आंध्र प्रदेश  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

India-flag.gif
andhr pradesh
Telangana-andhra-pradesh-map.jpg
rajadhani haidarabad (prastavit rajadhani- amaravati)
rajabhasha(en) telugoo
sthapana 1 navnbar, 1956
janasnkhya 49,665,533
· ghanatv 310 /varg kimi
kshetraphal 160,205 varg kimi
bhaugolik nirdeshank 17.366° uttar, 78.476° poorv
tapaman ausat 29 °C
· grishm 45 °C
· sharad 13 °C
zile 13
sabase bada nagar vishakhapattanam
mukhy paryatan sthal salarajng sngrahalay, charaminar, golakunda qila, husain sagar jhil, tirupati venkateshavar mandir
ling anupat 1000:978 ♂/♀
saksharata 67.41%
rajyapal ee.es.el. narasimhan
mukhyamntri en. chndrababoo nayadoo
vidhanasabha sadasy 175
vidhan parishad sadasy 56
lokasabha kshetr 25
bahari kadiyan adhikarik vebasait
adyatan‎
Andhra Pradesh-Logo.png

andhr pradesh (angrezi: Andhra Pradesh) bharat ke dakshin-poorvi tat par sthit ek rajy hai. isaki rajadhani aur sabase bada shahar haidarabad hai. bharat ke sabhi rajyon men sabase lnba samudr tat gujarat men 1600 kilomitar hai aur doosare sthan par is rajy ka samudr tat 972 kilomitar hai. telngana, andhr pradesh rajy se alag hokar banane vala 29van navagathit rajy hai. haidarabad ko das sal ke lie telngana aur andhr pradesh ki snyukt rajadhani banaya gaya hai. amaravati, andhr pradesh ki prastavit rajadhani ka nam hai. pradhanamntri narendr modi ne udndarayanapalam ilake men 22 aktoobar 2015 ko ninv ka patthar rakha tha. guntoor aur vijayavada ka mahanagariy kshetr mila kar amaravati mahanagar kshetr ka nirman kiya jayega.

itihas

andhr pradesh ke vishay men prarnbhik vivaran aitarey brahman (lagabhag 2000 eesa poorv) men milata hai. isamen ullekh hain ki andhr pradesh ke nivasi mool roop se ary jati ke the aur uttar bharat men rahate the, jahan se ve vindhy parvaton ke dakshin tak chale ge aur kalantar men anaryo ke sath ghul mil ge. itihasakaron ke anusar andhr pradesh ka niyamit itihas 236 eesa poorv se milana shuroo hota hai. 236 eesa poorv men hi samrat ashok ka nidhan hua tha aur usake bad ke samay men satavahan, shak, ikshvaku, poorvi chaluky aur kakatiy ne is telugu bhashi desh par rajy kiya. inake bad men vijayanagar aur kutubashahi shasakon ka shasan raha aur unake bad mir kamarooddin ke shasan men 17 vin shatabdi se angrezon ne desh ke kee bhagon ko apane niyntran men le liya aur madras prant ki sthapana kar di.

telugu shabd ka mool roop snskrit men "triling" hai. isaka tatpary andhr pradesh ke shrishail ke mallikarjun ling, kaleshvar aur draksharam ke shivaling se hai. in tinon simaon se ghira desh triling desh aur yahan ki bhasha triling (telugu) kahalaee. is shabd ka prayog telugu ke adi-kavi "nannay bhatt" ke mahabharat men milata hai. yah shabd trinag shabd se bhi utpann hua mana jata hai. isaka ashay tin bade bade parvaton ki madhy sima men vyapt is pradesh se hai. andhr janata uttar disha se dakshin ki or jab hataee gee to dakshinavasi hone ke karan is pradesh aur bhasha ko "tenugu" nam diya gaya.
  • tamil bhasha men dakshin ka nam ten hai. tenugu nam hone ka ek aur karan bhi hai. tenugu men tene (tene u shahad, agu u jaho) shabd ka arth hai shahad. yah bhasha madhumadhur hone ke karan tenugu nam se prasiddh hai. yah pradesh "veginam" se bhi gyat hai. "vegi" ka arth hai krishna, godavari nadiyon ka madhyadesh jo ek bar jal gaya tha. yah nam bhasha ke liye vyavahrit nahin hai.
  • andhr ek jati ka nam hai. rigved ki katha ke anusar rishi vishvamitr ke shap se unake 50 putr andhr, pulind aur shabar ho ge. snbhavat: andhr jati ke log ary kshatriy the.
  • svatntrata ke pashchath telugu bhashi kshetr ko madras prant se alag karake 1 aktoobar 1953 ko ne pradesh ka nirman kiya gaya jisaka nam andhr pradesh rakha gaya. rajy punargathan adhiniyam, 1956 banane ke bad haidarabad rajy ko andhr pradesh men mila kar 1 navnbar, 1956 men 'andhr pradesh' rajy ka nirman hua.
  • andhr pradesh ke uttar men udisa rajy aur chhattisagadh, pashchim men maharashtr aur karnatak, dakshin men tamilanadu aur poorv men lagabhag 975 kilomitar ki tat rekha bngal ki khadi hai.
  • andhr pradesh men utnoor namak sthan par utkhanan ke parinamasvaroop vahan hadappa yugottar snskriti ka abhigyan hua hai.

aitihasik-pauranik sndarbh

tirumala, chittoor zila
  • aitarey brahman, 7,18 men andhr, shabar pulind adi dakshinaty jatiyon ka ullekh hai jo moolat: vindhyaparvat ki upatyakaon men rahati thin. mahabharat sabhaparv 31, 71 men andhron ka ullekhh hai-
pandyanshch dravidanshchaiv sahitanshchondrakeralai: andhrastalavananshchaiv kalinganushtrakarnikanh' .
  • van parv 51,22 men andhron ka cholon aur dravidon ke sath ullekh hai- 'savnganganh sapaundraudranh sacholadravidandhrakanh' ashok ke shilalekh 13 men bhi andhron ko magadh-samrajy ke antargat bataya gaya hai.
  • vishnupuran 4,24,64 men andhr desh ka is prakar ullekh hai.- 'kosalandhrapundratamralipt samudratat purin ch devarakshito rakshit:'.
  • 240 ee. poo. ke lagabhag andhron ne dakshin men ek svatntr rajy sthapit kiya tha jo dhire-dhire bharat-prayadvip bhar men vistrit ho gaya. inhonne vijatiy kshatrapon ko hara kar godavari, barar, malava, kathiyavad aur gujarat tak andhr satta ka vikas kiya.
  • andhr-nareshon men gautamiputr shatakarni bahut prasiddh hua jo 119 ee0 ke lagabhag raj karata tha. andhr-rajy ki prabhusatta 225 ee0 ke lagabhag tak rahi. is samay dakshin bharat ke samudratat par kee bade bndaragah the jinake dvara rom-samrajy se bharat ka vyapar chalata tha.
  • andhr-desh ka antarik shasan-prabndh bhi bahut suvyavasthit aur lokatntriy siddhanton par adharit tha jisaka praman is pradesh ke anek abhilekhon se milata hai. [1]

bhoogol

bhoo-akriti

andhr pradesh rajy men tin pramukh bhautik-bhaugolik kshetr hain:-

  1. poorv men tatiy maidan, jo bngal ki khadi se lekar parvatashreniyon tak phaila hai;
  2. parvatashreniyan arthath poorvi ghat, jo tatiy maidanon ka pashchimi parshv banate hain;
  3. ghat ke pashchim se poorv men pathar.

