रामानुज  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ramanuj
ramanujachary
poora nam ramanujachary
janm 1017 ee.[1]
janm bhoomi perumbudoor ganv, madras (ab chennee)
mrityu 1137 ee.[1]
mrityu sthan shrirngam, tamilanadu
abhibhavak pita- asoori keshav dikshit
guru yadav prakash
karm bhoomi bharat
karm-kshetr dharm pravartak aur snt, darshanik
mukhy rachanaen 'shribhashy', 'vedant sngrah', 'vedant dvip', 'gita bhashy', 'vedant sar' adi.
nagarikata bharatiy
any janakari ramanuj ki buddhi itani kushagr thi ki ye apane guru ki vyakhya men bhi dosh nikal diya karate the. inake dvara pratipadit siddhant 'vishishtadvait' kahalata hai.

ramanujachary (angrezi: Ramanujacharya) vedant darshan parampara men vishishtadvait ke pravartak hain. upanishad, bhagavadagita evn brahmasootr ke shri shnkarachary ki advaitaparak vyakhya ke pratipad ke roop men ramanuj ne vishishtadvait ka pratipadan kiya hai. inake samay men jain aur bauddh dharmon ke prachar ke karan vaishnav dharm snkat grast tha. ramanuj ne is snkat ka saphalatapoorvak pratikar kiya. sath hi inhonne shnkar ke advait mat ka khndan kiya aur apane mat ke pravartan ke lie anek grnthon ki rachana ki.

jivan parichay

vaishnav mat ki pun: pratishtha karane valon men ramanuj ya ramanujachary ka mahattvapoorn sthan hai. inaka janm 1017 ee. men madras ke samip perubudoor ganv men hua tha. shriramanujachary ke pita ka nam keshav bhatt tha. jab shriramanujachary ki avastha bahut chhoti thi, tabhi inake pita ka dehavasan ho gaya. inhonne kanchi men yadav prakash namak guru se vedadhyayan kiya. inaki buddhi itani kushagr thi ki ye apane guru ki vyakhya men bhi dosh nikal diya karate the. phalat: inake guru ne in par prasann hone ke badale eershyalu hokar inaki hatya ki yojana bana dali, kintu bhagavan ki kripa se ek vyadh aur usaki patni ne inake pranon ki raksha ki. inhonne kanchipuram jakar vedant ki shiksha li. ramanuj ke guru ne bahut manoyog se shishy ko shiksha di. vedant ka inaka gyan thode samay men hi itana badh gaya ki inake guru yadav prakash ke lie inake tarkon ka uttar dena kathin ho gaya. ramanuj ki vidvatta ki khyati nirntar badhati gee. vaivahik jivan se oob kar ye snnyasi ho ge. ab inaka poora samay adhyayan, chintan aur bhagavat-bhakti men bitane laga. inaki shishy-mndali bhi badhane lagi. yahan tak ki inake pahale ke guru yadav prakash bhi inake shishy ban ge. ramanuj dvara pratipadit siddhant 'vishishtadvait' kahalata hai.

shriramanuchary grihasth the, kintu jab inhonne dekha ki grihasthi men rahakar apane uddeshy ko poora karana kathin hai, tab inhonne grihasth ashram ko tyag diya aur shrirngam jakar yatiraj namak snnyasi se sannyas dharm ki diksha le li. inake guru yadav prakash ko apani poorv karani par bada pashchattap hua aur ve bhi sannyas ki diksha lekar shrirngam chale aye aur shriramanujachary ki seva men rahane lage. age chalakar apane goshthipoorn se diksha li. guru ka nirdesh tha ki ramanuj unaka bataya hua mantr kisi any ko n bataen. kintu jab ramanuj ko gyat hua ki mantr ke sunane se logon ko mukti mil jati hai to ve mndir ki chhat par chadhakar saikadon nar-nariyon ke samane chilla-chillakar us mantr ka uchcharan karane lage. yah dekhakar kruddh guru ne inhen narak jane ka shap diya. is par ramanuj ne uttar diya- yadi mantr sunakar hazaron nar-nariyon ki mukti ho jae to mujhe narak jana bhi svikar hai.

charitr

shriramanujachary bade hi vidvan, sadachari, dhairyavan aur udar the. charitrabal aur bhakti men to ye advitiy the. inhen yog siddhiyan bhi prapt thin. ye shriyamunachary ki shishy-parampara men the. jab shriyamunachary ki mrityu sannikat thi, tab unhonne apane shishy ke dvara shriramanujachary ko apane pas bulavaya, kintu inake pahunchane ke poorv hi shriyamunachary ki mrityu ho gayi. vahan pahunchane par inhonne dekha ki shriyamunachary ki tin anguliyan mudi huee thin. shriramanujachary ko samajh liya ki shriyamunachary inake madhyam se 'brahmasootr', 'vishnusahastranam' aur alavandaron ke 'divy prabandhamh' ki tika karavana chahate hain. inhonne shriyamunachary ke mrit sharir ko pranam kiya aur kaha- 'bhagavanh! main apaki is antim ichchha ko avashy poori karoonga.'

ramanuj ke dvara chalaye gaye sampraday ka nam bhi shrisampraday hai. is sampraday ki adyapravarti ka shrimahalakshmi ji mani jati hain. shriramanujachary ne desh bhar men bhraman karake lakhon nar-nariyon ko bhaktimarg men pravritt kiya. inake chauhattar shishy the. inhonne mahatma pillaloka chary ko apana uttaradhikari banakar ek sau bis varsh ki avastha men is snsar se prayan kiya. inake siddhant ke anusar bhagavan vishnu hi purushottam hain. ve hi pratyek sharir men sakshi roop se vidyaman hain. bhagavan narayan hi sat hain, unaki shakti maha lakshmi chit hain aur yah jagat unake anand ka vilas hai. bhagavan shrilakshminarayan is jagat ke mata-pita hain aur sabhi jiv unaki sntan hain.

ramanuj ki rachanaen

ramanuj ne shrirngamh namak sthan par rahakar bhi shastron ka adhyayan kiya aur vahan par apane jivan ke paravarti varsh bitakar grnthon ki rachana ki. shriramanujachary ne bhaktimarg ka prachar karane ke liye sampoorn bharat ki yatra ki. inhonne bhaktimarg ke samarth men gita aur brahmasootr par bhashy likha. vedant sootron par inaka bhashy shribhashy ke nam se prasiddh hai.

ramanuj-virachit sarvapratham grnth 'vedant sngrah' hai, jisamen unhonne un shrnti vakyon ki rachana ki hai, jo advaitavadiyon ke anusar abhed ki sthapana karate hain. isake bad unhonne apane pramukh granth 'shribhashy' ki rachana ki jo brahmasootr par bhashy hai. tatpashchath unhonne brahmasootr par 'vedant dvip' aur 'vedant sar' namak do chhoti tikaen likhi, jo 'shribhashy' par adharit hain. ant men unhonne 'gita bhashy' ki rachana ki. unhonne prasthanatrayi men se upanishadon par koee svatntr tikaen nahin likhi, parantu pramukh aupaniveshik vakyon ki vedarth sngrah men vyakhya ki hai. in granthon ke alava do any granth- 'gadyatrayam' aur 'nity granth' ramanuj ke nam se sambaddh hain, parantu inaki pramanikata sndigdh hai. ve darshanik n hokar bhaktiparak rachanaen hain.

ramanuj ki samast rachanaon men unake pandity ka utkrisht pradarshan milata hai. ye unake praudh mastishk ki upaj tatha sookshm chintan, gahan adhyayan evn pragadh anubhav ke praman hain. inamen mukhyat: unhonne pahale advaitavad ke in adharabhoot siddhanton ka khndan kiya ki brahm nirvishesh chinmatr hai, ekmev satta hai aur nanatvamay jagath mithya hai. isake uparant unhonne bade vidvattapoorn dhng se apane darshanik paksh ka niroopan kiya hai aur sath hi yah bhi bataya hai ki kis tarah vah shruti-sammat hai.

shnkarachary aur ramanuj

shnkar ke nirvisheshadvait ki is tatvik sthapana ka mool adhar yah manyata hai ki sath aur chith (snvith) men poorn tadatmy hai aur moolat: chith nirvishesh hai. parantu ramanuj ka kahana hai ki chith ka nirvisheshatv kisi bhi praman ke dvara siddh nahin kiya ja sakata hai, kyonki sabhi praman anubhooti par adharit hote hain aur anubhooti sadaiv savishesh hoti hai. nirvisheshadvait ke pravartak bhi chith men 'svayn prakashata' adi ke visheshanon ko svikar karate hain. ve ye tark nahin kar sakate ki ye visheshan moolat: chith hi hain, kyonki inamen maulik bhed hain. chith ka sath se tadatmy manana bhi apramanik hai. chith anivaryat: gyata aur gyey ko apane se prithakh manakar chalata hai. yadi chith evn gyey men poorn tadatmy hota to samast gyan nirarthak evn punaravritti matr hota. yah sahi hai ki gyan snbndh do poornat: prithakh padon men sthapit nahin ho sakata, par do tadatmyukt padon men aise snbndhon ki charcha karana bhi nirarthak hai. yadyapi pratyek abhikathan abhed ka niroopak hai, tathapi yah vishuddh tadatmy n hokar bhinnatv se anusyut hai. gyan satta ka visheshan hai aur usase abhed evn bhed donon ke samanvit roop se snbndhit hai. ramanuj ne is manyata ko suvyavasthit evn prabhavakak roop se pratipadit kiya ki samast gyan savishesh hote hain. avishishtagrahi gyan hota hi nahin. gyan ki hi tarah gyey satta bhi nirvishesh ekatv nahin balki aisa ekatv hai, jisamen nanatv ke ansh visheshan roop se antarnihit hain. gyan ke samast upakaran pratyaksh, anumanadi savishesh ekatv, ya vishishtadvait ka hi bodh karate hain. pratyaksh chahe vah nirvikalpak ho ya savikalpak sanmatragrahi nahin hota, balki unhin vishayon ko grahan karata hai, jo savishesh hain. nirvikalp pratyaksh anishchit evn aspasht hota hai, par nirvishesh nahin. anumit gyan ki savisheshata to suspasht hai hi. shruti bhi nirvisheshatv ka pratipadan nahin karati hai. jin shruti vakyon se charam tatv se gunon ka nishedh hua hai, ve yatharth men hey gunon ka hi nishedh karate hain. samast gunon ka nahin. is tarah ramanuj ne gyan evn satta ke kshetr men ekatv evn nanatv men samanvay sthapit kar vedant men nee manyataen sthapit ki hain. ramanuj shnkar ki hi tarah advaitavadi hain, parantu jagath ke nana jad-chetan tatvon ko mayik mane bina usi udvay tatv brahm ke ansh manate hain. samast nanatvamay parinami jagath brahm men hi samavisht hai. brahm chith aur achith donon se vishisht hai aur usaki advaitavastha savishisht hai. vah ek aisa vishisht hai, jo snshlisht svaroop men ekatv aur nanatv ko samavisht karata hai. is tarah jahan shnkar ke kevaladvait men paramarthik drishti se brahm ke atirikt sab kuchh ka nishedh kiya gaya hai. vahan ramanuj ke vishishtadvait men brahm men hi sab kuchh ko svikar kiya gaya hai. ve shnkar ki hi tarah is bat par zor dete hain ki brahm ke atirikt any koee tatv nahin hai, par unaka 'any' se tatpary keval vijatiy evn sajitiy bhed hai, svagat nahin hai. ramanuj ke dvara many ek ekanekaroop is charam tatv ki tulana ek aise sajiv deh se ki ja sakati hai, jo bhedavihin vishuddh ekatv n hokar ek aisa ekatv hai, jisamen nanatv nihit hai aur jo nanatv men hi apani abhivyakti karata hai. is darshanik sthiti ki sabase badi visheshata yah hai ki isamen jiv ke prithakh vyaktitv aur jagath ki satyata ko poornat: svikar kiya gaya hai tatha sarvavyapi charamatatv men usaki poornata ko hani pahunchae bina unako samuchit sthan evn mooly pradan kiya gaya hai.

dehatm bhav

yadi brahm ek vishisht hai, jisamen jiv aur jagath visheshan roop se sthit hain to prashn yah upasthit hota hai ki inaka parasparik snbndh kis prakar ka hai. isaki vyakhya ke lie ramanuj dehatm bhav ki sahayata lete hain. brahm atma ya kendribhoot tatv hai. jiv aur jagath brahm ke deh hain. brahm, jiv aur jagath tinon saty hain, bhinn hain, parantu keval brahm svadhin hai tatha jiv aur jagath brahmadhin evn brahm niyntrit hain. jiv aur jagath kis arth men brahm ke deh hain, yah spasht karane ke lie ramanuj deh ki nimnalikhit paribhasha dete hain-

'deh vah dravy hai, jise ek chetan atma apane prayojan hetu dharan karati hai, niyntrit karati hai, kary men pravritt karati hai aur jo poornataya us atma ke adhinasth rahati hai.'

is drishti se samast jiv-jagath brahm ke deh hain, kyonki ve brahm par adharit, brahm ke dvara niyntrit evn brahm ke adhinasth rahate hain. brahm aur jiv-jagath ke is vishisht snbndh ko ramanuj aprithaksiddh ke nam se pukarate hain, jisamen poorn tadatmy aur poorn bhed donon ka nishedh kiya gaya hai. isamen snbndhiyon ke tadatmy par zor to diya hi gaya hai, par yah tadatmy snbndh aur phalat: kisi ek snbndhi ko hi samapt n kar de, is drishti se bhed par bhi bal dekar snbndh ke astitv ki raksha ki gee hai.

samanadhikarany ke siddhant

samanadhikarany ke adhar par hi ramanuj upanishadon ke 'tatvamasi' adi mahavakyon ki vyakhya karate hain. isamen 'tvn' shabd, jo sadharanat: jiv ke lie ata hai, vastut: brahm ka bodhak hai, jo jiv men antaryami roop se sthit hai aur jisaka jiv ansh roop hai. 'tath' shabd bhi brahm ka hi dyotak hai, parantu yah usake us paksh ka hi dyotak hai, jo jagath ka karan roop hai. is tarah is mahavaky men brahm ke do prithakh pakshon ki ekata ka niroopan hai. isaka phalitarth yah hai ki yadyapi jiv jagat vastavik evn bhinn hai, tathapi jis brahm men antarbhoot hain, vah ek hi hain.

ekatv aur nanatv

ramanuj se poorv shnkar ne ekatv evn nanatv ko paraspar viruddh svabhav vale manakar vishuddh chaitany ke ekatv ko hi charam tatv ke roop men svikar kiya tha aur parasparik drishti se jagath ke nanatv ko mithya ghoshit kar diya tha. ramanuj ne shnkar dvara pratipadit nirvishaishadvait ke in adharabhoot siddhanton ka sabal prativad kar ki charam tatv nirvishesh chinmatr hai tatha nanatvamay jagath mayajanit evn mithya hai, vedant ki sagunavadi dhara ko tarkik adhar par pusht karane ka prayas kiya hai.

ek charam tatv kis tarah nanatvamay jagath se aprithakh roopen snbndhit hota hai aur kis tarah vah anek binduon men vyakt hote hue bhi ekatv ko banaye rakh sakata hai, is manyata ka samadhan ramanuj vyakaran men prayukt samanadhikarany ke siddhant ki sahayata se karate hain. unhonne advait ke ekatv men hi anusyut bhed ka sajiv tatv svikar kiya, jisamen nanatv ko ekatv ka virodhi nahin balki visheshan mana gaya. jis tarah ek vaky men bhinnarthak shabdon ka samuchchay ekikrit ho ekarth ka dyotak hota hai, usi tarah ekatv aur nanatv milakar ek samanvayatmak ekata men samavisht hote hain. is siddhant ke dvara ramanuj n keval brahm evn jiv jagath ke snbndh ki hi vyakhya karate hain, apitu isake sath sath brahm ke savishesh svaroop tatha jiv jagath ki vastavikata ki bhi siddhi karate hain.

ramanuj dvara many is aprithaksiddh snbndh ko angiy ekata ki avadharana se samajha ja sakata hai, jisamen brahm pradhan tatv hai aur jiv jagath us par ashrit gaun tatv hai. ekata ki is avadharana ko 'nilakamal' is snyukt pad ke arth-bodh se jana ja sakata hai. yahan 'nil' gun 'kamal' dravy se bhinn hai, lekin sath hi 'nil' gun apane astitv ke lie 'kamal' par ashrit hai aur usase prithakh usaka astitv nahin hai. kamal namak padarth ko is arth men ekatv kaha gaya hai ki usamen nilatv ka gun antarbhoot hai. nil gun aur kamal dravy men vastavik bhed hai. matr abhas roop nahin, par yah bhed bahy n hokar antarik hai.

drishtikon

ramanuj charam tatv ko anant gun sampann param purush ke roop men svikar karate hain. shnkar ne brahm ya charam tatv ke nirgun parak aur sagun parak, dvividh varnan kar ek ko paramarthik drishti aur doosare ko vyavaharik drishti kahakar donon men vaicharik bhed kiya hai. sagun brahm ki satta aupadhik tatha jagatik prapnch tak hi simit mani gee hai. ramanuj is vargikaran ke poorn virodhi hain. unake anusar brahm ke sambandh men ek hi drishtikon ho sakata hai aur vah hai sagunata ka. brahm men gunon ka bahuly unake svaroop ke nanatv ka bodh nahin karata, kyonki prithakh hote hue bhi samast gun ek hi brahm men astitv rakhate hain aur usaki udvayata ko hani nahin pahunchate.

vedant darshan

jagat ki tatvik prasthiti ke bare men vedant darshan men mayavad evn lilavad ki do prithakh evn poornat: virodhi paramparaen rahi hain. in donon paramparaon men maulik bhed satta ke prati drishtikon men hai. donon yah manate hain ki srishti prakriya ka mool srijan ki chah hai aur us chah ko charamatatv (brahm) par aropit evn mithya mana gaya hai, jabaki lilavad men use brahm ki svabhavik shakti evn vastavik mana gaya hai. donon ke anusar jagath brahm ki hi abhivyakti hai, par ek men vah abhas matr hai, jabaki doosare men vastavik. ramanuj mayavad ka prabal prativad kar lilavad ka samarthan karate hue jagath ke prati vastavalakshi drishtikon apanate hain. ve jagath ko utana hi vastavik manate hain, jitana ki brahm hai. brahm jagat ki srishti ka nimitt evn upadan karan hai. kintu is prakriya men brahm nirvikar rahata hai. kriya shakti usaki satta ya svaroop men badha nahin pahunchati. pralay ki avastha men chith aur achith avyakt roop men brahm men rahate hain. brahm ko is avastha men 'karan-brahm' kahate hain. jab srishti hoti hai, tab brahm men chith evn achith vyakt roop men prakat hote hain. is avastha ko kary brahm kahate hain. brahm apani donon vishisht avasthaon men advait roop hai. keval bhed yah hai ki pahale men advait ekavidh hai to doosare men anekavidh ho jata hai. donon avasthaen saman roop se saty hain. abhed-shrutiyan karan-brahm ki bodhak hain aur aur bhed-shrutiyan kary-brahm ki.

mayavad ka khndan

advait vedant men satta ke prati jo drishtikon apanaya gaya hai, usamen yah prashn upasthit hota hai ki yadi brahm ekamev satta hai to vaividhyamay jagat ki, jisaka ham anubhav karate hain, kaise vyakhya ki jaye. isaka uttar maya ke siddhant ko prastut kar avashy diya gaya, parantu maya apane ap men anirvachaniy hai, jo vastavik samadhan ki apeksha vaicharik rahasy ya paheli si lagati hai. yah ekatv aur nanatv ke virodh ko door karane ke lie prastut ki gee hai. parantu svayn isamen sath aur asath ke nishedh[2] ka atmavirodh hai. ramanuj satta ke prati sajiv drishtikon rakhate hain. at: unake lie ekatv aur nanatv ke samanvay ka prashn hi nahin uthata. ve in donon ko vibhakt n manakar matr prithakh ya ek hi tatv ke do paksh manate hain. unake matanusar ekamev satta apane savishesh svaroop men jagat ke nana charachar tatvon ka ang ke roop men samavesh kar leti hain. tarkik drishti se yah avashyak bhi hai ki yadi brahm men abhivyakti ko svikar kar liya jaye, chahe vah abhivyakti aropit ho ya vastavik, to un nana roopon ko bhi brahm men svikar karana padega, jinamen brahm ki abhivyakti huee hai. advaitavadi is abhivyakt nanatv ko mithya ghoshit karate hain aur mayavad ka pravartan karate hain, jo ramanuj ko poornat: shruti, yukti evn anubhav ke sakshy ke viparit lagata hai. at: ve sat tarkon ko prastut kar mayavad ka khndan karane ka prayas karate hain, jo nimnalikhit hain-

ashrayanupapatti

ramanuj yah prashn upasthit karate hain ki jis avidya se snsar ki utpatti hoti hai, usaka adhar kya hai. yadi yah kaha jaye ki vah jivashrit hai,[3] to yah shnka hoti hai ki jab jiv svayn avidya ka kary hai to phir jo karan hai, vah kary par kaise nirbhar rah sakata hai. yadi yah kaha jaye ki avidya brahmashrit hai,[4] to phir brahm ko vishuddh chaitany kaise kah sakate hain. aur n avidya ko ek prithakh svashrayi tatv hi mana ja sakata hai, kyonki isase advait ke siddhant ki hani hoti hai.

tirodhananupapatti

advait ke anusar avidya brahm ko achchhadit kar adhyaropan dvara jagat ko abhivyakt karati hai. parantu brahm, jo prakash hai, adhyarop ka adhishthan ya vishay kaise ho sakata hai. yadi phir bhi use aisa mana gaya to isase brahm ke svaprakashatv ki hani hogi.

svaroopanupapatti

yadi ham avidya ki satta aur usamen adhyarop ki kshamata svikar karen bhi, to yah prashn upasthit hota hai ki usaka svaroop kya hai. usake svaroop ko n to sath mana ja sakata hai aur n hi asath. advaitavadi use sath manate hi nahin. par use asath bhi nahin mana ja sakata, kyonki tab yah prashn hoga ki kya vah sath (drishi) roop men asath hai ya chith (drishta) roop men asath hai. vah sath roop men asath nahin ho sakati, kyonki brahm hi sath hai aur vah nity hai. yadi use chith roop men asath mana jaye to sath chith (brahm) ke alava asath chith ki kalpana karani hogi. isake alava is prasthapana men anavastha dosh hoga, kyonki yadi asath jagat ke karan ke roop men avidya ko mana jae aur avidya svayn bhi asath ho to isake bhi karan ke roop men kisi any sath tatv ko manana padega. yadi is dosh ke nivaran hetu yah mana jae ki sath chith jo svayn brahm hai, avidya hai to isaka arth yah hoga ki brahm svayn hi karan hai. aisi sthiti men brahmetar kisi tatv ko manana avashyak hoga. phir brahm shashvat hone se usaka karyaroop jagat bhi shashvat hoga. at: avidya ko brahm se prithakh tatha sath mane bina jagat ki vyakhya nahin ho sakati.

anirvachaniyanupapatti

avidya ko n to sath aur n hi asath manate hue advait vedanti use anirvachaniy kahate hain. isake svaroop ko ve bhavaroop agyan manate hain. parantu aisa kahane ka kuchh arth nahin nikalata. agyan ka arth gyan ka abhav hai. tab phir vah bhavaroop kaise mana ja sakata hai. avidya ka gyan n to pratyaksh aur n anuman hota hai. koee bhi anubhav bhramak nahin hota hai. bhram men bhi ardhgyan hi hota hai. use agyan nahin kaha ja sakata. is tarah n to siddhantat: aur n vyavahar se avidya ki siddhi hoti hai.

pramananupapatti

avidya ki siddhi ke lie shastron men bhi koee praman nahin hai. prakriti ko 'maya' kahakar upanishadon ne ullekh kiya hai, parantu vahan maya ka tatpary agyan nahin balki brahm ki vishisht shakti hai.

nivartakanupapatti

avidya ka koee nivartak nahin ho sakata, kyonki advaitavadiyon ke anusar nirvishesh gyan hi avidya ka nivaran kar sakata hai aur aisa gyan kadapi snbhav nahin, kyonki sabhi gyan anivaryat: savishesh hote hain.

nivartyapapatti

avidya ka nivaran bhi snbhav nahin hai, kyonki vah bhav roop hai aur bhav roop satta ka kabhi vinash nahin hota. is tarah mayavad ka khndan kar ramanuj yah pratipadit karate hain ki srishti vastavik hai. jagat ke padarth parinami hain, nashvar hain. par is adhar par unhen mithya nahin mana ja sakata.

ramanuj ke darshanik vichar

ramanuj ke anusar samast bhautik padarth achith ya prakriti ke hi parinam hain. yah manyata sankhy darshan men bhi hai. parantu usase ramanuj ka yah matabhed hai ki ye prakriti ko brahm ka ansh evn brahm dvara parichalit manate hain. brahm ki ichchha (vimarsh) se prakriti tej, jal evn prithvi men vibhakt hoti hai, jo kramash: saty, rajash evn tamash roop hain. inhin tin tatvon ke nana prakar ke sammishran se jagat ke sthool padarthon ki utpatti hoti hai. yah sammishran kriya trivritakaran kahalati hai.

brahm

yadi brahm ko jagat ka karan mana jae to yah prashn uthata hai ki poorn evn nirvikari brahm is apoorn evn vikarashil jagat ko kyon utpann karata hai. isi tarah chith evn achith brahm ke vastavik ansh hai to kya unake dosh evn vikar anshi brahm men dosh evn vikar utpann nahin karate. is visham sthiti se bachane ke lie ramanuj dehatm snbndh ko adhik spasht karate hain. jis tarah yatharth men sharirik vikaron se atma prabhavit nahin hoti. usi tarah deh roopi jagat ke vikaron se brahm prabhavit nahin hota hai. parantu yah vicharaniy hai ki kya is tarah ki vyakhya sntoshajanak hai. ramanuj jagat aur brahm ke snbndh ko dravy-gun bhav ke adhar par bhi samajhane ka prayas karate hain. unake anusar dravy sadaiv gunayukt hota hai. dravy gun snbndh dravy aur usake gunon se hi nahin apitu do dravyon ke bich bhi hota hai. udaharan ke taur par kisi dndadhari vyakti ke prasng men vyakti guni hai aur dnd usaka gun hai, parantu dnd apane ap men bhi ek dravy hai, jisake apane vishisht gun hain. dravy ka gun se bhed bhi hai aur abhed bhi. bhed ke hi karan brahm ki nirvikarata evn jagat ki savikarata siddh ki ja sakati hai, kyonki koee bhi vastu kisi dravy ka gun hoti hai to is adhar par nahin ki vah dravy ke saman svabhav vali hai, balki is adhar par ki vah dravy par poornataya adharit hoti hai. is tarah ramanuj jagat ka brahm se parthaky bhi siddh karate hain aur jagat ki brahm par nirbharata bhi pratipadit karate hai.

jiv

ramanuj ke anusar jiv brahm ka ansh hai, brahm par poornat: ashrit hai aur brahm usamen antaryami ke roop men sthit hai. moksh ki dasha men jiv brahm se ekakar nahin hota balki ekaroop hota hai. arthath jiv apana prithakh astitv rakhate hue brahm ki tarah annt gyan aur annt anand se yukt ho jata hai. yah jiv ki poornata ki sthiti hai, par yah brahm ke prabhutv ka hanan nahin karati, kyonki tab bhi vah brahm ke paryay evn ansh ke roop men hi rahata hai.

moksh

moksh ke sadhan ke roop men ramanuj karm, gyan evn bhakti ke samuchchay ka siddhant prastut karate hain. ye tinon ek doosare ke poorak evn antarng roop se snbndhit hain. ve bhakti ki is sadhana men sarvadhik mahattv dete hain, par yah bhav pradhan n hokar chintan pradhan hai, jise ve 'dhruvanusmriti' se pukarate hain. ve bhakti aur gyan ko abhinn manate hain. unake anusar sachcha gyan bhaktiroop hai aur sachchi bhakti gyanaroop.

ramanuj darshan ki sabase badi visheshata samanvayavadi drishtikon hai. eeshvaravad evn brahmavad, dharmik bhavana evn nanatv adi ki ekangi sthapanaon ke vyavasthit samanvay ka prayas yahan milata hai. isake alava lilavad ka sashakt samarthan tatha mayavad ka prabal virodh kar jiv jagat ki vastavikata ki sthapana karana unake darshan ki ek any visheshata hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

bhatt, daau. es.ar. vishv ke pramukh darshanik (hindi). bharatadiskavari pustakalay: vaigyanik tatha takaniki shabdavali ayog, nee dilli, 465.

  1. 1.0 1.1 vebaduniya hindi 14 mee 3013
  2. ya samanvay?
  3. vachaspati ka mat
  4. sarvgyatmamuni ka mat

snbndhit lekh


varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah