डाक टिकट  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

dak tikat
gandhiji aur kastooraba gandhi par jari dak tikat
vivaran 'dak tikat' chhota ayatakar kagaz ka tukada hota hai, jo liphaphe adi par chipakaya jata hai. isase dak seva shulk ke bhugatan ka pata chalata hai.
shuruat 1840 (inglaind)
janak sar rolaind hil
prapti sthan dak ghar
bharat men shuruat 1852
vishesh 1 julaee, 1852 ko sindh ke mukhy ayukt sar bartalephrrore dvara sindh rajy aur munbee-karachi marg par prayog ke lie 'sindh dak' namak dak tikat jari kiya gaya tha.
snbndhit lekh dak tikaton men mahatma gandhi, maharani viktoriya
any janakari bharat men 1854 se 1931 tak dak tikaton par maharani viktoriya, edavard saptam, jaaurj pncham, jarj chhathe ke chitr vale dak tikat hi nikalate rahe. apane prem ke lie sinhasan tyagane vale raja edavard ashtam par yahan koee dak tikat nahin nikala.

dak tikat chipakane vale kagaz se bana ek sakshy hai, jo yah darshata hai ki dak sevaon ke shulk ka bhugatan ho chuka hai. amataur par yah ek chhota ayatakar kagaz ka tukada hota hai, jo ek liphaphe par chipaka rahata hai, jo yah yah darshata hai ki preshak ne prapt karta ko supurdagi ke lie dak sevaon ka poori tarah se ya anshik roop se bhugatan kiya hai. dak tikat, dak bhugatan karane ka sabase lokapriy tarika hai; isake alava isake vikalp hain, poorv pradatt-dak liphaphe, post kard, havaee patr adi. dak tikaton ko dak ghar se kharida ja sakata hai. inake sngrah ko 'dak tikat sngrah' ya 'filetali' kaha jata hai. dak tikat ikattha karana manav ke kee shauqon men se ek hai.

itihas

sabase pahale inglaind men varsh 1840 men dak-tikat bechane ki vyavastha shuroo ki gee. halanki isake pahale hi dak vitaran vyavastha shuroo ho chuki thi, parntu patr pahunchane ke lie patr bhejane vale ko dak ghar tak jana hi padata tha. pahale kisi bhi patr bhejane vale ko dak ghar jakar patr par post mastar ke dastakht karavane padate the par dak-tikaton ke beche jane ne is pareshani se mukti dila di. jab dak-tikat bikane lage to log unhen kharid kar apane pas rakh lete the aur phir zaroorat padane par unaka upayog kar lete the. 1840 men hi sabase pahale jagah-jagah letar-baauks bhi tange jane lage taki patr bhejane vale unake jarie patr bhej saken aur dak ghar jane se chhutti mil gee. pahale patr bhejane men kee prakar ki dikkaten pesh ati thin, lekin aj patr bhejana asan ho gaya hai. ab to sndesh bhejane ke lie patr se bahut tez suvidhaen bhi hamen upalabdh hain.

pahala dak tikat

vishv men pahala dak tikat aj se lagabhag dedh sau sal se pahale briten (inglaind) men jari hua tha. us samay inglaind ke rajasinhasan par maharani viktoriya virajaman thin, isalie svabhavik roop se inglaind apane dak tikaton par maharani viktoriya ke chitron ko pramukhata deta raha. pahale dak tikaton par rani viktoriya ke chitr chhapane ke karan vahan ki mahilaon men apani rani ke chitr vale dak tikaton ko ikattha karane ka junoon savar ho gaya. ye mahilaen hi dak tikat sngrah ke shauq ki janani banin. inglaind men raja viliyam pratham (san 1066-1087) se rajashahi ka daur chala a raha hai. vishv ka pahala dak tikat 1 mee, 1840 ko gret briten men jari kiya gaya tha, jisake oopar briten ki maharani viktoriya ka chitr chhapa tha. yah dak tikat kale rng men ek chhote se chaukor kagaz par chhapa tha aur usaki kimat ek peni rakhi gee thi. yah dak tikat 'peni blaik' ke nam se mashahoor hua. ek peni mooly ke is tikat ke kinare sidhe the, yani tikaton ko alag karane ke lie jo chhote-chhote chhed banae jate hain, ve prachin dak tikaton men nahin the. is samay tak unamen liphaphe par chipakane ke lie gond bhi nahin laga hota tha. yah dak tikat halanki pahali mee, 1840 ko bikri ke lie jari kiya gaya tha, lekin dak shulk ke lie ise 6 mee, 1840 se vaidh mana gaya. ye dak tikat vishv ke bhi pahale dak tikat the. inglaind ke in dak tikaton ko nikalane ka shrey 'sar raaulaind hil' (san 1795-1878) ko jata hai. tikat sngrah karane men ruchi rakhane valon ke lie is tikat ka bahut mahattv hai, kyonki is tikat se hi dak-tikat sngrah ka itihas bhi shuroo hota hai. is dak tikat ki kahani atynt rochak hai. yahin se dak tikaton ki parnpara shuroo hoti hai.[1]

janak

yadi dak tikaton ke itihas ka adhyayan karen to peshe se adhyapak sar rolaind hil (san 1795-1878) ko pahale dak tikaton ka janak kaha jata hai. jis samay patron ko ek sthan se doosare sthan tak pahunchane ka shulk tay kiya gaya aur vah gntavy par likha jane laga to unhin dinon inglaind ke ek skool adhyapak rolaind hil ne dekha ki bahut se patr pane valon ne patron ko svikar karane se inkar kar diya aur patron ka dher laga hua hai, jisase ki sarakari nidhi ki kshati ho rahi hai. yah sab dekh kar unhonne san 1837 men dak vyavastha men sudhar aur dak tikaton dvara dak shulk ki vasooli ke bare men do shodhapatr (‘post aphis rifarm’ namak patr) prakashit kie. in shodh patron men unhonne yah sujhav diya ki pratyek adhe auns ke vajan ke patr par ek peni ki saman dak shulk dar lagaee jae, chahe vah patr kitani hi door jata ho aur yah dak shulk peshagi ada ki jae. jahan tak dak shulk ka bhugatan karane ka snbndh hai, is bare men hil ne mohar lage chhote-chhote lebal jari karane ka sujhav diya, taki log patr bhejane ke pahale use kharide aur patr par chipaka kar apana patr bhejen. lebal sirf itane bade hone chahie ki un par muhar lag sake.[1]

maharani viktoriya ka chitr

gond lage dak tikaton ka uchit dizain taiyar karane ke lie briten ki sarakar ne pratiyogita ayojit ki. is pratiyogita men 2,600 pravishtiyan prapt hueen, lekin inamen se koee bhi dizain upayukt nahin paee gee. antatah hil ne maharani viktoriya ke chitr ko dak tikat par chhapane ka nirnay kiya.
kaaumanavelth khel par jari ek dak tikat
is chitr ke lie unhonne maharani ke us chitr ko chuna, jise viliyam vayan ne 1837 men nagar ki sthapana ke yadagar ke roop men jari kie ge medal par ankit kiya tha. unhonne isaka akar taiks lebalon par istemal kie jane vale chitron ke akar jaisa rakha. vayan ke medal par ankit chitr ke adhar par dak tikat taiyar karane ke lie lndan ke hainari karabold namak chitrakar ko use vatar kalar par utarane ke lie kaha gaya. ek peni ka dak tikat kale rng men aur do pens ka dak tikat nile rng men chhapa gaya. 6 mee, 1840 ko vishv ka pratham dak tikat ‘peni blaik’ briten dvara jari kiya gaya. halanki, do pens ke dak tikat 8 mee, 1840 tak jari nahin hue. laitar shits, raipars aur liphaphe adi dak steshanari bhi peni blaik ke sath-sath chhap kar jari hueen. inamen se mularedi liphaphe, jinaka nam inaka dijain banane vale viliyam mularedi ke nam par rakha gaya tha, mashahoor hain. yah dijain kafi mashahoor hua, lekin liphaphe lokapriy nahin hue. peni blaik tikat ek varsh se bhi kam samay tak prayog men raha aur 1841 men isaka sthan peni red tikat ne le liya.[1]

maharani viktoriya ke samay men hi inglaind ka vishv ke adhikatar deshon par shasan tha. inglaind hi nahin, balki inglaind shasit vishv ke anek deshon ke dak tikaton par inglaind ke shasakon ke hi chitr chhapate the. isase dak tikaton ke madhy dizain men ajib-si nirasata bharati chali gee. ye behad ubaoo hote ja rahe the; lekin inglaind men hi pahali bar julaee, 1913 men jari ek dak tikat ‘britenika’ (mooly adha kraun) par ashcharyajanak roop se madhy dijain men parivartan nazar ata hai. isake bad to tikaton par itihas, bhoogol, rajaniti, vyakti, snskriti-sabhyata, sahity-vigyan, jiv-jntu, khel-kood, sthapaty-moorti, chitr-kalaon adi ke vividh rng-roop dekhane ko milane lage.

bharat men pahala dak-tikat

jahan tak bharat ka snbndh hai, bharat men dak tikaton ki shuruat 1852 men huee. 1 julaee, 1852 ko sindh ke mukhy ayukt sar bartalephrrore dvara sirf sindh rajy men aur munbee-karachi marg par prayog ke lie 'sindh dak' namak dak tikat jari kiya gaya.
azad bharat men jari pratham dak tikat
adhe ane mooly ke is tikat ko bhoore kagaz par lakh ki lal sil chipaka kar jari kiya gaya tha. yah tikat bahut saphal nahin raha, kyonki lakh tootakar jhad jane ke karan isako snbhalakar rakhana snbhav nahin tha. phir bhi aisa anuman kiya jata hai ki is tikat ki lagabhag 100 pratiyan vibhinn sngrah kartaon ke pas surakshit hain. dak-tikaton ke itihas men is tikat ko 'sindh dak' ke nam se jana jata hai. bad men safed aur nile rng ke isi prakar ke do tikat vov kagaz par jari kie ge, lekin inaka prayog bahut kam dinon tak raha, kyonki 30 sitnbar, 1854 ko sindh prant par eest indiya knpani ka adhikar hone ke bad inhen bnd kar diya gaya. ye eshiya ke pahale dak-tikat to the hi, vishv ke pahale golakar tikat bhi the. sngrahakarta is prakar ke tikaton ko mahattvapoorn samajhate hain aur adhe ane mooly ke in tikaton ko aj sabase bahumooly tikaton men ginate hain.[2] bad men eest indiya knpani dvara bharat ke sabase pahale dak tikat adha ana, ek ana, do ana aur char ana ke char moolyon men 1 aktoobar, 1854 men jari kiye ge, jis par maharani viktoriya ke chitr chhape the. yah dak tikaton ko lithographi paddhati dvara mudrit kiya gaya tha.

bharat men san 1854 se 1931 tak dak tikaton par rani viktoriya, raja edavard saptam, jaaurj pncham, jarj chhathe ke chitr vale dak tikat hi nikalate rahe. apane prem ke lie sinhasan tyagane vale raja edavard ashtam (san 1936) par yahan koee dak tikat nahin nikala tha. 1926 men 'indiya sikyooriti pres', nasik men dak tikaton ki chhapaee arambh hone par 1931 men pratham chitratmak dak tikat nee dilli ke udghatan par jari kiya gaya. 1935 men british samrat jaaurj pncham ki rajat jayanti ke avasar par pratham smarak dak tikat jari kiya gaya. svatantrata pashchath 21 navambar, 1947 ko pratham bharatiy dak tikat sadhe़ tin ane ka ‘jayahind’ jari kiya gaya. 21 faravari, 1911 ko vishv ki pratham eyaramel seva bharat dvara ilahabad se naini ke bich arambh ki gayi. rashtramandal deshon men bharat pahala desh hai, jisane san 1929 men havaee dak tikat ka vishesh set jari kiya.

mahatma gandhi par dak tikat

vibhinn deshon dvara gandhiji par jari dak tikat

mahatma gandhi duniya ke sarvadhik lokapriy rajanetaon aur vyaktitv men se hain. yahi karan hai ki pray: adhikatar deshon ne unake samman men dak-tikat jari kiye hain. desh-videsh ke tikaton men dekhen to gandhiji ka poora jivan charitr paya ja sakata hai. samanyatah dak tikat ek chhota sa kagaz ka tukada dikhata hai, par isaka mahattv aur kimat donon hi isase kafi zyada hai. dak tikat vastav men ek nanha rajadoot hai, jo vibhinn deshon ka bhraman karata hai evn unhen apani sabhyata, snskriti aur virasat se avagat karata hai. yah kisi bhi rashtr ke logon, unaki astha v darshan, aitihasikata, snskriti, virasat evn unaki akankshaon v ashaon ka pratik hai. aise men dak-tikaton par sthan pana gaurav ki bat hai. yah janakar koee ashchary nahin hoga ki dak tikaton ki duniya men gandhiji sabase zyada dikhane vale bharatiy hain tatha bharat men sarvadhik bar dak-tikaton par sthan pane valon men pratham hain. yahan tak ki azad bharat men ve pratham vyakti the, jin par dak tikat jari hua tha.

filetali

'dak tikaton ka vyavasthit sngrah' arthath 'filetali' manav ke lokapriy shauqon men se ek hai. 'shauqon ka raja' aur 'rajaon ka shauq' kahe jane vali is vidha ne aj samany janajivan men bhi utani hi lokapriyata prapt kar li hai. samanyatah dak tikaton ka sngrah hi 'filetali' mana jata hai, par badalate vaqt ke sath filetali dak tikaton, pratham divas avaran, vishesh avaran, post mark, dak steshanari evn dak sevaon se sambandhit sahity ka vyavasthit sngrah evn adhyayan ban gaya hai. rng-birnge dak tikaton men nihit saundary jahan isaka kalatmak paksh hai, vahin isaka vyavasthit adhyayan isake vaigyanik paksh ko pradarshit karata hai. dak tikat sngrah ke sambandh men ek prasiddh snsmaran bhi hai ki inglaind ke bhootapoorv samrat jarj pncham ko kisi dak tikat vikreta ke yahan se dak tikat kharidate unake rishtedar ne dekh liya aur isaki shikayat unaki patni maharani meri se ki. isake uttar men maharani meri ne kaha- "mujhe pata hai ki mere pati shauq hetu dak tikat kharidate hain aur yah achchha bhi hai, kyonki yah shauq unhen any buri pravritiyon se door rakhata hai." 'nobel puraskar' prapt prasiddh bhautik vigyani arnest radaraphord ne kaha tha ki- "All Science is either physics or stamp collecting.".

shabd utpatti

'filetali' shabd ki utpatti grik bhasha ke shabd ‘filos’ v ‘etaliya’ se huee. san 1864 men 24 varshiy phransisi vyakti jarj haaurpin ne ‘filetali’ shabd ijad kiya. isase poorv is vidha ko ‘timbarolaauji’ nam se jana jata tha. phrench bhasha men timbar ka arth tikat hota hai. edavard luins pembartan ko ‘saintiphik filetali’ ka janak mana jata hai. sabhyata ke badhate qadamon ke sath filetali matr ek bhautik tathy nahin raha, balki aj filetali kisi bhi rashtr aur rashtr ke logon, unaki astha v darshan, aitihasikata, snskriti, virasat evn unaki akankshaon v ashaon ka pratibimb aur pratik hai, jisake madhyam se vahan ke itihas, kala, vigyan, vyaktitv, vanaspati, jiv-jantu, rajanayik sambandh evn janajivan se jude़ vibhinn pahaluon ki janakari milati hai. varshon se filetali mahattvapoorn ghatanaon ke vishvavyapi prasar, mahanh vibhootiyon ko sammanit karane evn prakritik saundary ke prati apani shraddha arpit karane hetu kary kar rahi hai. isane vibhinn rashtron ke bich maitri ka setu taiyar karane ke sath-sath paraspar ek doosare ko samajhane men sahayata pradan ki hai aur aj bhi is disha men yah ek mil ka patthar hai. samanyatah dak tikat ek chhota-sa kagaz ka tukada dikhata hai, par isaka mahattv aur qimat dono hi isase kafi zy़ada hai. yah man ko moh lene vali jivan shakti se bharapoor hai. ek taraf filetali ke madhyam se apani sabhyata aur snskriti ke gujare vaqt ko aine men dekha ja sakata hai, vahin dak tikat vastav men ek nanha rajadoot hai, jo vibhinn deshon ka bhraman karata hai evn unhen apani sabhyata, snskriti aur virasat se avagat karata hai. nishchitatah aj ke vyastatam jivan evn pratispardhatmak yug men filetali se badhakar koee bhi rochak aur gyanavarddhak shauq nahin ho sakata. vyaktitv parimarjan ke sath-sath yah gyan ke bhandar men bhi vriddhi karata hai.[3]

laghukatha

'filetali' arthath 'dak-tikaton ke sngrah' ki bhi ek rochak kahani hai. unnisavin shatabdi ke madhy men yoorop men ek angrez mahila ko apane shrringar-kaksh ki divaron ko dak tikaton se sajane ki soojhi aur is hetu usane solah hazar dak-tikat parichiton se ekatr kie aur shesh hetu san 1841 men ‘taims aauph lndan’ samachar patr men vigyapan dekar pathakon se istemal kie ja chuke dak tikaton ko bhejane ki prarthana ki. tab se dak-tikaton ka sngrah ek shauq ke roop men paravan chadhata gaya.[3]

  • ek rochak ghatanakram men san 1965 men ek solah varshiy kishor ne garibi khatm karane hetu amerika ke post mastar janaral ko sujhav bheja ki kuchh dak-tikat janaboojh kar galatiyon ke sath chhape jayen aur unako garibon ko panch-panch sent men bech diya jay. ye garib in tikaton ko sngrahakartaon ko munhamangi qimaton par bechakar apana jivan sudhar sakenge. ek british kahavat bhi hai- "filetali tikat ek aise sheyar ki bhanti hain, jinake mooly men kabhi giravat nahin ati varanh vriddhi hi hoti hai."

sabase bada sngrah

duniya men dak tikaton ka pratham elabam 1862 men frans men jari kiya gaya. aj vishv men dak-tikaton ka sabase bada sngrah briten ki maharani elijabeth dvitiy ke pas hai. bharat men bhi qarib pachas lakh log vyavasthit roop se dak-tikaton ka sngrah karate hain. bharat men dak tikat sngrah ko badhava dene ke lie pratham bar san 1954 men pratham antarrashtriy dak tikat pradarshani ka ayojan kiya gaya. usake pashchath se anek rashtriy, antarrashtriy aur kshetriy pradarshaniyon ka ayojan hota raha hai. vastutah in pradarshaniyon ke dvara jahan anek samriddh snskritiyon vale bharat rashtr ki gauravashali parampara ko dak tikaton ke dvara chitrit karake vibhinn samajik, sanskritik aur aitihasik sandeshon ko prasarit kiya jata hai, vahin doosari taraf yah vibhinn rashtron ke madhy sadbhavana evamh mitrata men utsahajanak vriddhi ka parichayak hai. isi parampara men bharatiy dak vibhag dvara 1968 men dak bhavan nee dilli men ‘rashtriy filetali sngrahalay’ ki sthapana ki aur 1969 men mumbee men 'pratham filetalik byooro' ki sthapana ki gee. dak tikaton ke alava miniechar shit, soviniyar shit, staimp shitalait, staimp bukalait, kalaiktars paik v thimetik paik ke madhyam se bhi dak tikat sngrah ko rochak banane ka prayas kiya gaya hai.[3]

sanskritik lagav evn vividhata ka parichayak

aj filetali matr ek sunahara atit nahin hai, varanh logon ke sanskritik lagav, vividhata evn suruchipoorn chayan ka bhi parichayak hai. rng-birnge dak tikaton ka sngrah karane vale log jahan is shauq ke madhyam se paraspar mitrata men bndhakar sambandhon ko naya ayam dete hain, vahin isake vyavaharik pahaluon ka bhi bakhoobi istemal karate hain. masalan rng-birnge tikaton se jahan khoobasoorat griting kard banaye ja sakate hain, vahin inaki khoobasoorati ko phrem men bhi qaid kiya ja sakata hai. bachapan se hi bachchon ko filetali ke prati utsahit kar unako apani snskriti, virasat evamh janajivan se jude any pahaluon ke bare men manornjak roop se bataya ja sakata hai. dak vibhag varsh bhar men jari sabhi tikaton athava kisi thim vishesh ke dak tikaton ko sametakar ek vishesh ‘staimp kalektars paik’ jari karata hai, jo aj ki vividhatapoorn duniya men ek anootha upahar hai. isi prakar yadi koee apane kisi khas ko sarapraij gift dena chahata hai, to nyoonatam do sau rupaye se usake nam filetali jama khata khol sakata hai. dak vibhag dey mooly ke barabar rngin dak tikat, pratham divas avaran aur vivaranika us vyakti vishesh ke pate par har mah bina kisi atirikt mooly ke pahunchata hai. vah dost bhi acharaj men pad jayega ki us par itani khoobasoorat meharabani karane vala shakhs kaun ho sakata hai. aur to aur, dak-vibhag dvara san 1999 se prati varsh ayojit ‘dak tikat dijain pratiyogita’ ke vijeta ki dizain ko agale bal-divas par dak-tikat ke roop men jari kiya jata hai. isi prakar 1998 se ayojit ‘dak tikat lokapriyata matadan’ men prati varsh bhag lekar sarvottam dak tikaton ka chunav kiya ja sakata hai. dak vibhag dvara dak tikaton ke sath hi miniechar- shits bhi jari ki jati hai. isamen char dak tikaton ki shrinkhala ek sath jari hoti hai. ek hi shit par char alag-alag dak tikat jude hote hain. yah shit tikat sngrahakartaon ke lie hi vishesh roop se jari ki jati hai.[3]

sundar aur upayogi vastuon ka sngrah manav ka svabhav hai. har chiz ko sngrah karane men maza hai aur har ek chiz ke sngrah ke sath kuchh n kuchh gyan prapt hota hai, lekin dak tikaton ke sngrah ka maza kuchh aur hi hai. har dak tikat kisi n kisi vishay ki janakari deta hai, usake pichhe koee n koee janakari zaroor chhupi hoti hai. agar ham is chhupi huee kahani ko khoj saken to yah hamari samane gyan ki rahasyamay duniya ka naya panna khol deta hai. isilie to dak tikaton ka sngrah vishv ke sabase lokapriy shauq men se ek hai. dak-tikaton ka sngrah svabhavik roop se sikhane ko prerit karata hai, isalie ise 'prakritik shiksha-upakaran' kaha jata hai. dak-tikat kisi bhi desh ki virasat ki chitramay kahani hain. dak tikaton ka ek sngrah vishvakosh ki tarah hai, jisake dvara ham anek deshon ke itihas, bhoogol, snskriti, ऎtihasik ghatanaen, bhashaen, mudraen, pashu-pakshi, vanaspatiyon aur logon ki jivanashaili evn desh ke maharathiyon ke bare men bahut sari janakari prapt kar sakate hain. samay ke sath jaise-jaise tikaton ka prachalan badha tikat sngrah ka shauq bhi panapane laga. 1860 se 1880 ke bich bachchon aur kishoron ne tikaton ka sngrah karana shuroo kar diya tha. doosari or anek vayask logon men bhi yah shauq panapane laga aur unhonne tikaton ko jama karana shuroo kiya, snrakshit kiya, unake rekard rakhe aur un par shodh alekh prakashit kie. jaldi hi in snrakshit tikaton ka mooly badh gaya, kyonki inamen se kuchh to aitihasik virasat ban ge the aur bahumooly ban ge the. gret briten ke bad any kee deshon dvara dak-tikat jari kiye ge.

am janata ka shauk

1920 tak yah tikat sngrah ka shauq am janata tak pahunchane laga. unako anupalabdh tatha bahumooly tikaton ki janakari hone lagi aur log tikat snbhalakar rakhane lage. naya tikat jari hota to use kharidane ke lie dakaghar par bhid lagani shuroo ho jati thi.
bhootan ka dak tikat
lagabhag 50 varsho tak is shauq ka nasha jari raha. isi samay tikat sngrah ke shauq par adharit tikat bhi jari kie ge. jarmani ke tikat men tikaton ke shauqin ek vyakti ko tikat par ankit barik akshar avardhak lens (maigniphaing glas) ki sahayata se padhate hue dikhaya gaya hai. avardhak lens tikat-sngrahakartaon ka ek mahattvapoorn upakaran hai. yahi karan hai ki anek dak tikaton ke sngrah se snbndhit dak tikaton men ise dikhaya jata hai. hare rng ke 8 sent ke tikat ko amerika ke dak tikaton ki 125vin varshaganth ke avasar par 1972 men jari kiya gaya tha. ek rupaye mooly ke dak tikat ko 1970 men bharat ki rashtriy dak tikat pradarshani ke avasar par jari kiya gaya tha. isi prakar bangladesh ke tikone tikaton ka joda 1984 men pahali bangladesh dak tikat pradarshani ke avasar par jari kiya gaya tha. kabhi kabhi dak tikaton ke sath kuchh manornjak baten bhi judi hoti hain. udaharan ke lie yoo es ke tikat men yoo es ka hi ek aur tikat tatha bharat ke tikat men bharat ka hi ek aur tikat pradarshit kiya gaya hai. jab ki yoo es ke tikat men dikhae ge donon tikat svidan ke hai. is prakar ke manornjak tathy dak tikaton ke sngrah ko aur bhi manornjak banate hain.

dak-tikaton ka adan-pradan

tulasi ke paudhe par jari dak tikat

1940-1950 tak dak-tikaton ke shauq ne desh-videsh ke logon ko milana shuroo kar diya tha. tikat ikattha karane ke lie log patr-mitr banate the. apane desh ke dak-tikaton ko doosare desh ke mitron ko bhejate the aur doosare desh ke dak tikat mngavate the. patr-mitrata ke is shauq se dak-tikaton ka adan pradan to hota hi tha, log vibhinn deshon ke vishay men anek ऎsi baten bhi janate the, jo kitabon men nahin likhi hoti hain. us samay tivi aur avagaman ke sadhan am n hone ke karan desh videsh ki janakari ka ye bahut hi rochak sadhan bane. patr-patrikaon men tikat se snbndhit stnbh hote aur inake vishay men bahut si janakariyon ko jan samany tak pahunchaya jata. patr-mitron ke paton ki lnbi soochiyan bhi us samay ki patrikaon men prakashit ki jati thin. dhire dhire dak tikaton ke sngrah ki vibhinn shailiyon ka bhi janm hua. log ise apani jivan shaili, paristhitiyon aur ruchi ke anusar anukoolit karane lage. is parnpara ke anusar kuchh log ek desh ya mahadvip ke dak-tikat sngrah karane lage to kuchh ek vishay se snbndhit dak-tikat. aj anek log is prakar ki shailiyon ka anukaran karate hue aur apani-apani pasnd ke kisi vishesh vishay ke dak tikaton ka sngrah karake annd uthate hain. vishayon se snbndhit dak tikaton ke sngrah men adhikansh log pashu, pakshi, phal, phool, titaliyan, khelakood, mahatma gandhi, mahanubhavon, pul, imaraten adi vishayon aur duniya bhar ki ghatanaon ke rngin aur sundar chitron se saje dak tikaton ko ekatrit karana pasnd karate hain.

pratyek desh har sal bhinn bhinn vishayon par dak-tikat jari karate hain aur janakari ka bada khazana vishv ko saup dete hain. is prakar kisi vishay men gahari janakari prapt karane ke lie us vishay ke dak tikaton ka sngrah karana ek rochak anubhav ho sakata hai. dak-tikat sngrah ka shauq har umr ke logon ko manornjan pradan karata hai. bachapan men gyan evn manornjan, vayaskon men annd aur tanav mukti tatha badi umr men dimag ko sakriyata pradan karane vala isase rochak koee shauq nahin. is tarah sabhi pidhiyon ke lie dak tikaton ka sngrah ek prerak aur labhaprad abhiruchi hai.

tikaton ke prakar

samanyatah log dak vibhag dvara jari niyat dak tikaton ke bare men hi janate hain. ye dak tikat vishesh roop se din-pratidin ki dak-avashyakataon ke lie jari kie jate hain aur asimit avadhi ke lie vikray hetu rakhe jate hain. par isake alava dak vibhag kisi ghatana, snsthan, vishay-vastu, vanaspati v jiv-jantu tatha vibhootiyon ke smaran men bhi dak tikat bhi jari karata hai, jinhen smarak/vishesh dak tikat kaha jata hai.
bal divas par dak tikat
samanyataya ye simit snkhya men mudrit kiye jate hain aur filetalik byooro/kauntar/pradhikrit dakagharon se simit avadhi ke liye hi beche jate hain. niyat dak tikaton ke viparit ye keval ek bar mudrit kiye jate hain, taki poore vishv men chal rahi pratha ke anusar sngrahaniy vastu ke taur par inaka mooly sunishchit ho sake. parantu ye vartaman dak tikaton ka atikraman nahin karate aur samanyataya inhen dak tikat sngrahakon dvara apane apane sngrah ke lie kharida jata hai. in smarak/vishesh dak tikaton ke sath ek ‘soochana vivaranika’ evn ‘pratham divas avaran’ ke roop men ek chitratmak liphapha bhi jari kiya jata hai. isake alava dak vibhag vishesh prakar ki ‘sovayoonir-shitas’ bhi jari karata hai, jisamen ek hi siriz ke ya bahudha vibhinn dizain ke dak tikaton ka sngrah hota hai. dak tikat sngrahak pratham divas avaran par lage dak tikat ko usi din ek vishesh muhar se viroopit karavate hain. is muhar par tikat ke jari hone ki tarikh aur sthan ankit hota hai. jahan niyamit dak tikaton ki chhapaee bar-bar hoti hai, vahin smarak dak tikat sirf ek bar chhapate hain. yahi karan hai ki vaqt bitane ke sath apani durlabhata ke chalate ve kafi moolyavan ho jate hain.[4] bharat men sanh 1852 men jari pratham dak tikat (adhe ane ka sinde dak) ki qimat aj qarib dhaee lakh rupaye anki jati hai. kabhi-kabhi kuchh dak tikat dizain men gadabadi paye jane par bazar se vapas le kiye jate hain, aise men un durlabh dak tikaton ko filetalist munhamangi raqam par kharidane ko taiyar hote hain.

anokhe dak tikat

vishv ka sabase mnhaga aur durlabhatam dak-tikat british guyana dvara san 1856 men jari kiya gaya ek sent ka dak-tikat hai. gulabi kagaz par kale rng men chhape, vishv men ekamatr upalabdh is dak-tikat ko british guyana ke demeraira namak nagar men san 1873 men ek angrez balak el. vaaughan ne raddi men paya aur chhah shiling men nil mikakinaaun namak sngrahakarta ko bech diya. antatah kee hathon se guzarate hue is dak-tikat ko nyooyark ki raaubart saigal aaukshan gailerij ink dvara san 1981 men 9,35,000 ameriki daaular (lagabhag char karod rupaye) men nilam kar diya gaya. kharidadar ka nam abhi bhi gupt rakha gaya hai, kyonki vishv ke is durlabhatam dak tikat hetu usaki hatya bhi ki ja sakati hai.

isi prakar bharat ke dak tikaton men bhi san 1854 men jari char ane vale lithograph men ek shit par maharani viktoriya ka sir tikaton men ulta chhap gaya, is truti ke chalate isaki qimat aj panch lakh rupaye se bhi adhik hai. is prakar ke kul chaudah-pandrah trutipoorn dak tikat hi ab upalabdh hain. svatntrata ke bad san 1948 men mahatma gandhi par dedh ana, sadhe़ tin ana, barah ana aur das rupaye ke moolyon men jari dak tikaton par tatkalin garvanar janaral chakravarti rajagopalachari ne gavarnament haus men sarakari kam men prayukt karane hetu ‘sarvis’ shabd chhapava diya. in alochanaon ke bad ki kisi ki smriti men jari dak tikaton ke oopar ‘sarvis’ nahin chhapa jata, un tikaton ko turant nasht kar diya gaya. par in do-tin dinon men jari sarvis chhape char dak tikaton ke set ka mooly aj tin lakh rupaye se adhik hai. ek ghatanakram men briten ke nyoo brenjavik rajy ke post mastar janaral ne dak tikat par svayn apana chitr chhapava diya. briten men dak tikaton par sirf vahan ke raja aur rani ke chitr chhapate hain, aise men tatkalin maharani viktoriya ne yah tathy sngyan men ate hi dak tikaton ki chhapaee rukava di, par tab tak pachas dak tikat jari hokar bik chuke the. phalasvaroop durlabhata ke chalate in dak tikaton ki qimat aj lakhon men hai.

anoothe prayog

kee deshon ne to dak tikaton ke kshetr men nit naye anoothe prayog karane ki pahal ki hai. svitajaralaind dvara jari ek dak-tikat se chaaukalet ki khushaboo ati hai to bhootan ne triayami ubhare huye riliph tikat, ispat ki patali panniyon, resham, plastik aur sone ki chamakadar panniyon vale dak tikat bhi jari kiye hain. yahi nahin, bhootan ne sugandhit aur bolane vale (chhote rikard ke roop men) dak tikat bhi nikalakar apana sikka jamaya hai. san 1996 men vishv ke pratham dak tikat ‘peni blaik’ ke samman men bhootan ne 140 nyoo mooly varg men 22 kairet sone ke ghol ke upayog vala dak tikat jari kiya tha, jo ab dularbh tikaton ki shreni men ata hai.

sugandhit dak tikat

10 aktoobar, 1985 ko 'bharatiy dak vibhag' ne apana pratham trikoniy dak tikat jari kiya to 'bharatiy rashtriy kangres' ki shatabdi par 28 disambar, 1985 ko ek aisa dak tikat jari kiya, jisamen kul 61 vibhootiyon ke chitr ankit hain. 20 agast, 1991 ko 'bharatiy dak vibhag' ne ab tak ka sabase bada dak tikat poorv pradhanamntri rajiv gandhi par jari kiya. 'bharatiy dak vibhag' ne 13 disambar, 2006 ko 'chandan', 7 faravari, 2007 ko 'gulab' aur 26 aprail, 2008 ko 'joohi' ki khushaboo vale sugndhit dak tikat jari kiye hain, jo ki sal bhar tak sugandhit rahenge. bharat se pahale matr char deshon ne sugandhit dak tikat jari kiye hain. inamen svitajaralaind, thaeelaind v nyoojilaind ne kramashah chakalet, gulab v jaismin ki sugandh vale dak tikat jari kiye hain to bhootan ne bhi sugandhit dak tikat jari kiye hain.

sngrah hetu zaroori baten

aj vishv ke tamam deshon dvara vibhinn vishay vastuon par dak tikat jari kiye ja rahe hain. sabhi dak tikaton ka snkalan n to sambhav hai aur n hi vyavaharik hi. dak tikat sngrah hetu zaroori hai-

  1. kisi khas vishayavastu men ya khas desh ya kshetr ke dak tikat sngrah karane men apani ruchi ke anusar sngrah kiya jay.
  2. dak tikat sngrah ka sabase asan tarika prapt patron par lage dak tikat hain, jinaki apane mitron se adala-badali bhi ki ja sakati hai.
  3. avaran par se dak tikat ko ukhadane ya chhilane ki koshish n karen, varanh liphaphe se tikat vala hissa thoda hashiya dekar kat len.
  4. dak tikaton ko sahej kar rakhane hetu bazar men elabam bhi milate hain. dak tikaton ko elabam men lagane hetu qabza v chimati ka prayog karana chahie.
  5. dak tikat ke aropan men gond ka prayog n karen, kyonki gond hamesha ke liye apake dak tikaton ko kshatigrast kar dega.
  6. kabje (karnas) chhote patale kagaz ke bane hote hain, jinake ek or gond laga hota hai. dak tikat ko pakadane ke lie chimati ka istemal karen, anguliyon se dak tikat maila ho jane ki snbhavana rahati hai.
  7. dak-tikaton ka aropan karane se pahale apane sngrah ko chhant len. kshatigrast tikaton ko nikal phenkane men snkoch nahin karen.
  8. achchhe dak-tikaton ko thande pani ke bartan men rakhen aur kuchh minaton ke bad kagaz se dhire-dhire alag kar len. bhigote samay kuchh dak-tikaton par syahi phail sakati hai, aise dak-tikaton ko alag se bhigona chahiye. chhudae gaye dak-tikaton ko chimati se utha len aur unhen saf kagaz par munh ke bal sookhane ke liye rakh den. jaise-jaise ve sookhenge, kabhi-kabhi unamen snkuchan ata jayega. sookhane ke bad unhen ek pustak men kuchh ghanton ke liye rakh den.
  9. apane dak-tikaton ko chhant len aur jaise ap aropan karana chahate hain vaise hi prishthon par laga den. qabza ka qarib ek tihaee hissa mod len aur usaki nok ko bhigon len v ise dak-tikat ki pith par jod den.
  10. dak-tikat par qabza jadane ke bad kabje ke doosare or ko halka se bhigo den aur dak-tikat ko prishth ke uchit ‘elabam’ ke prishth graph-pepar, jo saman chhote-chhote vargon men vibhakt hote hain, par ap dak-tikaton ko asani se antar par rakh sakate hain.
  11. pratyek tikat par ek chhota-sa vivaran bhi likhana achchha hoga. dak-tikaton ke sngrah ke liye vivaran taiyar karana is shauq ka bada hi anandadayi pahaloo hai. vivaran men dak tikat ke jari hone ki tarikh, avasar aur kalakar ka nam ityadi likha ja sakata hai.
  12. khaka taiyar karane men yah dhyan rakhen ki prishth dak-tikat se ya vivaran se zyada bhar n jaen. donon ka sntulan rahana chahiye.

inhen bhi dekhen: dak soochak snkhya evn dak tikaton men mahatma gandhi


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

bahari kadiyan

panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 dak tikat ki kahani (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) jay hindi. abhigaman tithi: 7 faravari, 2011.
  2. dak tikat banin patr mitrata (hindi) (pi.ech.pi) dakiya dak laya. abhigaman tithi: 8 faravari, 2011.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 sabhyata, snskriti evn virasat ka pratibimb hai filetali (hindi) (pi.ech.pi) srijanagatha. abhigaman tithi: 7 faravari, 2011.
  4. niyat dak tikaton se alag hain smarak (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) dakiya dak laya. abhigaman tithi: 11 faravari, 2011.

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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