बाल गंगाधर तिलक  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bal gngadhar tilak vishay soochi
bal gngadhar tilak
Lokmanya-Bal-Gangadhar-Tilak.jpg
poora nam lokamany bal gngadhar tilak
janm 23 julaee, 1856
janm bhoomi ratnagiri, maharashtr
mrityu 1 agast, 1920
mrityu sthan bnbee (vartaman munbee), maharashtr
abhibhavak shri gngadhar ramachndr tilak
nagarikata bharatiy
parti kangres
shiksha snatak, vaqalat
vidyalay dekkan kaaulej, bnbee vishvavidyalay
bhasha hindi, snskrit, marathi, angrezi
jel yatra rajadroh ka muqadame men karavas
puraskar-upadhi 'lokamany'
vishesh yogadan indiyan homarool lig ki sthapana, dekkan ejukeshan sosaiti ka gathan
prasiddh vaky "svaraj hamara janmasiddh adhikar hai aur main ise lekar rahoonga."

bal gngadhar tilak (angrezi: Bal Gangadhar Tilak, janm- 23 julaee, 1856, ratnagiri, maharashtr; mrityu- 1 agast, 1920, munbee) vidvan, ganitgy, darshanik aur ugr rashtravadi vyakti the, jinhonne bharat ki svatntrata ki ninv rakhane men sahayata ki. unhonne 'indiyan homarool lig' ki sthapana sanh 1914 ee. men ki aur isake adhyaksh rahe tatha sanh 1916 men muhammad ali jinna ke sath lakhanoo samajhauta kiya, jisamen azadi ke lie sngharsh men hindoo-muslim ekata ka pravadhan tha.

jivan parichay

bal gngadhar tilak ka janm 23 julaee, sanh 1856 ee. ko bharat ke ratnagiri namak sthan par hua tha. inaka poora nam 'lokamany shri bal gngadhar tilak' tha. tilak ka janm ek susnskrit, madhyamavargiy brahman parivar men hua tha. unake pita ka nam 'shri gngadhar ramachndr tilak' tha. shri gngadhar ramachndr tilak pahale ratnagiri men sahayak adhyapak the aur phir poona tatha usake bad 'thane' men sahayak upashaikshik nirikshak ho ge the. ve apane samay ke atynt lokapriy shikshak the. unhonne 'trikonamiti' aur 'vyakaran' par pustaken likhin jo prakashit hueen. tathapi, vah apane putr ki shiksha-diksha poori karane ke lie adhik samay tak jivit nahin rahe. lokamany tilak ke pita 'shri gngadhar ramachndr tilak' ka sanh 1872 ee. men nidhan ho gaya.

shiksha

bal gngadhar tilak apane pita ki mrityu ke bad 16 varsh ki umr men anath ho ge. unhonne tab bhi bina kisi vyavadhan ke apani shiksha jari rakhi aur apane pita ki mrityu ke char mahine ke andar maitrik ki pariksha pas kar li. ve 'dekkan kaaulej' men bharti ho ge phir unhonne sanh 1876 ee. men bi.e. anars ki pariksha vahin se pas ki sanh 1879 ee. men unhonne bnbee vishvavidyalay se el.el.bi. ki pariksha pas ki aur qanoon ki padhaee karate samay unhonne 'agarakar' se dosti kar li jo bad men 'fargyusan kaaulej' ke prinsipal ho ge. donon doston ne is bat par vichar karate hue anek raten gujarin ki ve deshavasiyon ki seva ki kaun-si sarvottam yojana bana sakate hain.
elphinston kaaulej, munbee
ant men unhonne snkalp kiya ki ve kabhi sarakari naukari svikar nahin karenge tatha nee pidhi ko sasti aur achchhi shiksha pradan karane ke lie ek praivet haeeskool aur kaaulej chalaenge. unake sathi chhatr in adarshavadi baton par unaki hnsi udate the. lekin in upahason ya bahari kathinaiyon ka koee asar un donon utsahi yuvakon par nahin hua.

sarvajanik seva

tilak ji ne skool ke bhar se svayn ko mukt karane ke bad apana adhikansh samay sarvajanik seva men lagane ka nishchay kiya. ab unhen thodi phurasat mili thi. isi samay ladakiyon ke vivah ke lie sahamati ki ayu badhane ka vidheyak vaisaray ki parishad ke samane laya ja raha tha. tilak poore utsah se is vivad men kood pade, isalie nahin ki ve samaj-sudhar ke siddhanton ke virodhi the, balki isalie ki ve is kshetr men zor-jabaradasti karane ke viruddh the. sahamati ki ayu ka vidheyak, chahe isake uddeshy kitane hi prashnsaniy kyon n rahe hon, vastav men hindoo samaj men sarakari hastakshep se sudhar lane ka prayas tha. at: samaj-sudhar ke kuchh kattar samarthak isake viruddh the. is vishay men tilak ke drishtikon se poona ka samaj do bhagon, kattarapnthi aur sudharavadiyon men bnt gaya. donon ke bich ki khaee ne matabhedon evn ne jhagadon ke karan badhati gee.

vidyalay ki sthapana

usi samay inhin vicharon ke ek bujurg vyakti 'vishnu krishn chipaloonakar' unase mile- jo 'vishnu shastri' ke nam se jane jate the. unhonne unhin dinon sarakari naukari se istifa de diya tha, kyonki apane afasaron se unaki nahin banati thi. ve is nishchay ke sath poona ae the ki vahan ek praivet haeeskool chalaenge. ve marathi ke sarvottam gady-lekhak ke roop men prasiddh ho chuke the. tilak aur agarakar ne unaki yojana ko janane ke bad unake sath vichar-vimarsh kiya. bad men in tinon ke sath ek aur vyakti shamil ho gaya- 'em.bi. namajoshi', jo asadharan buddhi aur oorja se paripoorn the. chipaloonakar aur tilak ne namajoshi ki sahayata se 2 janavari, sanh 1880 ee. ko poona men 'nyoo inglish skool' shuroo kiya. 'vi.es. apte' ne joon men aur agarakar varsh ke ant men em.e. karane ke bad us skool men shamil ho ge. in panch adamiyon ne apani gatividhiyon ko skool tak hi simit nahin rakha.

pleg ki bimari

fargyusan kaaulej, pune

tilak ne pleg ki bimari ke dauran deshavasiyon ki jo seva ki, use bhi nahin bhulaya ja sakata. jaise hi poona men pleg ke lakshan prakat hue unhonne 'hindoo pleg aspatal' shuroo kiya aur kee dinon tak isake lie dhan jutane ka kary kiya. jahan poona ke adhikansh neta nagar chhodakar bhag ge the, tilak vahin rahe. unhonne logon ko dilasa-bharosa dilaya. ve khoji dalon ke sath svaynsevak ke roop men ge, aspatal ka prabndh kiya, prithakkaran shivir men ni:shulk rasoee ki vyavastha ki, aur janata ke samane a rahi kathinaiyon ke bare men shri rend tatha mahamahim gavarnar ko batate rahe. apane samacharapatron men unhonne pleg ki samapti ke lie sarakar dvara uthae ge vibhinn qadamon ka samarthan dridhata ke sath kiya, isi ke sath unhonne salah di ki in upayon ko sahanubhootipoorn aur maitripoorn dhng se lagoo kiya jae. unhonne janata ko salah di ki vah anavashyak virodh n kare.

samachar patr ka prakashan

isake bad unhonne do saptahik samachar patron, marathi men kesari aur angrezi men d maratha, ke madhyam se logon ki rajanitik chetana ko jagane ka kam shuroo kiya. in samachar patron ke zariye british shasan tatha udar rashtravadiyon ki, jo pashchimi tarz par samajik sudharon evn snvaidhanik tariqe se rajanitik sudharon ka paksh lete the, katu alochana ke lie vah vikhyat ho ge. unaka manana tha ki samajik sudhar men janashakti kharch karane se vah svadhinata ke rajanitik sngharsh men poori tarah nahin lag paegi.

bharatiy dakatikat men bal gngadhar tilak

un patron ne desi patrakarita ke kshetr men shighr hi apana vishesh sthan bana liya. vishnu shastri chipaloonakar ne in donon samacharapatron ke lie do mudranalay bhi sthapit kie. chhapaee ke lie 'ary bhooshan' aur 'lalit kala' ko protsahan dene ke vaste 'chitrashala' di gee. in gatividhiyon men kuchh samay ke lie panchon vyakti poori tarah vyast ho ge. unhonne in karyon ko age badhaya. 'nyoo inglish skool' ne shighr hi skoolon men pahala sthan prapt kar liya. 'maratha' aur 'kesari' bhi dekkan ke pramukh samacharapatr ban ge.