tatiy maidan rajy ki lagabhag poori lnbaee men phaile hain, jahan pashchim se poorv ki or pahadiyon se hokar khadi men girane vali anek nadiyan hain. inamen se do pramukh nadiyon, godavari aur krishna ke delta maidanon ka upajaoo jalodh mitti se yukt madhy bhag banate hain. poorvi ghat vishal nadi ghatiyon ke karan ek satat shreni nahin banate. ye ghat madhy bharat se sudur dakshin tak phaili ek badi parvatashreni ka hissa hain, jo poorvi tat ke samanantar hain. yahan ki tatiy mitti bahut sarndhr hai. in parvatashreniyon ke pashchim k pathar kayantarit chattan se bana hai°(aisi chattan, jo atyadhik antarik tap aur dab ke karan banati hai). pathar ki samudr tal se ausat oonchaee 487.6 mitar hai. ksharan ke karan yah sidhidar ghatiyon ka kshetr ban gaya hai, jahan ki mitti lal v retili aur pahadiyan ekal hain. yahan ke kuchh kshetron men kali mitti bhi paee jati hai.

jalavayu

andhr pradesh men tin rituen paee jati hain-

  1. march se joon tak grishm
  2. julaee se sitnbar tak ushnakatibndhiy varsha
  3. aktoobar se faravari tak shit ritu.

poore rajy men adhikatam aur nyoonatam tapaman kramashah 23° se 28° se. aur 10° se 12° se. ke bich rahata hai. tatiy maidanon men grishm ritu kafi garm rahati hai aur kuchh sthanon par tapaman 42° se. tak pahunch jata hai. pathar par garmiyon men halka thndapan rahata hai aur sardiyon men bahut thnd padati hai. andhr pradesh men adhikansh varsha dakshin-pashchim maaunasooni havaon se hoti hai aur kuchh sthanon par 1,400 mimi varsha hoti hai, jabaki any sthanon par varsha ka star keval 508 mimi hai. andhr pradesh ke tatiy kshetron men bhari varsha hoti hai. pathar ke kuchh kshetron, visheshakar uttar aur pashchim men bahut kam varsha hoti hai.

arthavyavastha

khadyann utpadan men snlagn andhr pradesh ki arthavyavastha ka prathamik kshetr krishi hai. andhr pradesh desh ke pramukh dhan utpadan rajyon men se ek hai aur bharat men varjiniya tnbakoo ka lagabhag 4/5 bhag ka utpadan bhi yahin hota hai. rajy ki nadiyan, visheshakar godavari aur krishna krishi ke lie mahattvapoorn hain. lnbe samay tak inake labh andhr pradesh ke tatiy kshetron tak simit the, jinhen sarvottam sinchaee suvidhaen upalabdh thin. svatntrata ke bad shushk antarik kshetron ke lie in do nadiyon ke alava any do nadiyon ke pani ko ekatr karane ke prayas kie ge hain. naharon dvara sinchaee karane se telngana aur rayalasima kshetron men tatiy andhr pradesh ki krishi-audyogik ikaiyon se hod leti ikaiyon ki snkhya badh gee hai.

krishi

khadyann utpadan men snlagn andhr pradesh ki arthavyavastha ka prathamik kshetr krishi hai. andhr pradesh desh ke pramukh dhan utpadan rajyon men se ek hai aur bharat men varjiniya tnbakoo ka lagabhag 4/5 bhag ka utpadan bhi yahin hota hai. rajy ki nadiyan, visheshakar godavari aur krishna krishi ke lie mahattvapoorn hain. lnbe samay tak inake labh andhr pradesh ke tatiy kshetron tak simit the, jinhen sarvottam sinchaee suvidhaen upalabdh thin. svatntrata ke bad shushk antarik kshetron ke lie in do nadiyon ke alava any do nadiyon ke pani ko ekatr karane ke prayas kie ge hain. naharon dvara sinchaee karane se telngana aur rayalasima kshetron men tatiy andhr pradesh ki krishi-audyogik ikaiyon se hod leti ikaiyon ki snkhya badh gee hai. andhr pradesh men nagarikon ka mukhy vyavasay kheti hai, isake lagabhag 62 pratishat hisse men kheti hoti hai. andhr pradesh ki mukhy fasal chaval hai aur yahan ke logon ka mukhy ahar bhi chaval hi hai. rajy ke kul anaj ke utpadan ka 77 pratishat bhag chaval hi hai. yahan ki any pramukh fasalen - jvar, tnbakoo, kapas aur ganna hain. moongaphali bhi andhr pradesh men khoob paida hoti hai. moongaphali ke utpadan ki drishti se bharat men gujarat ka pratham sthan hai, jahan kul utpadan ki 35.95 pratishat moongaphali paida hoti hai. isake bad andhr pradesh (28.32 pratishat) ka doosara aur tamilanadu (11.84 pratishat) ka tisara sthan hai. andhr pradesh rajy ke kshetraphal ke 23 pratishat hisse men saghan ghane van hain. van utpadon men sagavan, yookeliptas, kajoo, kaisyoorina aur imarati lakadi mukhy roop se hain.

sinchaee vyavastha

rajy men mahattvapoorn sinchaee pariyojanaen chal rahi hain unamen 'vnsh dhara pariyojana charan - I', 'godavari delta pranali', 'yeleroo jalashay pariyojana', 'krishna delta pennar nadi nahar pranali', 'nilam snjiv reddi sagar pariyojana', 'tungabhadra pariyojana' aur 'rajo ji bnd pariyojana' shamil hai. andhr pradesh bharat ka pahala rajy hai jisamen sinchaee sadhanon ke prabndhan men kisanon ko bhagidar banaya hain.

snsadhan

rajy ke khanij snsadhanon men esbestas, abhrak, mainganij, bairait aur uchch shreni ka koyala shamil hai. rajy ke dakshini bhagon nimn shreni ka lauh ayask paya jata hai. desh ke kul bairait ka adhikansh utpadan andhr pradesh men hota hai. yah dakshin bharat ka ek matr aisa rajy hai, jahan koyale ke bhndar pae jate hain. godavari aur krishna nadiyon ke delta men prakritik gais ke bade bhndar mile hain. kabhi vishv prasiddh rahi golakunda ka hire ki khanon men ne sire se utpadan kiya ja raha hai. inhin khanon men kohinoor hira aur any prasiddh patthar pae ge the. yahan sphatik, choona-patthar aur grephait bhi paya jata hai. apane khanij snsadhanon ke poorn upayog ke lie rajy ne ek khanan aur dhatu vyapar nigam sthapit kiya hai.

varngal qila

udyog aur khanij

kabhi audyogik roop se alpavikasit raha andhr pradesh 20 vin shatabdi ke uttarardh men bharat ke audyogik rajyon men se ek ban gaya hai. kendr sarakar ne vishakhapattanam aur haidarabad kshetron men jalapot nirman, vaimaniki, vidyut upakaran, mashin upakaran aur dava udyog sthapit kie hain. adhikansh niji udyog vijayavada-guntoor kshetr men sthit hain, jo rasayan, kapada, siment, urvarak, prasnskrit khady utpad, petroliyam utpadan aur sigaret ka utpadan karate hain. vishakhapattanam men ek tel parishodhanashala hai tatha desh ka sabase bada jalapot nirman yard hai phir bhi khanan aur vinirman udyog rajy ki ay ka ek chhota hissa hi hai. kendr sarakar ne vishakhapattanam men ek vishal ispat snyntr khola hai, kyonki vahan kachche mal aur pattan ki suvidhaen sulabh hain. hal ke varshon men panabijali aur tap vidyut pariyojanaon se hua vidyutikaran bhi audyogikikaran v sinchaee men sahayak siddh hua hai. lnbi samudri tatarekha aur anek nadiyon ke karan rajy men matsy udyog bhi mahattvapoorn aur vikasonmukh udyog hai.

haidarabad aur vishakhapattanam ke pas bade udyogon men mashini auzar, aushadhiyan, bhari bijali mashinen, urvarak, ilektraaunnik upakaran, vimanon ke kalapurje, siment aur rasayan, kanch tatha ghadiyon adi ka utpadan hota hai. andhr pradesh men desh ke achchhe kism ke krisolait esbestas ke vishalatam bhndar hain. isake atirikt yahan tanba, mainganij, abhrak, koyala tatha choona patthar jaise mahattvapoorn khanij bhi pae jate hain. singareni koyala khanon se samooche dakshin bharat men koyale ki apoorti ki jati hai.

soochana praudyogiki

  • andhr pradesh soochana praudyogiki ke kshetr men teji se age badh raha hai. aee. ti. kshetr men rajy men kee yojanaen shuroo ki gayi hain.
  • varngal, tirupati, kakinada, vishakhapattanam, vijayavada, guntoor aur kadappa jaise shaharon men soochana praudyogiki ka vistar ho raha hai. aee. aee. ti. medak zile men kary karana shuroo kar raha hai aur bits pilani bhi haidarabad men kainpas kholane ki taiyari kar raha hai.
  • rajiv gandhi gyan praudyogiki vishvavidyalay ke adhin tin bharatiy soochana praudyogiki snsthan (kadappa men idupulapaya, krishna zile men nujavid tatha adilabad men basara men) kholane ke lie prayas ho rahe hain.

parivahan

rajiv gandhi antarrashtriy havaee adda, haidarabad

sadaken

  • san 2007 tak andhr pradesh se hokar gujarane vale rashtriy rajamargon ki lnbaee 4,647 kilomitar thi aur prantiy sadakon ki lnbaee 63,863 kilomitar thi jisamen 10,412 kilomitar prantiy rajamarg the.
  • yahan ki vistrit sadak pranali men tin rashtriy rajamarg shamil hain, jo andhr pradesh ko desh ke any pramukh shaharon se jodate hain.
  • sadakon ki vyavastha rajy aur sthaniy shasan ke hath men hai.
  • bas parivahan, jisake ek bade bhag ka 20vin shatabdi ke uttarardh men phir se nijikaran kar diya gaya, vibhinn shaharon ke bich drutagami suvidhaen pradan karata hai.

relave

  • rajy ke adhikansh bhagon men rel pranali hai, jo ise bharat ke any bhagon se jodati hai.
  • andhr pradesh men lagabhag 5,107 kilomitar relamargo men se 4,633 kilomitar badi lain vale, 437 kilomitar mitar gej tatha 37 kilomitar chhoti lain vale hain.

uddayan

bndaragah

  • tatiy kshetron men naharon, visheshakar krishna nadi se chennee tak tat ke samanantar bah rahi khare pani ki kommamur nahar ka upayog mal dhone ke lie kiya jata hai.
  • vishakhapattanam ek pramukh samudri antarrashtriy bndaragah hai.

shiksha

andhr pradesh men saksharata dar lagabhag 61.11 pratishat hai. rajy ki shiksha pranali men skooli shiksha ke 10 varsh ke bad do varsh ka jooniyar kaaulej pathyakram shamil hai, usake bad snatak aur snatakottar shiksha ki vyavastha hai. 1961 se rajy men prathamik shiksha ni:shulk aur anivary rahi hai. sthaniy nikayon ke antargat ane vali madhyamik shiksha bhi ni:shulk hai. rajy men 12 vishvavidyalay hain- haidarabad (krishi vishvavidyalay sahit panch), vaaulteyar, varngal, guntoor, vijayavada, anntapur aur tirupati (do) - pratyek se kee mahavidyalay snbaddh hain. kee snsthan snatakottar prashikshan aur suvidhaen upalabdh karate hain. haidarabad men angrezi aur videshi bhashaon ka kendriy snsthan hai.
uchch nyayalay, haidarabad
audyogikikaran ki avashyakataon ko poora karane ke lie kee varshon se takaniki shiksha par vishesh dhyan diya ja raha hai. bahut se audyogik prashikshan snsthan vyavasayik prashikshan dete hain, vishvavidyalayon ke injiniyaring kaaulej uchchastariy takaniki karmiyon ko prashikshit karate hain. ye suvidhaen niji taur par kam karane vale snsthanon men bhi upalabdh hain.

sanskritik jivan

bharatiy sanskritik virasat men andhr pradesh ka yogadan ullekhaniy hai. prachin samay se is kshetr men vastukala aur chitrakala atynt vikasit rahi. bharatiy parnpara men kuchipudi nrity shaili anokhi hai. karnatak (dakshin bharatiy) sngit ne andhr pradesh se bahut kuchh grahan kiya hai. kee dakshin bharatiy shastriy sngitakar andhr pradesh ke hain aur bahut si sngit rachanaon ki bhasha telugu rahi hai. dravid parivar ki char pramukh sahityik bhashaon men se ek telugu ka bharatiy bhashaon men sammanit sthan hai. yah bhasha apani puratan shaili aur madhur pravah ke lie vikhyat hai. adhunik bharatiy sahityik punarjagaran men andhravasi pramukh rahe hain aur unake lekhan men sahityik svaroopon aur abhivyakti men aee samakalin kranti ka prabhav pratibinbit hua hai. yahan angreji, telugu aur urdoo men kee patrikaen prakashit hoti hain.

telngana kshetr ki muslim snskriti rajy ki sanskritik vividhata ko aur bhi samriddh karati hai. kala v sahity rajasi v niji snrakshan men panapate the, jinamen se kuchh pratishthan aj bhi karyarat hain. rajy ne lalit kalaon, nrity, natak, sngit aur sahity ke punarutthan, unaki lokapriyata badhane aur protsahit karane ke lie svayatt akadamiyan banaee hain. snskriti ki satat chetana gramin ki bajay ek shahari prakriya hai, kyonki sanskritik karyakram, sahityik baithaken aur dharmik charchaen adhikatar nagaron ya shaharon men hoti hain. gramin kshetron men lokasnskriti ki pradhanata hai. rajy ke alag-alag bhagon men vibhinn aitihasik paristhitiyon men hue sanskritik vikas ke karan vahan ki boliyon, jati vyavastha aur adaton men antar ane se lokakala men vaividhy aya. lokagayakon dvara gayan, kathaputali nach aur pauranik katha vachan is kshetr ki apani kalaen hain. gramin kshetron men snchar madhyamon, visheshakar rediyon aur telivijan ki pahunch se gramin janata men shastriy snskriti aur shahari janata men lok snskriti snbndhi jagarukata lane men madad mili hai. andhr pradesh film banane vale kuchh pramukh bharatiy rajyon men se ek hai.

paryatan sthal

  • yadagirigutta men shrilakshmi narasinh svami mndir
  • nagarjunakonda aur nagarjun sagar men bauddh stoop
  • tiroomala-tiroopati men shri tirupati venkateshvar mndir
  • shriselamak ka shrimallikarjunasvami mndir
  • vijayavada ka kanak durga mndir
  • panigiri, jahan prachin shatavahan kalin bauddh upanivesh ke bhagnavashesh hain.
  • annavaram men shri satyanarayan svami mndir
  • simhachalam men shri varah narasinh svami mndir
  • bhadrachalam men shri sitaram mndir, arakughati, horsale pahadiyan, sheshachalam pahadiyan, eramala parvatamala, nallamalaee parvat aur nelapatatoo adi andhr pradesh ke mahattvapoorn paryatan sthal hain.
  • haidarabad ki husain sagar jhil men tainkabnd men pramukh telugu mahapurushon ki 33 adamaqad moortiyan lagaee gee hain aur jhil ke bich men jibraltar chattan par 60 phut ki vishalakay buddh pratima lagaee gee hai. yah jhil haidarabad aur sikndarabad shaharon ko alag karati hai.
  • kesarapalli andhr pradesh ke krishna zilantargat ek aitihasik sthan hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

vithika

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. aitihasik sthanavali se pej snkhya 58| vijayendr kumar mathur | vaigyanik tatha takaniki shabdavali ayog | manav snsadhan vikas mntralay, bharat sarakar

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