh hota hai, kintu vyavahar men in visheshataon se yukt vyakti ka bhi bodh hota hai. shabdarth sambandh sngya-sngyi sambandh hai.

upaman

shabar ne upaman praman ko sadrishy ke adhar par hone vala gyan mana hai, jaise nilagay men gay ke sadrishy se gay men nilagay ke sadrishy ka gyan upaman praman se hone vala gyan hai.

arthapatti

jahan kisi shrut ya dusht vastu ki vyakhya doosare ko svikar kie bina sambhav n ho, vahan doosare ki svikriti men jis sahayak praman ki kalpana ki jae, use arthapatti kahate hain. jaise yah kaha jata hai ki jivit devadatt ghar men nahin hai. yahan devadatt ka ghar men n rahana yah manane ke lie badhy karata hai ki devadatt ghar se bahar hai, kyonki isako mane bina ukt kathan (devadatt jivit hai aur ghar men nahin hai) ki vyakhya sambhav nahin hai.

abhav

abhav ke dvara anastitv ka gyan hota hai, jaise, yah nahin hai. jahan ukt panchon praman kisi vastu ke astitv ko batalane men saksham nahin hote, vahan hamen us vastu ke abhav ya anastitv ka bodh hota hai aur jisake dvara yah bodh hota rahe use hi abhav kaha jata hai.

dharm

mimansa darshan ka pradhan uddeshy dharm ki vyakhya karana hai. jaimini ne dharm ki paribhasha dete hue kaha hai 'chodanalakshanoarthon dharm:' arthat chodana ke dvara lakshit arth dharm kahalata hai. 'chodana' ka arth hai kriya ka pravartak vachan arthath ved ka vidhi vaky. shabar ne dharm ki vyakhya vistar ke sath ki hai. isake anusar ved vakyon ka mukhy tatpary vidhi ka pratipadan hi hai. at: gyan pratipadak vaky kriya ki prastuti ya nishadh karane ke karan paraspar ya kriyaparak hain. aise vaky arthavad vaky kahalate hain. is prakar yah kaha ja sakata hai ki kisi prayojan ya uddeshy se ved ke dvara vihit yag adi arth dharm kahalata hai. in arthon ke vidhivath anushthan karane se purush ko svarg ki prapti hoti hai, jo samast du:khon ko door karane vala ni:shreyas hai. ved vihit karm hi dharm hai. at: mimansa men in karmon ki vishad vyakhya ki gee hai.

karm ke prakar

karm tin prakar ke hain-

  1. kamyakarm - jo kisi kamana ke lie kiya jata hai, jaise- svarg ki kamana se kiya jane vala ygy karm.
  2. pratishiddh karm - ye ve karm hain, jinhen n karane ke lie kaha jata hai, arthat jinake karane se anarth utpann hota hai, jaise- kalajjabhakshan. 'kalajj' ka arth hai 'vish se bujhae ge, shastr se mare ge pashu ka mans'.
  3. nityanaimitik karm - ye ve karm hain, jinaka anushthan avashyak hota hai, kintu jo kisi lakshy ya uddeshy ke lie nahin hote hain, jaise- sndhyavndan ityadi nity karm hain aur kisi avasar vishesh par kie jane vale shraddh adi karm naimittik karm hain.

ved ki apauroosheyata

yah siddhant roop men svikar kar liya gaya hai ki dharm ke gyan ke lie ved hi ekamatr pramanik evn vishvasaniy sadhan hai. nyay darshan eeshvar ko ved ka rachayita manata hai. mimansa darshan ka kahana hai ki ved ki rachana karane vala koee purush (manav ya eeshvar) nahin hai. yadi isaka rachayita kisi purush ko mana jaye to rachayita k agyani evn apoorn hone ke karan ved vakyon men truti aur dosh ko svikar karana padega. yadi rachayita ko nity aur sarvgy evn poorn man liya jae to doosari kathinaiyan upasthit hoti hain-

  1. koee poorn purush, jise koee prayojan nahin, vedon ki rachana kyon karega.
  2. is prakar ke nity sarvgy purush ke astitv men kya praman hai. in prashnon ka samuchit uttar sambhav nahin hai. isalie yahi manana nyayasngat hai ki ved kisi purush ki rachana nahin hai, balki apaurooshey hai. apaurooshey hone ke karan nity evn svayn paryapt hain. at: inamen truti ya dosh ka prashn hi nahin uthata. is apauroosheyatv ki siddhi ke lie shabar bhashy men nimnalikhit tark diye ge hain-
  • nity, sarvgy evn poorn eeshvar ki satta men koee praman nahin hai. at: use ved ka rachayita nahin mana ja sakata.
  • jaise any granthon men usake karta ka nam paya jata hai, vaise vedon men kisi karta ka nam nahin paya jata. katipay mntron men rishiyon ke nam paye jate hain, kintu ve un mntron ke drashta hain karta nahin. at: ved apaurooshey hain.
  • ved nity hain, at: apaurooshey hain.

maulik siddhant

vedon ki nityata ki sthapana men mimansa men anek maulik siddhant svikar kiye ge hain, jaise- 'shabd-nityata-vad' mimansa men yah sthapit kiya gaya hai ki shabd nity hai. yah uchcharit dhvaniyon se bhinn hai. dhvaniyon ke utpann aur vinisht hone se shabd utpann aur vinisht nahin hota. dhvaniyan keval shabd ko abhivyakt karati hain. isi prakar arth aur shabdarth sambandh ki nityata ki sthapana ki gee hai. shabd ki nityata ki sthapana ke bad vaky ki nityata ki sthapana ki gee hai aur vaky samooh hone ke karan ved ki nityata sthapit hoti hai. is sambandh men mimansakon ki sabase mahattvapoorn yukti yah hai ki shabd sada guru parampara se prapt hota hai. ved bhi guru parampara se hi prapt hai. at: inhen shruti kaha gaya hai. ved ki nityata ki sthapana ke prasng men jagat ki anadita tatha mahapralay ke abhav ki bhi sthapana ki jati hai. at: ved ki apauroosheyata men anek maulik siddhanton ka samavesh ho jata hai.

devata

vedon men anek devataon, jaise- indr, varun, rudr, vishnu adi, ka varnan hai. ved vihit yag adi karm bhi dravy aur devata in do vastuon se sadhy hote hain. dravy, dadhi, akshat, til adi padarth hain. mimansa ke anusar devata shastr ke dvara vedy hain. devata ke vishay men tin vikalp bataye ge hain-

  1. arth devata
  2. shabd vishisht arth devata
  3. shabd devata

in tinon vikalpon ka shabar ne yukti dvara tisare vikalp ko siddhant mana hai. unaka kahana hai ki shabd ki upasthiti pratham hoti hai. at: pratham upasthit ko devata manana yuktisngat hai, jaise- 'indray svaha', 'agnaye svaha' adi mntron men 'indray' evn 'agney' ye chaturthant pad hi devata hai. arth ko ya shabd-vishisht arth ko devata manane valon ko bhi shabd ki upasthiti svikar karani padegi. at: shabdamay devata manana adhik sngat pratit hota hai. mimansa se any acharyon ne devata ka vigrah bhi mana hai. kintu shabar ne devata-vigrahavad ka khndan kiya hai aur shabdamay devata ke siddhant ki sthapana ki hai.

ved

ved ke svaroop aur vishay ke sambandh men bhi mimansa ka apana vishisht mat hai, jo shabar bhashy men pratipadit hai. mimansak ved se mntr aur brahman donon ko lete hain. smritiyan bhi ved ke anugaman karane ke karan praman roop men svikrit hain. vishay ki drishti se ved ke panch vibhag kiye ge hain, jinhen- vidhi, mntr, namadhey, nishadh tatha arthavad kaha jata hai. yon to vedon ka mukhy vishay dharm ka pratipadan hai aur dharm karm roop hain, jo keval vidhivakyon ki sahayata karane ke karan dharm pratipadan men sahayak siddh hote hain.

1. vidhi - 'svarg' ki kamana vala purush ygy kare, is prakar ke pravartana-garbhit vakyon ko vidhi kaha jata hai. yah vidhi char prakar ki hoti hai-

  • (k) utpatti vidhi - karm ke svaroop matr ko batalane vali vidhi hai.
  • (kh) viniyogavidhi - vah vidhi hai jo ang tatha pradhan anushthanon ke sambandh ko spasht karati hai.
  • (g) adhikar vidhi - vah hai jo karm se utpann phal ke svamitv ka bodh karati hai.
  • (gh) prayogavidhi - vah hai jo prayog ki shighrata ka bodh karati hai. in vidhiyon ke nirdharan ke lie shruti, ling, vaky, prakaran, sthan tatha samakhya adi pramanon ka upayog hota hai.

2. mntr - ved ke ve vaky mntr kahalate hain, jo kisi karm ka vidhan nahin karate, balki keval dridhoktiyon ko abhivyakt karate hain.
3. namadhey - ygyon ke nam tatha any namon ka snket karane vale shabdon ko namadhey kaha jata hai.
4. nishedh - nishedh karane vale ya kisi kary ko n karane ka adesh dene vale vakyon ko nishadh kahate hain.
5. arthavad - ve vaky hain, jo ygyon ke phal adi ka niroopan karate hain tatha kisi padarth ke gunon evn doshon ka niroopan karate hain.

is prakar ved ke svaroop, ved vakyon ke prakar, unake arth nirdharan ki prakriya, unamen virodh hone par usaka nirakaran adi mimansa ka pramukh vishay hai, jisako shabar ne apane bhashy men pratipadit kiya hai.


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vishv ke pramukh darshanik |lekhak: daauktar raghunath giri |prakashak: vaigyanik tatha takaniki shabdavali ayog, nee dilli, 684 |prishth snkhya: 592 |


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