deshapremiyon ke is dal ko shighr hi agnipariksha men hokar gujarana pada. kesari aur maratha men prakashit kuchh lekhon men kolhapur ke tatkalin maharaja shivaji rav ke sath kie ge vyavahar ki kathor alochana ki gee thi. rajy ke tatkalin prashasak 'shri em. dablyoo. barve' ne is par maratha aur kesari ke snpadak ke roop men kramash: tilak aur shri agarakar ke viruddh manahani ka muqadama chala diya. kuchh samay bad in logon ki kathinaiyan aur badh geen kyonki jab yah mamala vicharadhin tha, tabhi 'shri vi.ke. chipaloonakar' ka dehant ho gaya. usake bad 'tilak' aur 'agarakar' ko doshi paya gaya. unhen char-char mahine ki sadharan qaid ki saza suna di gee.

dekkan ejukeshan sosaiti ka gathan

dekkan ejukeshan sosaiti

kolhapur snbndhi muqadame se skool aur donon samacharapatron ki lokapriyata men aur vriddhi huee. sabhi or se logon ne svechchha se sahayata pradan ki. shri chipaloonakar ki mrityu ke bad tilak kafi samay tak is chhote dal ke margadarshak aur 'shri namajoshi' sakriy sadasy rahe. sanh 1884 ee. ke uttarardh men unhonne svayn ko qanooni astitv dene ka nishchay kiya. unhonne is uddeshy ke lie 'dekkan ejukeshan sosaiti', poona ka gathan kiya aur ve is sosaiti ke pahale ajivan sadasy bane. shighr hi 'svargiy prophesar vi.vi. kelakar', 'prophesar dharap' aur 'prophesar em.es. gole' bhi ajivan sadasy ban ge. bad men 'prophesar gokhale', 'prophesar bhane' aur 'prophesar patanakar' bhi ajivan sadasy bane.

phargyusan kaaulej ki sthapana

san 1885 ee. men 'dekkan ejukeshan sosaiti' ke tatvavadhan men 'phargyusan kaaulej' ki sthapana ki gee aur sabhi ajivan sadasyon ne is kaaulej men 20 varsh tak prophesar ke roop men kam karane ki svikriti di. sosaiti ki snsthaain shighr hi samriddh ho geen. unhonne 'gadrevada' aur 'kabootarakhana khel ka maidan' kharid liya. sar jems fargusan ki sarakar ke vayade ke anusar bad men laaurd re ne sosaiti ko nanavada saunp diya. sosaiti ne 'chaturashrringi' ke samip kaaulej ke lie ek bhavy imarat ka nirman kiya. tathapi, skool aur kaaulej ke sath tilak ka snbndh sanh 1890 ee. men samapt ho gaya. ve karan jinaki vazah se ye snbndh samapt hue, anek aur alag-alag the. vastav men vighatan ki prakriya kafi pahale shuroo ho gee thi. 'vishnu shastri' ke jivan kal men hi 'chitrashala' ek svatntr pratishthan ho gaya tha.

lala lajapat ray, balagngadhar tilak aur bipinachndr pal

tilak aur agarakar ke bich matabhed

san 1888 ee. ke dauran tilak aur agarakar ke bich samajik aur dharmik prashnon par matabhed shuroo ho ge the. inake karan 'shri agarakar' ne 'kesari' ke sampadak pad se istifa de diya aur apane patr sudharak ka prakashan shuroo kiya. isi samay yah spasht ho gaya ki skool aur kaaulej tatha samacharapatron ke hit ek se nahin hain. at: unaka vibhajan kar diya gaya, jisake anusar 'ary bhooshan pres' aur do samacharapatr tilak, pro. kelakar aur ech.en. gokhale ki snpatti ban ge. pro. kelakar donon patron ke prabhari snpadak bana die ge.

ajivan sadasyon ka acharan

yah sthiti sanh 1890 ee. tak rahi aur anishchitakal tak chalati rahati, agar ne matabhedon ke karan snbndhon ki darar adhik nahin badhati. ye matabhed mukhy roop se un siddhanton ke bare men the, jinase ajivan sadasyon ka acharan aur skool ka prabndh niyntrit hota tha. yah sthiti sanh 1889 ee. men 'pro. gokhale' ke sarvajanik sabha ka sadasy banane se paida huee. tilak shuroo se hi is mat ke the ki ajivan sadasyon ko 'jesuit padariyon' ki tarah sada jivan bitana chahie aur apana snpoorn samay tatha oorja adhyapan-kary men lagani chahie. unake adhikatar sahayogi is bat se sahamat nahin the.

sosaiti se tyagapatr

tilak ke vicharon se unake adhikatar sahayogiyon ke sahamat n hone ke karan tilak ne navnbar, sanh 1890 ee. men apana tyagapatr bhej kar sosaiti se apane sabhi snbndh samapt kar liye. prophesar ke roop men tilak atynt lokapriy the. ve ganit ke sthayi prophesar the aur bich-bich men snskrit tatha vigyan ke prophesar ke roop men bhi kary karate the. maulikata aur ek-ek bat ka dhyan rakhana unaka adarsh vaky tha aur ve jo bhi vishay padhate the usamen unake chhatron ko kabhi bhi shikayat karane ka avasar nahin milata tha. ganitgy ke roop men unaka javab nahin tha aur ve apane chhatron ko aksar 'dekkan kaaulej' ke 'pro. chhatre' ki yad dilate the, jo tilak ke guru bhi the.

kaaulej se istifa dene ke bad tilak ne qanoon ki kaksha shuroo ki. yah 'bnbee presidensi' men apane dhng ka pahala shaikshanik snsthan tha jo chhatron ko haeekort aur vaqalat ki pariksha ke lie taiyar karata tha. unhonne 'kesari' ka bhar bhi apane oopar le liya.

ekamatr malik

Blockquote-open.gif "lekhak namrata ke sath soochit karata hai ki rigved ka rachanakal eesa ke janm se char hazar varsh pahale se kam nahin ho sakata aur hindoo parnpara ke sath isaka kal eesa ke 6000 varsh poorv hona chahie. hinduon ko prachur kalpana-shakti, ke bare men kuchh bhi svikar karane ki pravritti ko dhyan men rakh kar mainne socha ki main pustak ke kuchh panne ulat kar use muskurahat ke sath alag rakh doonga. lekin kuchh hi samay bad meri muskurahat gayab ho gee aur mujhe laga ki koee asadharan ghatana ho gee hai. sabase pahale main lekhak ki is bat se prabhavit hua ki unhonne vaidik sahity aur is vishay se snbndhit pashchaty sahity ka gnbhir adhyayan kiya hai. shighr hi mera satahi adhyayan gnbhir adhyayan men badal gaya. upahas ki bhavana ke sthan par main lekhak ki baton ka kayal hone laga. nissndeh yah pustak sahity ke kshetr men sanasani paida karane vali hai. tilak ki khoj ke parinamon ko samajhane men kafi samay lagega." Blockquote-close.gif

- da. bloomaphild

pro. kelakar varsh ke ant tak 'maratha' ke snpadak bane rahe, parntu shighr hi unhen pro. kelakar ko samacharapatr ke sath apana snbndh poori tarah samapt kar dena pada. tab tilak donon patron ke snpadak ban be. ek varsh in donon ke bich pres aur samacharapatron ka vibhajan ho gaya. tilak 'kesari' aur 'maratha' samacharapatron ke ekamatr malik aur snpadak ho ge. pro. kelakar aur shri gokhale 'ary bhooshan pres' ke malik rahe. donon samacharapatron ko apane janm ke bad is tarah anek utar-chadhavon se guzarana pada. tilak dvara kesari ko snbhalane ke bad usaki grahak snkhya men tezi se vriddhi huee. tab isaki grahak snkhya desh ke kisi bhi any samacharapatr ki grahak snkhya se bahut adhik thi.

svatntrata sngram

naram dal ke lie tilak ke vichar

bharatiy rashtriy kangres ke naram dal ke lie tilak ke vichar zara zyada hi ugr the. naram dal ke log chhote sudharon ke lie sarakar ke pas vafadar pratinidhimndal bhejane men vishvas rakhate the. tilak ka lakshy svaraj tha, chhote- mote sudhar nahin aur unhonne kangres ko apane ugr vicharon ko svikar karane ke lie razi karane ka prayas kiya. is mamale par sanh 1907 ee. men kangres ke 'soorat adhiveshan' men naram dal ke sath unaka sngharsh bhi hua. rashtravadi shaktiyon men phoot ka labh uthakar sarakar ne tilak par rajadroh aur atnkavad failane ka arop lagakar unhen chhah varsh ke karavas ki saza de di aur mandale, barma, vartaman myanmar men nirvasit kar diya. 'mandale jel' men tilak ne apani mahanh kriti 'bhagavadgita - rahasy' ka lekhan shuroo kiya, jo hinduon ki sabase pavitr pustak ka mool tika hai. tilak ne bhagavadgita ke is roodhivadi sar ko kharij kar diya ki yah pustak sannyas ki shiksha deti hai; unake anusar, isase manavata ke prati ni:svarth seva ka sndesh milata hai.

indiyan homarool lig ki sthapana

indiyan homarool lig ke samiti sadasy
pratham vishvayuddh ke thik pahale sanh 1914 ee. men riha hone par vah pun: rajaniti men kood pade aur
'svaraj hamara janmasiddh adhikar hai aur main ise lekar rahoonga' - bal gngadhar tilak
ke nare ke sath indiyan homarool lig ki sthapana ki. sanh 1916 ee. men vah phir se kangres men shamil ho ge tatha hinduon aur musalamanon ke bich hue aitihasik lakhanoo samajhaute par hastakshar kie, jo unake evn pakistan ke bhavi snsthapak muhammad ali jinna ke bich hua tha, 'indiyan homarool lig' ke adhyaksh ke roop men tilak sanh 1918 men inglaind ge. unhonne mahasoos kiya ki briten ki rajaniti men 'lebar parti' ek udiyaman shakti hai, isalie unhonne usake netaon ke sath ghanishth snbndh qayam kie. unaki dooradrishti sahi sabit huee. sanh 1947 ee. men 'lebar sarakar' ne hi bharat ki svatntrata ko mnzoori di. tilak pahale vyakti the, jinhonne kaha tha ki bharatiyon ko videshi shasan ke sath sahayog nahin karana chahie, is bat se vah barabar inkar karate rahe ki unhonne hinsa ke prayog ko ukasaya.

smaranotsav andolan

tilak sanh 1895 ee. men 'shivaji smaranotsav andolan' ke sath jud ge. us varsh 23 aprail ke 'kesari' men prakashit ek lekh se janata men itana utsah jagrit hua ki rayagadh men shivaji ki samadhi ke punarnirman ke lie thode hi samay men 20,000 roo. ekatr ho ge. isamen se adhikansh paisa chhote-chhote chndon se prapt hua tha.
bal gngadhar tilak
usi samay se shivaji ke janmadivas aur rajyabhishek par bhi samaroh manae jane lage. jab sanh 1895 ee. ke krisamas ke dauran poona men rashtriy kangres ka gyarahavan adhiveshan karane ka nishchay kiya gaya to poona ki sabhi partiyon ne sarvasammati se tilak ko 'svagat samiti' ka sachiv banaya. is haisiyat se 'kangres adhiveshan' ke ayojan ka sabhi kam tilak ko karana pada. unhonne sitnbar tak kary kiya. jab is vishay par vivad ho gaya ki kya kangres ke pndal men samajik parishad bhi hogi to parti men jabaradast jhagada ho gaya jisake karan tilak ne svayn ko is kam se alag kar liya. tathapi, unhonne kangres ki gatividhiyon men dilachaspi lena band nahin kiya, balki bahar rahakar kangres adhiveshan ko saphal banane ka poora prayas kiya.

akal ka prabhav

san1896 ee. men 'bnbee presidensi' ko bhnyakar akal ka samana karana pada. tilak poori tarah rahat-karyon men jut ge. unhonne akal- snhita (phaimin kod) lagoo karane ka agrah 'bnbee sarakar' se kiya. akal ka prabhav kam karane ke lie unhonne sarakar ko anek sujhav bhi die. agar un sujhavon ko svikar kar liya jata to logon ki taqalifen kafi kam ho jatin. poona men unhonne samay se saste anaj ki dukanen kholakar akal ke karan hone vale dngon ko roka. jab unhonne sholapur aur ahamadanagar ke bunakaron ki taqalifon ke bare men suna to ve svayn mauke par ge aur unhonne sthaniy netaon ke sath vichar-vimarsh karake ek yojana banaee. isake antargat sthaniy samitiyon ko sarakar ke sath sahayog karake is varg ke logon ko upayukt rahat pradan karane ko kaha gaya. yah yojana vaisi hi thi, jaisi uttar pashchim prant ke uparajyapal ne svikar ki thi. durbhagyavash is vishay par bnbee sarakar ke asahanubhootipoorn acharan ke karan yah yojana svikar nahin ki gee aur yahi nahin, bnbee sarakar ne is tarah ki yojanaon ko mnzoori dene ki vyavastha men snshodhan kar diya. sarakar ki narazagi ka karan yah tha ki 'poona sarvajanik sabha', jisake pramukh neta tilak the, ne janata ko un riyasaton se parichit karaya tha, jise qanoon ke antargat ve pane ke adhikari the. isake alava, sabha ne sarakar adhikariyon ko achchha nahin laga. sabha ne sarakar ko anek prativedan bheje, lekin unaka ya to snkshipt aur rookha javab mila ya koee javab mila hi nahin, aur antat: is par poore taur par pabndi laga di gee. yah sab apratyaksh roop se tilak par dabav banane ke lie kiya gaya tha, lekin ve nirbhar hokar adhikadhik kary karate rahe.

lekhak ke roop men

karmayog shastr -shrimadbhagavatagitarahasy

tilak apana sara samay halake-phulake lekhan men lagane vale vyakti nahin the. unhonne ab apane khali samay ka upayog kisi achchhe kary men lagane ka snkalp lekar use apani priy pustakon bhagavadgita aur rigved ke pathan-pathan men lagaya. vedon ke kal-nirdharan se snbndhit apane anusndhan ke parinamasvaroop unhonne vedon ki prachinata par ek nibndh likha. jo ganit-jyotishiy avalokan ke pramanon par adharit tha. unhonne is nibndh ka saransh intaraneshanal kangres aauph orientalist ke pas bheja jo sanh 1892 ee. men lndan men huee. agale varsh unhonne is poore nibndh ko pustakakar men di oriaaun ya di risarch inatu d entikviti aauph d vedaj shirshak ke antargat prakashit kiya. unhonne is pustak men oriaaun ki grik parnpara aur 'lakshatrapunj' ke snskrit arth 'agrayan ya agrahayan' ke bich snbndh ko dhoondha hai. kyonki agrahayan shabd ka arth varsh ka prarnbh hai, ve is natije par pahunchate hain ki rigved ke sabhi srot jinamen is shabd ka sndarbh hai ya isake sath jo bhi vibhinn parnparaen judi thin, ki rachana grik logon ke hinduon se prithakh hone se poorv ki gee hogi.

pustak 'd arkatik hom in d vedas'

yah vah samay raha hoga, jab varsh ka prarnbh soory ke oriaaun ya mrigashira nakshatr punj men rahate samay arthath eesa se 4000 varsh pahale hua hoga. is pustak ki prashnsa yoorop aur ameriki vidvanon ne ki. ab yah kaha ja sakata hai ki tilak ke nishkarshon ko lagabhag sabhi ne svikar kar liya hai. anek prachyavidon, jaiseki - maiksamular, vebar, jekobi, aur vitane ne lekhak ki vidvata aur maulikata ko svikar kiya hai. pustak ke prakashan ke bad tilak ne kuchh samay tak prophesar maiksamular aur vebar ke sath pustak men uthae ge kuchh bhasha-vigyaniy prashnon par dostana patr vyavahar kiya. isake parinamasvaroop donon paksh is bat par sahamat hue ki is vishay ke paksh aur vipaksh men bahut kuchh kaha ja sakata hai.

tilak ki pustak ki prashnsa

amerika ke pro. vitane ne sanh 1894 ee. men apani mrityu se kuchh pahale ‘jarnal aauph di amarikan oriental sosaiti’ men ek lekh likh kar tilak ke siddhanton ki bhoori-bhoori prashnsa ki thi. isi tarah 'jaaun haaupakins yoonivarsiti' ke 'da. bloomaphild' ne ek varshikotsav men bhashan karate hue tilak ki pustak ki prashnsa in shabdon men ki thi-

bloomaphild ke shabdon men tilak ki pustak ki prashnsa

‘‘pichhale do-tin mahine ke dauran atyadhik mahattv ki ek sahityik ghatana huee hai- ek aisi ghatana, jo nishchay hi anndadayak smritiyon se adhik vigyan aur snskriti ki duniya men uthal-puthal macha degi. lagabhag das saptah pahale mujhe bharat se ek chhote akar ki pustak mili. usaki saj-sajja bhaddi thi aur sthaniy pres men chhapaee ke karan usamen anek galatiyan thin. yah pustak mujhe lekhak ne, jisase mera koee parichay nahin tha, shubhakamanaon ke sath bheji thi. mainne lekhak ka nam kabhi bhi nahin suna tha. bal gngadhar tilak, bi.e. el.el.bi, laau ke lekcharar aur vaqil, poona. is pustak ka prakashan shrimati radhabaee atmaram saigoon, pustak-vikreta aur prakashak, bnbee ne kiya hai. pustak ka shirshak hai ‘oriaaun ya risarchej inatu d entikviti aauph vedaz’. mere pas yah pustak mujhe isake paksh men karane ke lie nahin bheji gee thi. mainne ise ek aisi jagah par rakh diya, jahan se main ise ratri-bhoj ke bad asani se utha sakoon aur kuchh prishth padhane ke bad alag rakh sakoon. dak ke jarie is tarah ki bahut-si-samagri mere pas pahunchati rahati hai.

bal gngadhar tilak

isaki bhoomika bahut utsahavardhak nahin thi. lekhak namrata ke sath soochit karata hai ki rigved ka rachanakal eesa ke janm se char hazar varsh pahale se kam nahin ho sakata aur hindoo parnpara ke sath isaka kal eesa ke 6000 varsh poorv hona chahie. hinduon ko prachur kalpana-shakti, ke bare men kuchh bhi svikar karane ki pravritti ko dhyan men rakh kar mainne socha ki main pustak ke kuchh panne ulat kar use muskurahat ke sath alag rakh doonga. lekin kuchh hi samay bad meri muskurahat gayab ho gee aur mujhe laga ki koee asadharan ghatana ho gee hai. sabase pahale main lekhak ki is bat se prabhavit hua ki unhonne vaidik sahity aur is vishay se snbndhit pashchaty sahity ka gnbhir adhyayan kiya hai. shighr hi mera satahi adhyayan gnbhir adhyayan men badal gaya. upahas ki bhavana ke sthan par main lekhak ki baton ka kayal hone laga. nissndeh yah pustak sahity ke kshetr men sanasani paida karane vali hai. tilak ki khoj ke parinamon ko samajhane men kafi samay lagega." agar tilak tatkal usi disha men age badhate rahate aur un anek prashnon ka samadhan khozate, jo unaki pustak men anuttarit rah ge the to achchha hota, lekin laau lekcharar aur patrakarita vyavasay ke karan unako bhashashastr aur itihas se snbndhit prashnon par dhyan dene ke lie paryapt samay nahin mil pata tha.

tilak aur muqadama

bapat kes

tilak sanh 1894 ee. men ek mahattvapoorn mamale men vyast ho ge. is mamale ke sath unake ek mitr aur 'badauda riyasat', donon ke vyapak hit jude the. yah prasiddh ‘bapat kes’ tha. 'rav sahab dablyoo. es. bapat', jo bndobast vibhag ke adhyaksh the, par bhrashtachar ke anek aropon par muqadama chalane ke lie vishesh ayog niyukt kiya gaya tha. yah kes bndobast vibhag ke viruddh ek shadyntr ka natija tha. yah shadyntr vastav men 'british ‘paaulitikal’ vibhag ka karanama tha. shri bapat ke muhqadame ki kuchh visheshataen thin. yah muqadama maharaj ke pith-pichhe chalaya ja raha tha. ve yoorop ke daure par the. maharaja ke shatruon ko asha thi ki muhqadame ke dauran kuchh aisi baten prakat ki jaengi jinase maharaj ki prashasan kshamata par chot pahunchegi. log keval bndobast vibhag se hi naraz nahin the, balki ve kee uchch adhikariyon se bhi naraz the. yah spasht tha ki shri bapat ko bali ka bakara banaya ja raha tha. unhen n keval apane aparadhon ki, balki doosaron ke aparadhon ki bhi saza di jani thi. abhiyojan paksh ki or se mananiy 'pi.em. mehata' aur bad men bairistar 'shri brensan' aur bachav paksh ke lie 'shri em.si. apte' aur 'shri di.e. khare' vaqil the. lekin bachav ka adhikansh bhar tilak par tha. abhiyojan paksh ke gavahon se ki gee jirah aur bachav paksh ke lie die ge unake akaty tark unaki mehanat aur yogyata ke jite-jagate praman hain.

panch adhiveshan

tilak ki gatividhiyan samakalin rajaniti men thami nahin. ab ve 'rashtriy kangres ki dekkan sthayi samiti' ke sachiv nahin rahe the, lekin 'bnbee prantiy sammelan' ke sachiv ke roop men unhonne usake panch adhiveshan ayojit kie. panchavan adhiveshan 'shri pi.em. mehata' ki adhyakshata men sanh 1892 ee. men ayojit kiya gaya aur poori tarah saphal raha.

rajadroh ka muqadama

tilak ne snkat ki ghadi men janata ko bhagy ke bharose chhod dene ke lie poona ke netaon ki alochana ki. tilak ki gatividhiyon ne jaldi hi unhen british sarakar ke sath takarav ki sthiti men la khada kiya. lekin unaki sarvajanik sevaain unhen muqadame aur utpidan se nahin bacha sakin. sanh 1897 ee. men un par pahali bar rajadroh ka muqadama chalaya gaya. sarakar ne un par rajadroh ka arop lagakar unhen jel bhej diya is muqadame aur saza ke karan unhen lokamany [1] ki upadhi mili. bharat ke vaisaraauy laaurd karzan ne jab sanh 1905 ee. men bngal ka vibhajan kiya, to tilak ne bngaliyon dvara is vibhajan ko radd karane ki mang ka zoradar samarthan kiya aur british vastuon ke bahishkar ki vaqalat ki, jo jaldi hi ek deshavyapi andolan ban gaya. agale varsh unhonne satyagrah ke karyakram ki rooparekha banaee, jise ne dal ka siddhant [2]kaha jata tha. unhen ummid thi ki isase british shasan ka sammohanakari prabhav khatm hoga aur log svatntrata prapti hetu balidan ke lie taiyar honge. tilak dvara shuroo ki gee rajanitik gatividhiyon, videshi vastuon ka bahishkar aur satyagrah ko bad men mohanadas karamachnd gandhi ne angrezon ke sath ahinsak asahayog andolan men apanaya.

tilak ko jamanat

shri rend aur lephtinent ayarst ki hatya kuchh agyat logon dvara 22 joon ko kar di gee. isase bnbee aur poona men, vishesh roop se 'englo indiyan samuday' men jabaradast uttejana faili. 26 julaee ko bnbee sarakar ne tilak par muqadama chalane ki mnjoori pradan ki aur 27 julaee ko poorvi bhashaon ke anuvadak shri beg ne bnbee ke 'chiph presidensi majistret' shri je. sendars sletar ke samane soochana rakhi. 27 julaee ki rat men tilak ko bnbee men giraftar kar liya gaya aur doosare din unhen majistret ke samane pesh kiya gaya. isake phauran bad majistret ke samane zamanat ki arji dakhil ki gee. sarakar ne dridhata aur saphalata ke sath isaka virodh kiya.

29 tarikh ko isi tarah ki ek arji uchch nyayalay men dakhil ki gee, jise phir se avedan karane ki anumati ke sath asvikar kar diya gaya. 2 agast ko yah kes haee kort seshan ke supard kar diya gaya aur adhyaksh nyayadhish, nyayamoorti badaruddin taiyabaji ke samane jamanat ki arji phir dakhil ki thi. zamanat ki arji ka prabal virodh edavoket janaral ne kiya lekin nyayadhish ne tilak ko zamanat de di.

muqadame ki sunavaee

bal gngadhar tilak ka muqadama, baaumbe uchch nyayalay (1897)

yah muqadama uchit samay par, 8 sitnbar ko sunavaee ke lie aya. sunavaee ek saptah tak chali. kalakatta bar ke shri pyoo aur unaki sahayata ke lie shri garth bachav paksh men tilak ki or se aur edavoket janaral shri besil lag abhiyojan paksh ki or se the. nyayamoorti straichi ne muqadamen ki sunavaee ki. joori ke sadasy the panch yooropiy eesaee, ek yooropiy yahoodi, do hindoo aur ek parasi. joori ke chhah yooropiy sadasyon ne aropi ko doshi thaharaya, jabaki tin deshi sadasyon ne unhen nirdosh mana. nyayadhish ne bahumat ke nirnay ko svikar kar liya aur tilak ko atharah mahine ki kadi qaidi ki saza sunaee. jab joori ke sadasy apane nirnay par vichar karane ke lie chale ge the, abhiyukt ki or se nyayadhish ko avedan diya gaya ki qanoon ke kuchh prashn poori bainch ke vichararth surakshit kar die jaen. is avedan ko svikar nahin kiya gaya. bad men 'edavoket janaral' ko diya gaya isi tarah ka ek prarthanapatr namnjoor kar diya gaya. 17 sitnbar, sanh 1897 ee. ko uchch nyayalay se yah pramanapatr jari karane ka anurodh kiya gaya ki yah kes 'privi kaunsil' men apil karane yogy hai is avedan ki sunavaee mukhy nyayadhish sar charls phairan, nyayamoorti kaindi aur nyayamoorti straichi ne ki aur use asvikar kar diya.

nyay ki apil

privi kaunsil men nyay ki apil ki gee. mananiy shri esakvith ne, jo bad men inglaind ke pradhanamntri hue, 19 navnbar, 1897 ko tilak ki apil par bahas ki. laaurd helsabari, laaurd chansalar [3] jo us samay inglaind ke kaibinet mntri the, lik se hatakar kaunsil ki baithak ki adhyakshata karane ge. sabhi ko pata tha ki kaibinet ke ek any mntri [4] ne is muqadamen ko chalane ki mnjoori di thi. shri esakvith ne apani bahas men is bat par bahut zor diya ki nyayamoorti straichi ne joori ko galat nirdesh die the. lekin privi kaunsil ne samoochi gavahi ke sar aur vivaran par vichar karane ke bad faisale men parivartan karane layaq koee bat nahin paee. parinamasvaroop apil karane ki anumati dene ka prarthanapatr namnjoor kar diya gaya.

is prakar tilak ke lie nyay pane ke sabhi raste bnd ko ge. lekin in ghatanaon ka gahara asar briten ki janata par pada. pro0 maiksamular aur sar viliyam hntar ne apani vishal hridayata ke sath, jo unake charitr ka abhinn pahaloo tha, maharani ko ek prativedan bhejane ka ayojan kiya. is par mahattvapoorn vyaktiyon ke hastakshar the. is prativedan men anurodh kiya gaya tha ki tilak ke prati is adhar par daya pradarshit ki jaen ki ve ek vidvanh hain aur unaki rihaee ke paksh men bahut kuchh kaha ja sakata hai. any baton ke sath is prarthanapatr ka asar hua aur batachit ke bad tilak kuchh aupacharik sharten [5] manane ke lie taiyar ho ge aur unhen mngalavar 6 sitnbar, 1898 ko 'bnbee ke mahamahim garvanar' ke adeshon par chhod diya gaya.

rihaee ke bad

tilak karavas men atyadhik durbal ho ge the. apana svasthy sudharane ke lie unhonne pahale kuchh din 'sinhagadh senitoriyam' [6] men bitae, disnbar men madras men bharatiy rashtriy kangres men shamil hone ke bad unhonne shrilnka ka daura kiya. apane andolan ko jahan chhoda tha, vahin se use phir shuroo karane aur age badhane men agale do varsh unhonne lagae. unake bahut se kam unake jel jane ke karan ruk ge the. rayagadh qile men sanh 1900 ee. men ek vishal ‘shivaji mahotsav’ ayojit kiya gaya. shivaji ki smriti ko sthayi banane ke lie ek smarak banane ki disha men bhi kuchh kam age badha. lekin kisi bhi any kary se adhik mahattvapoorn unaka vedon ki prachinata-snbndhi kary tha.

d arkatik hom in di vedaz

‘oriaaun’ par pustak ke prakashan ke bad unhen yah kary karane ki zaroorat gaharaee se mahasoos ho rahi thi. apani nee pustak, d arkatik hom in di vedaj ki prastavana men unhonne likha ki pichhale das varshon ke dauran mera kafi samay un pramanon ki khoj men laga hai, jo vedon par chhae kuhare ko utha denge aur tab un par gahari drishti dali ja sakegi. isake bad unhonne ‘oriaaun’ men vyakt vicharadhara ko age badhate hue kam shuroo kiya. manushy jati ke adikalin itihas se snbndhit bhoovigyan aur puratattv ki navinatam khozon ke adhyayan ke bad vah ek alag tarah ki khoj ki or dhire-dhire badhe aur antat: is natije par pahunche ki vaidik rishiyon ke poorvaj himani yug men uttar dhruviy kshetr men rahate the. jel men apane jabaran avakash ka upayog unhonne rigved ke snpoorn snskaran jise unake pas 'prophesar maiksamoolar' ne bheja tha, ki sahayata se apane in siddhanton ko vikasit karane men kiya.

nee pustak ka prakashan

nee pustak ki pahali pandulipi sinhagadh men sanh 1898 ee. ke ant men likhi gee, lekin tilak ne janaboojhakar isaka prakashan der se kiya. ve is vishay men bharat ke snskrit vidvanon se vichar-vimarsh karana chahate the, kyonki khoj anek dishaon men mud rahi thi. pustak march, sanh 1903 ee. men prakashit ki gee. sarvatr isaka svagat hua. usake bare men keval ek vidvanh 'bostan vishvavidyalay' ke adhyaksh aur ‘peradaij phaund’ ke lekhak 'daau. eph. dablyoo. varen' ke vicharon ko yahan uddhrit kiya ja raha hai, jo sitnbar sanh 1905 ee. ki opan kort maigajin, shikago men prakashit hue the.

bal gngadhar tilak apane parivar ke sath

daau. eph. dablyoo. varen ke tilak ke prati vichar

‘‘yahan keval yah kahana paryapt hai ki vartaman lekhak ne apani ray ke samarthan men jo praman die hain, ve isake pahale kisi bharatiy ya eerani vidvanh dvara kisi parikalpana ko siddh karane ke lie die ge pramanon se adhik nirnayak hain. vishay ki vivechana karate hue shuroo se lekar akhir tak poori spashtavadita aur aitihasik evn vaigyanik khoj ke taur-tariqon ka poora samman kiya gaya hai. shuroo men main yah sochata tha ki isake sach hone ki snbhavana bahut kam hai lekin isake paksh men jo praman ekatr kie ge unake karan mujhe ise svikar karana pada.

bis varsh pahale manav jati ke mool sthan snbndhi shodh karate samay mainne sabhi vaidik aur avesta-snbndhi rachanaen us samay tak upalabdh unake anuvad padhe aur main usi natije par pahuncha jis par tilak pahunche hain. mere tark men prachin eeraniyon ke pauranik bhoogol aur brahmand-varnan ke kuchh binduon par nee roshani dali gee thi. mere is kary ko eerani vishayon ke achary prophesar spigel ne svikar kiya. mainne thahare hue jal aur any vaidik mithakon ki bhi nee vyakhya ki. at: mere lie yah vishesh roop se prasannata ka vishay tha ki tilak bhi lagabhag unhin mukhy nishkarshon par aur anek gaun nishkarshon par pahunche, jin par main pahuncha tha. ullekhaniy hai ki tilak apani khoj ke lie in grnthon ke anuvad par nahin balki unake moolapath par nirbhar the. sudoor desh men rahane vale is vyakti ko main sarvajanik roop se dhanyavad dena chahata hoon, jisane is kshetr men mere kary ki sarahana karane ki udarata pradarshit ki. is kshetr men unaka kam thos, mohak aur adhik adhikarik hai. jo koee bhi manoyog ke sath is pustak ko aur jaaun o. nil ki pustak, di nait aph gads ko padhega, vah kabhi bhi yah saval nahin poochhega ki aryon ka adi desh kahan tha."

taee maharaj ka muqadama

jab tilak ki nee pustak janata ke lie jari huee, tab 'bnbee sarakar' ke sujhav par ve ek aur muqadame taee maharaj kes men phnse hue the. is kes ne sanh 1901 ee. se tilak ka sara samay le liya tha. isake karan unhen n keval yntranadayak sharirik kasht, balki manasik utpidan bhi bhogana pada aur hazaron rupaye ki hani bhi uthani padi.

bal gngadhar tilak
Bal Gangadhar Tilak

is muqadame ki snkshipt kahani is prakar hai - poona ke ek pratham shreni ke saradar shri baba maharaj ne tilak ko apane estet ke char trastiyon men se mukhy trasti bana rakha tha. rajadroh ke muqadame men uchch nyayalay dvara tilak ko zamanat par chhode jane ke kuchh din bad, 7 agast sanh 1897 ee. ko baba maharaj ka svargavas ho gaya. durbhagy kabhi akele nahin ata. vichitr snyog yah hua ki jis din apani rihaee ke bad tilak bnbee se laute, mrityu shaiyya par lete maharaj ne unhen bulavaya aur is bat par zor diya ki ve unaki vasiyat ke nishpadak banen. tilak is bhari zimmedari ko lene ke lie taiyar ho ge. unhen asha thi ki unake aisa karane se maharaj ke parivar ko rinamukt kiya ja sakega aur rinamukt estet uttaradhikari ko sonpa ja sakega. usake bad tilak ne yah kam hath men lene par paya ki do mamalon ki or tatkal dhyan dena avashyak hai. pahala tha rinon ki samapti aur kharch men kami tatha doosara tha taee maharaj ke lie god lene ki vyavastha. kyonki us samay fail rahe pleg ke karan shahar men manav jivan khatare men tha, aur 'taee maharaj' ekamatr aisi mahila thin jo apane pati ke lie ladaka god le sakati thin. rinon ki samapti ka arth tha kharchon men kami aur bachat. taee maharaj ko yah pasnd n tha. vidhava yuvati tilak ke nek iradon se parichit thin. unhonne shuroo men ‘estet’ ke namamatr ke pratinidhi ke roop men apani sthiti ko saharsh svikar kiya. istet ka vastavik aur prabhavi svamitv to unake pati dvara vasiyat men niyukt trastiyon ke pas tha. lekin taee maharaj shighr hi apane priy prabhari ke prabhav men a geen. usane unhen sikhaya ki ve ‘estet’ ki nyayapoorn adhikari hain aur ek balak ko god lekar unhen unake adhikaron se vnchit kiya ja raha hai. kuchh lutere bhi vahan the, jo ukt vidhava ko madhur baton se baragalakar unake atynt priy ho ge the. ve bhavishy men ek penshanar aur estet par ashrit ke roop men unaki bhavi halat ke kamazor pahaluon ka badha-chadha kar varnan karate the. unaka yah bhi kahana tha ki agar ve dridh ichchhashakti dikhaain to hamesha ke lie azad ho sakati hain, us ladake ke sath aisi vyavastha kar sakati hain ki vah hamesha agyakari balak ki tarah acharan kare aur zayadad ka prabndh is prakar se kare ki bhavishy men unaka [7] aur unake priy evn sakriy salahakaron ka kalyan hota rahen garibi men ji rahe anek ladake is halat men bhi aisi zayadad ke lie god liye jane lie taiyar ho jaenge.

unake bhaee is tarah ki sthiti men atyadhik prasann honge kyonki unake poorvajon ki snpatti ka kam se kam ek varis kam ho jaega. is abhagi mahila ke mamale men bhi aisa hi hua. kharch men kami se vah chintit hueen, aur nagapurakar aur kolhapur ke pndit maharaj ke netritv men sidvantahin (beeeman) parti ke shadayntr ka shikar ban geen. in logon ne yah santh-ganth rachi ki taee maharaj pndit ke bhaee bala maharaj ko god le len. lekin n to taee maharaj ko aur n nagapurakar ko yah himmat thi ki ve khulakar trastiyon ko virodh karen. taee maharaj ko is bat ka pakka vishvas tha ki trasti koee aisa kam nahin karenge jisase unako niji labh hoga aur ya unake pati dvara chalae ge bhalaee ke karyon men badha pahunche. itana spasht hai ki 18 joon, sanh 1901 ee. tak unake bich koee matabhed nahin tha. isi din ye sab log aurngabad ke lie ravana hue, jahan antat: maharaj parivar ki babare shakha ke ek ladake ko taee maharaj ne god liya.

aurngabad se lautane ke bad taee maharaj bure salahakaron ke prabhav men a geen. in logon ne unhen is bat ke lie taiyar kar liya ki ve apane pati ki vasiyat ke pramanapatr ko kharij karava den yah is asha men kiya gaya ki ve svatntr aur apani manamarji ki malakin ho jaengi. yah avedan poona zila ke jaj shri estan ko 29 julaee, sanh 1901 ee. ko diya gaya.

is avedan par karravaee us tarikh se 3 aprail, 1902 tak chali. is avadhi men adalat ki kuchh 344 baithaken huee inamen se 14 men tilak se jirah ki gee. yah kary shri estan aur taee maharaj ke vaqilon ne milakar kiya. is karravaee men dekhane yogy mukhy bat yah hai ki yadyapi isamen aurngabad men dattak-grahan koi mudda nahin tha, shri estan ne use nirnay karane ke lie mukhy mudda bana diya. tilak dvara chunauti die jane aur virodh prakat kie jane ke bavazood shri estan ne gavahi snbndhi qanoon aur prasngikata ke adhar par taee maharaj ki or se dheron dastavezi aur maukhik gavahi bad men shamil kar din. vastav men keval yah mudda uthaya gaya tha ki kya tilak aur any logon ko jari kiya gaya vasiyat ka pramanapatr bekar aur nishprabhavi ho gaya hai. kya vasiyat ko karyanvit karane vale log trast men rahane ke ayogy ho ge hai, jisake karan trast men ne logon ki niyukti avashyak ho gee hai. shri estan ne in prashnon ka uttar han men diya. vah is natije par pahunche ki aurngabad ka dattak grahan siddh nahin hua hai. unhonne vasiyat ka pramanapatr radd kar diya aur yah adesh diya ki muqadame ka kharch tilak aur shri khaparde ko uthana padega. faisala lamba [8] tha. isake 90 pratishat bhag men aurngabad ka dattak-grahan aur poona men taee maharaj ke sath kathit durvyavahar adi nitant aprasngik tathyon ki charcha hai. yah bat dhyan dene yogy hai ki tilak ne inhen ‘aprasngik’ kah kar inaka virodh kiya tha aur unhonne inase snbndhit kagaz ka ek tukada tak gavahi ke lie pesh nahin kiya sivay un uttaron ke jo unhen majaboori men dene pade. is bare men unhonne apane vaqil ko nirdesh diya tha ki vah is vishay men unake sath kathorata se prashn poochhe.

estan ki vaqalat

yah spasht hai ki is tarah shri estan ke samane in mamalon ka keval ek tarapha vivaran tha tathapi, unhen nirnay lene men koee hichakichahat nahin huee aur unhonne aisi alochana ki mano unake samane tilak ke paksh ki bhi sabhi gavahi thi. madhy yug men spen men dharmik aparadhon ke lie dand dene vale nyayalay ki tarah shri estan kam kar rahe the aur svayn tilak ke viruddh shaitan ke vaqil ki tarah acharan kar rahe the.

apani janch ke parinamasvaroop shri estan ne paya ki n keval tilak ko jari vasiyat ka pramanapatr radd kiya jana chahie, balki unake dvara kie ge anek aparadhon ke lie un par muqadama bhi chalaya jana chahie. shri estan ne apani adalat ki anuchit, gairaqanooni aur kashtadayi karravaee ki charam parinati men tilak ko [9] siti majistret ke supurd kar diya.

sat aparadhik arop

tilak ke viruddh taiyar sat aparadhik arop is prakar the-

  1. nagapurakar ke viruddh 'amanat men khayanat' ki jhoothi shikayat karana.[10]
  2. aurngabad yatra ke hisab-kitab men ghata-badha karake jhoothi gavahi taiyar karana.
  3. uparyukt ke snbndh men jalasazi
  4. aisi gavahi jisake bare men pata hai ki vah jhoothi ya jali hai dattak-grehan par taee maharaj ke prishthankan ko satyapit karane ke lie sachchi batakar istemal karana ya use bhrasht tariqe se istemal karana.
  5. ukt dattak-grahanapatr ko beeemani men sachcha aur sahi manana.
  6. taee maharaj ke dastakhaton ke uparant dattak putr snbndh dastavez ka istemal kapatapoorvak sahi dastavez ke roop men karana.
  7. janaboojh kar das vakyon men jhoothi gavahi dena, jinhen tin up-shirshakon ke antargat vibhakt kiya gaya tha.
  • aurngabad men dattak-grahan ki ghatana.
  • poona ki haveli men taee maharaj ko bnd rakhana.
  • usi haveli men baba maharaj ke viruddh balaprayog.

in aropon par tilak ko adalat ke supurd karane se shri estan sntusht nahin hue. unhonne sarakar ko sujhav diya ki is mamale se utpann kuchh any sahayak aropon jaise ki pulis ko galat soochana dena, dhokhadhadi karana, gairaqanooni sabha karana adi ki janch karaee jaen.

uchch nyayalay men apil

bal gngadhar tilak

uchch nyayalay men bar-bar apil ki gee. agar uchch nyayalay samay par ek samasya ka nyayapoorn samadhan kar deta to use bad men muqadamon se nahin nipatana padata, lekin uchch nyayalay ne vasiyat ke pramanapatr ko nirast karane ke shri estan ke nirnay ko palat diya magar tilak ke viruddh aparadhik karyavahiyon ko jari rahane diya. jahan tak jhoothi shikayat ka arop tha, shri bimain ne tilak ke viruddh muqadame ki mnzoori ko anuchit paya. lekin ek lambe muqadame ke bad speshal majistret shri klement ne tilak ko shapath le jhoothi gavahi dene ka doshi paya aur unhen atharah mahine ki kathor qaid ki saza sunaee. tathapi, majistret ne yah svikar kiya ki tilak svarthi uddeshyon se prerit nahin the, lekin usaki nazar men ve ek unmatt vyakti the, aur unaka dimag duragrah aur satta ke pyar ke qabze men tha. lekin vipatti ke badal chhnt ge. seshan jaj shri lookas ne shighr hi ek apil men saza ko ghata kar chhah mahine kar diya aur tilak ke prayojanon aur iradon ko poori taur par uchit thaharaya. saza ke lie shri lookas ka nirnay asthir aur samarthan yogy nahin tha aur 4 march, sanh 1904 ee. ko uchch nyayalay ne use nirast kar diya. shapath lekar gavahi dene ka arop siddh nahin paya gaya, phalat: sarakar ne tilak ke viruddh lagae ge sabhi arop vapas le liye. is prakar tilak is agnipariksha se kundan ban kar nikale.

sar laaulens jenakins ka nirnay sabhi vyavaharik prayojanon ke lie god lene ke muqadame par nirnay tha. shri estan ka sahara lekar taee maharaj ki parti dvara tilak ke viruddh jo mamale banae ge, ve tash ke qile ki bhanti dhah ge. vivad men banae ge tathyon ke adhar par tilak ke viruddh shapath le kar jhoothi gavahi dene ka arop lagaya gaya tha. lekin jab muqadama uchch nyayalay men age badha to shadyntrakariyon ne paya ki tilak ke lie banae ge gadde men ve svayn gir ge hain. is kes ne 1901 se 1904 tak tilak ka poora samay liya. in karyavahiyon ke lie adalat ki 160 baithaken hueen. adalat ki baithakon ke dauran aksar tilak ko vyaktigat roop se upasthit hona pada. muqadame ko sngin banane vali bat yah thi ki tilak par muqadama chalakar bnbee sarakar apratyaksh roop se unake viruddh apani shatruta poori kar rahi thi. ve dattak-grahan ke adhar par taee maharaj ki ladaee lad rahe the. yah sarakari shatruta aur ek aurat ke apane niji hit ka amngalakari snyog tha.

ham yah nahin janate ki vastavikata kya thi. kya taee maharaj sarakar ke hathon men kathaputali thi ya sarakar usake hathon men kathaputali thi. snbhavana yah hai ki inamen se pratyek ne doosare ka kathaputali ki tarah istemal kiya aur ek sima tak apana bhi kathaputali ki tarah istemal hone diya. is prasng men du:kh ki bat yah hai ki sarakar apani garima ko bhool gee aur usane svayn ko ek ashikshit, svarthi aur vivekarahit aurat ke star par khada kar diya. is sabake parinamasvaroop is muqadame men janata ki dilachaspi bahut adhik badh gee thi, yadyapi dilachaspi ka mukhy kendr tilak bane rahen.

is poore daur men tilak apana manasik sntulan banae rakh kar bina kisi badha adi ke ve kis prakar apana samany kam-kaj kar sake. unhonne kaise prasannata ka bhav banae rakha aur apane qanooni salahakaron ke lie bauddhik prerana ke srot bane. gahari chintaon, jise unake jyeshth putr ki maut ne aur ugr kar diya tha. kis prakar ve apane mastishk ko mukt aur alag-thalag rakh saken taki apane priy sahityik adhyayan ke kary ko jari rakh saken tatha apani pustak ‘di arkatik hom in vedaj’ ko prakashit kar sake- ye sabhi shodh ke vishay hain.

rajaniti men

yogy neta

tilak bad men poona ki mool adhikar kshetr ki adalat men dattak-grahan ka muqadama jit ge. isase unake shabd aur kary poori tarah uchit pramanit ho ge. agale varsh tilak ne apane niji mamalon, visheshakar samacharapatr aur chhapekhane se snbndhit karyon ko sngathit evn thik-thak kiya. ‘kesari’ ki prasar snkhya men atyadhik badhotari ho gee thi. at: usaki chhapaee ke lie ek badi mashin ka ayat karana zaroori ho gaya tha. maharaja gayakavad ne 'poona ka gayakavad bada' unhen uchit dam par unake hathon bech diya. isase tilak zaroorat ke mutabik apane samacharapatr aur usake chhapekhane ko sthayi jagah de sake. apani bahumukhi pratibha ka upayog unhonne marathi bhasha ke lie nee kism ke taip ke vikas ke lie bhi kiya. ve is taeep ka istemal marathi laino taip mashin men karana chahate the. is kary men unhen ullekhaniy saphalata mili. unake ne taip ki dizain ko inglaind men laino taip nirmataon ne mnzoor kar liya tha, lekin marathi taip se yukt laino taip mashin ke ayat men deri ho gee. darasal desh men bahut hi kam chhapekhane aise the, jo devanagari laino taip mashinon ka kharch utha pate the. isalie inglaind ke laino taip nirmataon ko is bat ke lie taiyar nahin kiya ja saka ki ve apani poonji ek nee kism ke taip vali mashin men phnsa den.

bal gngadhar tilak

tilak sanh 1905 ee. se sakriy rajanitik andolan men poori tarah kood ge the. bngal ke vibhajan ke karan desh men rashtravadi bhavanaon ka jvar aya. isi ke sath svadeshi, bahishkar, rashtriy shiksha adi svarajy jaise karyakram shuroo kie ge. banaras kangres ne in bhavanaon ko sngathit aur shaktishali dhng se prakat kiya. yah bat svikar ki jane lagi ki tilak rashtravadiyon ki parti (neshanalist parti) ke sabase yogy neta hain aur unhin ke karan 'bngal ke vibhajan' ke bad pashchimi bharat men rashtravad ki mashal jalati rahi hai.

tilak ka drishtikon

agale varsh nindaniy hindoo-muslim dnge ke bad anek ne prashn samane ae. unase rajanitik vatavaran men jabaradast parivartan aya. tilak in nee chunautiyon ka samana karane ke lie sabase age the. unhonne 'englo indiyan' adhikariyon ki nitiyon ka jabaradast virodh kiya. in adhikariyon ne bhi anubhav kiya ki am janata par unaka kitana prabhav hai. sanpradayik dngon ke bare men tilak ka drishtikon chahe sahi ya galat ho, spasht aur nirbhrant tha. unaka kahana tha ki hindoo-muslim dngo ka karan kuchh adooradarshi englo indiyan adhikariyon dvara gupt roop se in donon snpradayon ke logon ko bhadakana hai. unaki ray men is shararat ki jad laaurd dafarin dvara shuroo ki gee phoot dalo aur raj karo ki niti hai. in dngon ko niyntrit karane ka ekamatr tariqa yah hai ki sarakari adhikari hindoo musalamanon ke bich kadaee ke sath nishpaksh acharan karen. unhonne kuchh varg ke adhikariyon ke viruddh pakshapat ka pratyaksh arop lagaya jise svabhavat: in adhikariyon ne pasnd nahin kiya. gavarnar laaurd hairis aur unake sachiv shri li varnar, donon tilak ke in vicharon se naraz the, lekin tilak sarakari narazagi se darane aur dabane vale vyakti nahin the. apane patr 'kesari' ke jarie am janata par unaka vyapak prabhav tha aur yahi prabhav mukhy roop se janata men ek nee bhavana vikasit kar raha tha. shikshit logon men bhi unaka prabhav bahut tha. ve do bar 'sthaniy vidhan parishadh' aur bnbee vishvavidyalay ke ‘phelo’ nirvachit kie ge. sanh 1895 ee. men ve 'poona nagarapalika' ke sarvadhik maton se sadasy nirvachit hue. ek kushal karyakarta ke roop men unhen sahayogiyon ka adar mila.

samajik aur rajanitik darshan

apani purani parnpara aur snsthaon ke prati janata men ab nee jagarookata prakat ho rahi thi. isake sabase spasht udaharan the purani dharmik aradhana, ganapati-poojan aur shivaji ke jivan se jude prasngon par mahotsavon ka ayojan. in donon andolanon ke sath tilak ka nam ghanishth roop se juda hai. tilak ka dridh vishvas tha ki purane devataon aur rashtriy netaon ki svasth vndana se logon men sachchi rashtriyata aur deshaprem ki bhavana vikasit hogi. videshi vicharon aur prathaon ke andhanukaran se nee pidhi men adharmikata paida ho rahi hai aur usaka vinashak prabhav bharatiy yuvakon ke charitr par pad raha hai. tilak ka vishvas tha ki agar sthiti ko isi prakar bigadane diya gaya to antat: naitik divaliepan ki sthiti a jaegi, jisase koee bhi rashtr ubar nahin sakata. yah ek gnbhir samasya thi aur bharat sarakar tak ne us samay is or dhyan diya tha. sarakar ki nazar men is bimari ka ilaj bharatiy skoolon men naitik shiksha ki pathyapustakon ki padhaee shuroo karana tha. tilak ne sarakar ke is sujhav ki kathor alochana 'maratha' ke anek ankon men ki. tilak ke vichar men, bharatiy yuvakon ko svavalnbi aur adhik oorjavan banane ke lie unako adhik atm-samman ka prashikshan diya jana chahie. yah tabhi kiya ja sakata hai, jab unhen apane dharm aur poorvajon ka adhik adar karana sikhaya jaen. atyadhik aur niruddeshy atmalochana ek tapasvi ya darshanik ke lie achchhi ho sakati hai, lekin vyavaharik jivan men isase pratikool prabhav pad sakata hai. atirikt deshaprem ke karan kabhi thodi-bahut apriy sthiti utpann ho sakati hai, lekin isake achchhe natije bhi nikalate hain, jabaki poorn atmatyag ka natija keval alasy aur maut ho sakati hai.

bal gngadhar tilak ke samman men jari dak tikat

snkshep men, yahi tilak ka samajik aur rajanitik darshan hai. is bare men do ray ho sakati hain ki yah sahi hai ya nahin lekin koee vyakti yah nahin kah sakata hai ki unhonne isaka anusaran nahin kiya. tilak par akasar samajik sudharon ke mamale men dhong aur asthirata ka arop lagaya gaya hai. ve apani hi tarah ke vyavaharik samaj-sudharak the. unhonne apani ladakiyon ko shiksha di, shastr sammat adhikatam ayu hone tak unaka vivah sthagit kiya, jati snbndhi pratibndhon men chhoot dene ki apil ki aur amataur par samaj-sudhar andolan ka samarthan kiya. lekin isake bavazood unhonne samaj-sudhar parti ki alochana ki. satahi star par nirikshan karane valon ko unake vyavahar men yah virodhabhas nazar ata hai, jabaki unake virodhi isaka karan unaki sasti lokapriyata prapt karane ki ichchha batate the. vastavikata yah hai ki is vishay men unaka acharan unake pakke vishvas ka natija tha. ve samaj-sudhar chahate the- lekin unako un adamiyon aur unake tariqon par, jo samaj sudhar ki avaz utha rahe the, vishvas nahin tha. unaki ray men, pichhali pidhi ke samaj-sudharakon ke pas na to vah yogyata thi aur n ve naitik gun the, jo sudhar andolan ki saphalata ke lie avashyak hain. at: unaki alochana am taur par un vyaktiyon ke viruddh hoti thi, un uddeshyon ke viruddh nahin hoti thi jisake lie ye log kary kar rahe the. vastav men rajanitik aur samajik prashnon ki alochana ke bare men unaka siddhant yahi tha. ve kisi sarakari qadam ka anumodan kar sakate the lekin us upay ko lagoo karane vale adhikariyon ki alochana karate the. isi prakar ve kisi sudhar ko lagoo karane ke paksh men hote the lekin ve un logon ki alochana karate the, jo is sudhar ke mathadhish hone ka dava karate the.

ghatana-pradhan jivan

tilak ka jivan ghatana-pradhan raha hai. ve maulik vicharon ke vyakti the. vah sngharshashil aur parishramashil the. ve asani se kuchh bhi thukara sakate the. vah tab vishesh prasannata ka anubhav karate the, jab unhen kathin chunautiyon ka samana karana padata tha. unake adhikansh kary paropakar ki bhavana se bhare hote the. unaki ekamatr ichchha thi logon ki bhalaee ke lie kary karana aur yah bat svikar ki jati hai ki ve apani is ichchha ko kafi had tak poori karane men saphal rahe the. unamen yogyata, adhyavasay, udyamashilata aur deshaprem ka aisa anootha sngam tha ki angrez sarakar unase hamesha chaukas rahati thi. tilak ke anek mitr unake prati shaktishali british sarakar ke ravaiye ko snbhavat: yah kah kar svikar karenge ki yah unake vastavik moolyon ka jita-jagata pramanapatr hai.

mrityu

san 1919 ee. men kangres ki amritasar baithak men hissa lene ke lie svadesh lautane ke samay tak tilak itane naram ho ge the ki unhonne 'maauntegyoo- chemsaford sudharon' ke zariye sthapit 'lejisletiv kaunsil' (vidhayi parishadon) ke chunav ke bahishkar ki gandhi ki niti ka virodh nahin kiya. isake bajay tilak ne kshetriy sarakaron men kuchh had tak bharatiyon ki bhagidari ki shuruat karane vale sudharon ko lagoo karane ke lie pratinidhiyon ko salah di ki ve unake ‘pratyuttarapoorn sahayog' ki niti ka palan karen. lekin ne sudharon ko nirnayak disha dene se pahale hi 1 agast, sanh 1920 ee. men bnbee [11] men tilak ki mrityu ho gee. unhen shraddhanjali dete hue mahatma gandhi ne unhen adhunik bharat ka nirmata aur neharoo ji ne bharatiy kranti ke janak ki upadhi di.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. logon ke lokapriy neta
  2. tenets aauf d nyoo parti
  3. nyay vibhag ke uchchadhikari
  4. bharat mntri
  5. prishth 38, tilak ka muqadama
  6. arogy ashram
  7. taee maharaj
  8. lagabhag 40 mudrit phulaskep prishth
  9. bharatiy dnd prakriya snhita ki dhara 476 ke antargat
  10. is mamale men shri estan ne bharatiy dnd prakriya snhita ki dhara 195 si. ar. pi. si. ke antargat mnzoori ka avedanapatr dene ke lie nagapurakar ko bhi taiyar kiya.
  11. vartaman munbee

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah