जम्मू और कश्मीर  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

jammoo-kashmir lekh soochi
parichay    itihas    bhoogol    arthavyavastha    shiksha    janajivan    krishi    snskriti    paryatan    chitravali
India-flag.gif
jammoo aur kashmir
Jammu-kashmir-map.jpg
rajadhani jammoo (shitakalin)
shrinagar (grishmakalin)
rajabhasha(en) urdoo, kashmiri, pahadi, laddakhi aur dogari
sthapana 26 janavari, 1947
janasnkhya 10,143,700[1]
· ghanatv 100 /ki.mi2 (259 /sq mi) [2] /varg kimi
kshetraphal 222,236 kimi2 (85,806 mil2)
bhaugolik nirdeshank 33° 27′ 0″ uttar, 76° 14′ 24″ poorv
tapaman 23 °C (ausat)
· grishm 23.4 - 43.0 °C
· sharad 4.3 - 26.2 °C
zile 22
sabase bada nagar shrinagar
mukhy paryatan sthal vaishno devi, amaranath, dal jhil, leh, laddakh, gulamarg, karagil, amar mahal pailes, nishat bag, shalimar bag
ling anupat 1000:923 ♂/♀
saksharata 54.46%%
· stri 41.82%%
· purush 65.75%%
rajyapal narindar nath vohara
mukhyamntri mahabooba mufti[3]
vidhanasabha sadasy 89
vidhan parishad sadasy 36
bahari kadiyan adhikarik vebasait
adyatan‎
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jammoo aur kashh‍mir (angrezi: Jammu and Kashmir) bharatiy rajy, jo bharatiy upamahadvip ke uttari bhag men pashchimi parvatashreniyon ke nikat sthit hai. pahale yah bharat ki badi riyasaton men se ek tha. yah poorvattar men sinkyang ka svayatt kshetr v tibbati svayatt kshetr (donon chin ke bhag) se, dakshin men himachal pradesh v pnjab rajyon se, pashchim men pakistan aur pashchimottar men pakistan adhikrit bhoobhag se ghira hai. jammoo-kashmir rajy ke pashchim madhy hisse ke pakistan adhikrit kshetr men devasee parvat hai. is rajy ki rajadhani grishh‍makal men shrinagar aur shitakal men jammoo rajadhani rahati hai.

bhaugolik sthiti

jammoo aur kashh‍mir rajh‍y 32-15 aur 37-05 uttari akshansh aur 72-35 tatha 83-20 poorvi deshantar ke bich sthit hai. bhaugolik roop se is rajh‍y ko char kshetron men banta ja sakata hai.

  1. pahadi aur arddh-pahadi maidan jo kndi patti ke nam se prachalit hai;
  2. parvatiy kshetr jisamen shivalik pahadiyan shamil hain;
  3. kashh‍mir ghati ke pahad aur pir panchal parvatamala tatha
  4. tibh‍bat se laga laddakh aur karagil kshetr.

bhaugolik tatha sansh‍kritik roop se rajh‍y ke tin zila kshetr jammoo, kashh‍mir aur laddakh hain.

itihas

rajatarngini tatha nilam puran namak do pramanik grnthon men yah akhh‍yan milata hai ki kashmir ki ghati kabhi bahut badi jhil hua karati thi. is katha ke anusar kashyap rishi ne yahan se pani nikal liya aur ise manoram prakritik sh‍thal men badal diya, kintu bhoogarbhashastriyon ka kahana hai ki bhoogarbhiy parivartanon ke karan khadiyanayar, baramula men pahadon ke dhnsane se jhil ka pani bahakar nikal gaya aur is tarah 'prithh‍vi par sh‍varg' kahalane vali kashh‍mir ki ghati astith‍v men aee. eesa poorv tisari shatabh‍di men samrat ashok ne kashh‍mir men bauddh dharm ka prasar kiya. bad men kanishk ne isaki jaden aur gahari kin. chhathi shatabh‍di ke arnbh men kashh‍mir par hoonon ka adhikar ho gaya.

tso moriri jhil, laddakh

yadyapi sanh 530 men ghati phir sh‍vatntr ho gee lekin isake turnt bad is par ujjain samrajh‍y ka niyntran ho gaya. vikramadity rajavnsh ke patan ke pashh‍chat kashh‍mir par sh‍thaniy shasak raj karane lage. vahan hindoo aur bauddh snsh‍kritiyon ka mishrit roop vikasit hua. kashh‍mir ke hinh‍doo rajaon men lalitadith‍y (san 697 se sanh 738) sabase prasiddh raja hue jinaka rajh‍y poorv men bngal tak, dakshin men konkan, uttar-pashchim men turkish‍tan, aur u‍ttar-poorv men tibbat tak phaila tha. lalitadith‍y ne anek bhavh‍y bhavanon ka nirman kiya. kashh‍mir men ish‍lam ka agaman 13 vin aur 14vin shatabh‍di men hua. muslim shasako men jain-ul-abadin (1420-70) sabase prasiddh shasak hue, jo kashh‍mir men us samay satta men ae, jab tataro ke hamale ke bad hindoo raja sinhadev bhag ge. bad men chak shasakon ne jain-ul-avadin ke putr haidarashah ki sena ko khaded diya aur sanh 1586 tak kashh‍mir par raj kiya. sanh 1586 men akabar ne kashh‍mir ko jit liya. sanh 1752 men kashh‍mir tath‍kalin kamazor mugal shasak ke hath se nikalakar afaganistan ke ahamad shah abdali ke hathon men chala gaya. 67 sal tak pathanon ne kashh‍mir ghati par shasan kiya.

vartaman svaroop

apane vartaman svaroop men jammoo-kashmir ka anchal, 1846 men roopayit hua. jab pratham sikkh yuddh ke ant men lahaur aur amritasar ki sndhiyon ke dvara jammoo ke dogara shasak raja gulab sinh ek vistrit, lekin anishchit se himalay kshetriy rajy, jise 'sindhu nadi ke poorv ki or ravi nadi ke pashchim ki or' shabdavali dvara paribhashit kiya gaya tha, ke maharaja ban ge. rajy ki simaon ke antargat pashchimottar men simaon ka svaroop 19vin shatabdi ke akhiri dashak men adhik spasht hua. jab briten ne pamir kshetr men sima nirdharan sambandhi samajhaute afaganistan aur roos ke sath sampann kie. is samay gilagit, jo hamesha kashmir ka bhag samajha jata tha, rananitik karanon se 1889 men ek british ejent ke tahat ek vishesh ejensi ke roop men gathit kiya gaya. san 1947 tak jammoo par dogara shasakon ka shasan raha.

anuchchhed 370

british hukoomat ki samapti ke sath hi jammoo aur kashmir bhi azad hua. shuroo men isake shasak maharaj harisinh ne phaisala kiya ki vah bharat ya pakistan men sammilit n hokar svatntr rahenge, lekin 20 aktoobar, 1947 ko pakistan samarthak azad kashmir sena ne rajy par akraman kar diya, jisase maharaj harisinh ne rajy ko bharat men milane ka phaisala liya. us vilay patr par 26 aktoobar, 1947 ko pandit javaharalal neharoo aur maharaj harisinh ne hastakshar kiye. is vilay patr ke anusar- "rajy keval tin vishayon- raksha, videshi mamale aur snchar -par apana adhikar nahin rakhega, baki sabhi par usaka niyntran hoga. us samay bharat sarakar ne ashvasan diya ki is rajy ke log apane svayn ke snvidhan dvara rajy par bharatiy sngh ke adhikar kshetr ko nirdharit karenge. jab tak rajy vidhan sabha dvara bharat sarakar ke phaisale par muhar nahin lagaya jayega, tab tak bharat ka snvidhan rajy ke sambndh men keval antarim vyavastha kar sakata hai. isi kram men bharatiy snvidhan men 'anuchchhed 370' joda gaya, jisamen bataya gaya ki jammoo-kashmir se sambndhit rajy upabndh keval asthayi hai, sthayi nahin.

bhoogol

bhaugolik roop se is rajy ko nimn prakar se vibhajit kiya jata hai-

maidan

jammoo kshetr men snkirn maidani pravesh ki visheshata taraiyon se nikali jaladharaon ke dvara jama avasad aur domat mitti v loes (vayu ke dvara lakar jama ki gee mitti) se dhake ekadam alag ho chuke aparadit chattan se nirmit retile jalodh pnkhon ke antahbndhan hain. jo abhinootan (plistosin) yug (yani 10 hazar se 16 lakh varsh purana) ke hain. yahan varsha 380 se 500 mimi varshik tak hoti hai. garmi ke mausam men (joon se sitnbar men) jab manasooni havaen chalati hain, tab tez lekin aniyamit phuharon ke roop men varsha hoti hai. andarooni ilaqa pedon se poori tarah vihin ho gaya hai aur kntili jhadiyan ya moti ghas hi yahan ki mukhy vanaspati hai.

taraee kshetr

himalay ki taraiyon se, jinaki oonchaee 610 se 2134 mitar tak hai, bahari aur bhitari prakshetr nirmit hai. bahari parikshetr ki rachana balua patthar, chikani mitti, pnk aur snpidit chattanon se huee hai. ye kshetr himalay ki valan gatividhi se prabhavit hokar aur aparadan ke karan lambe parvatiy katakon aur ghatiyon (doon) ke akar ke ho ge hain. andarooni prakshetr adhik bhimakay talachhati chattanon se, jisamen miosin yug (lagabhag 53 se 237 lakh varsh poorv) ke lal balua patthar shamil hain, se bana hai. jinake mudane tutane aur ksharit hone se khadi dhalan vale parvat skndhon v patharon ka nirman hua. nadi ghatiyon ki katan tikhi v sidhidar hai aur bhrnshon se oodhamapur tatha punchh jaise jalodh mitti ke besin ban ge hain. oonchaee ke sath - sath varsha badhati jati hai aur oonchaee badhane ke sath nichali jhadidar bhoomi ka sthan devadar aur chid ke jngal le lete hain.

kashmir ki ghati

kashmir ki ghati ka ek gahara tatha visham besin hai, jo pir pnjal aur vishal himalay parvat shreni ke pashchim chhor ke bich men sthit ausatan 1,600 mitar ki oonchaee vali hai. abhinootan (plistosin) yug ke dauran yah kabhi kareva jhil ki talahati thi. ab yah oopari jhelam nadi ke dvara jama ki gee talachhat aur jalodh mitti se bhari huee hai. mitti aur pani ki sthitiyon men ullekhaniy vividhata hai. jalavayu ki drishti se yahan lagabhag 750 mimi varshik varsha hoti hai. kuchh to grishm kalin manasooni havaon se aur kuchh shit ­ ritu men kam dab ki pranali se sambaddh havaon se hoti hai. aksar himapat ka sath varsha aur ole dete hain. oonchaee ke karan tapaman kafi parivartit ho jata hai. shrinagar men nyoonatam ausat tapaman janavari men 2 digri se. hota hai aur adhikatam ausat tapaman julaee men 31 digri se. tak rahata hai. inhen bhi dekhen: pir pnjal parvat shreni, oopari sindhu ghati evn karakoram parvat shreni

jalavayu

thiksey gompa, leh

rajy ka 90 pratishat se adhik bhag pahadi kshetr hai. is kshetr ko bhaugolik akriti ki drishti se is sat bhagon men banta gaya hai. jo pashchimi himalay ke snrachanatmak ghatakon se jude hain. dakshin pashchim se poorvottar tak in kshetron men maidan, nichali pahadiyan, pir pnjal parvat shreni, kashmir ki ghati, vrihad himalay kshetr, oopari sindhu ghati aur karakoram parvat shreni shamil hai. jalavayu ki drishti se isamen poorvottar ki alpiy (pahadi) jalavayu se lekar dakshin—pashchim men uposhn tak ki vividhata hai. ausat varshik varsha uttar men 75 mimi se lekar dakshin-poorv men 1150 mimi tak hai.

janajivan

bhoo-akriti ki vividhata ke karan is kshetr men logon ke vyavasayon men bhi bhari vividhata paee jati hai. logon ke pnjab se akar basane ki dirghakalin pravritti ke karan maidanon aur taraiyon men krishi bastiyan hain. log aur unaki snskriti, donon ki pnjab ke padosi kshetron aur pashchim ki any nimnabhoomi ke samaroop hai. jahan jaladh mitti aur sinchaee ke lie pani ki upalabdhi ne kheti ko sambhav banaya hai. jaisa ki doonon aur nichali ghatiyon men hua. janasnkhya gehoon aur jau ki fasalon par nirbhar hai. yah fasal basant (rabi) men kati jati hai aur chaval tatha makka grishm ke ant (kharif) ki fasalen hain, sath hi pashupalan bhi viral hai aur makka ki kheti, pashupalan aur vany upajon par nirbhar hai. dakshini maidani bazaron ke lie doodh aur shuddh ghi ke utpadan ke lie basant men oonche charagahon ki or pravas zaroori hota hai. shit ritu men pahadiyon ke nivasi nichale kshetron men laut ate hain aur shasakiy vanon ya lakadi ki milon men kam karate hain. khetihar chhoti bastiyon aur ganvon ki bahutayat hai. jammoo aur udhamapur jaise nagar gramin aur asapas ke istet ke lie bazar kendr v prashasanik mukhyalay ka kam karate hain.

gulamarg ka mndir

bhasha

kashmiri bhasha snskrit se prabhavit hai aur gilagit ki vibhinn pahadi janajatiyon ke dvara boli jane vali bharatiy - ary bhashaon ki dardiy shakha ki hai. urdoo, dogari, kashh‍miri, laddakhi, balh‍ti, pahadi, pnjabi, gujari aur dadari bhashaon ka prayog sadharan nagarikon dvara kiya jata hai. kashmir ki ghati ke nivasi urdoo ya kashmiri bolate hain. kashmiri bhasha bharatiy ary varg ki dardiy shakha ki hai aur lokagiton v sahity se samriddh hai.

janasnkhya

2001 ki janasnkhya ganana ke anusar rajy ki kul janasnkhya 1,00,69,917; gramin janasnkhya 75,64,608; shahari janasnkhya 25,05,309 hai.

janaganana

janaganana 2001 ke anusar rajh‍y ki saksharata dar 54.46 pratishat hai; gramin saksharata 48.22 pratishat aur shahari saksharata 72.17 pratishat hain. rajh‍y men purush saksharata anumanat: 67.75 pratishat aur mahila saksharata 41.82 pratishat hain. yahan panch vishh‍vavidyalay aur 41 mahavidyalay hain jinamen se 8 niji kshetr ke hain.

arthavyavastha

pashmina bakari, jammoo aur kashmir

adhikansh log jivan nirvah ke lie krishi men lage hain aur chaval, makka, gehoon, jau, dalen, tilahan tatha tambakoo sidhinuma pahadi dhalanon par ugate hain. kashmir ki ghati men bade - bade bagon men seb, nashapati, adoo, shahatoot, akharot aur badam ugae jate hain. kashmir ki ghati bharatiy upamahadvip ke lie ekamatr kesar utpadak hai. goojar aur gaddi khanabadoshon ke dvara bhed, bakari, yaauk v khachcharon ka palan aur ritu pravas kiya jata hai. kashmir ke prasiddh pashmina ka utpadan yahin pali jane vali bakariyon se hota hai. resham palan bhi bahut prachalit hai.

udyog

hash‍t‍shilh‍p yahan ka parapnragat udyog hai. hath se bani vash‍tuon ki vh‍yapak rozagar kshamata aur visheshgyta ko dekhate hue rajh‍y sarakar h‍sh‍tashilh‍p ko uchh‍ch prathamikata de rahi hai. kashh‍mir ke pramukh hash‍tashilh‍p uth‍padon men kagaz ki lugadi se bani vash‍tuen, lakadi par naqqashi, kalin, shaaul aur kashidakari ka saman adi shamil hain. hash‍tashilh‍p udyog se kafi matra men videshi mudra arjit hoti hai. hash‍tashilh‍p udyog men 3.40 lakh kamagar lage hue hain. udyogon ki snkhh‍ya badhi hai. karatholi, jammoo men 19 karod rupaye ka niryat proth‍sahan audyogik park banaya gaya hai. aisa hi ek park omapora, badagam men banaya ja raha hai. jammoo men shahari hat hain jabaki isi tarah ke hat shrinagar men banae ja rahe hai. ragreth, shrinagar men 6.50 karod rupaye ki lagat se saauphtevayar tekh‍nolaauji park shuroo kiya gaya hai. bhoomi sudhar kie ge hain. ann ka utpadan badha hai aur 1947 ke bad mukhy niryat vastuon, lakadi, phal aur sookhe meve v dastakari ke utpadan ki matra bahut badhi hai. dhatu ke bartan, parishuddhata ke upakaran, khel ka saman (mukhyatah kriket ke balle), farnichar, kashidakari, machis, ral aur tarapin is rajy ke pramukh audyogik utpad hain.

kashmiri shaaul

krishi

rajh‍y ki lagabhag 80 pratishat janasnkhh‍ya krishi par nirbhar hai. dhan, gehoon aur makh‍ka yahan ki pramukh fasalen hain. kuchh bhagon men jau, bajara aur jh‍var ugaee jati hai. laddakh men chane ki kheti hoti hai. phalodyanon ka kshetraphal 242 lakh hekh‍teyar hai. rajh‍y men 2000 karod rupaye ke phalon ka uth‍padan prativarsh hota hai jisamen akharot niryat ke 120 karod rupaye bhi shamil hain. jammoo-kashh‍mir rajh‍y seb aur akharoton ke lie krishi niryat kshetr ghoshit kiya gaya hai. bazar hash‍takshep yojana ki shuruat se uchit greding sunishchit karate hue phalon ki gunavatta men sudhar laya jata hai. 25 lakh se adhik logon ko prath‍yaksh athava roop se bagavani kshetr se rozagar milata hain.

gulamarg, jammoo aur kashmir

khanij sampada

is kshetr men khanij aur jivashm eendhan ke sadhan simit hain. inaka adhikansh bhag jammoo kshetr men snkenndrit hai. prakritik gais ke chhote bhandar jammoo ke nikat pae jate hain. baauksait aur jipsam ke bhandar udhamapur zile men hain. any khanijon men choona patthar, koyala, jasta aur tanba shamil hai.

bijali

rajh‍y men bijali kshetr ko uchh‍ch prathamikata di gee hai jisamen rajh‍y ki 20,000 megavat ki vishal snbhavh‍y panabijali kshamata ke upayog par vishesh bal diya gaya hai. 25 megavat tak ki laghu panabijali pariyojanaon men niji nivesh ko proth‍sahan dene hetu nee niti ghoshit ki gee hai. en.ech.pi.si. ko 2,798 megavat ki kshamata ki sat panabijali pariyojanaen saunpi gee hain. rajh‍y ki kul avashh‍yakata neshanal grid se bijali kharid kar poori hoti hai. leh sahit adhikansh mahattvapoorn nagaron aur ganvon men bijali hai. bijali paida karane ke lie jalavidyut aur tapavidyut snyntr lagae ge hain, jo sthaniy kachche mal par adharit udyogon ko bijali ki apoorti karate hain. chineni aur salan men mukhy vidyut kendr hain, jo oopari sindhu aur nichali jhelam nadi par hain. uri jalavidyut pariyojana ka pahala charan bhi prarambh kiya gaya hai.

prashasanik vyavasthaen

shah hamadan masjid, shrinagar

vibhajan se pahale yah sampoorn kshetr jammoo aur kashmir ke prant v simavarti rajyon laddakh, baltistan tatha gilagit ejensi ko samavisht kie hue tha. muzaffarabad, kotali aur mirapur zile ke sath - sath uttari kshetron men shamil punchh, baltistan, asataur aur gilagit ejensi, jo ab pakistan adhikrit kshetr hai, ke hisse hain. yah sampoorn kshetr laddakh (leh) zila aur anntanag, baramoola, shrinagar, pulavama, badagam, kupavada aur karagil zila, jo shrinagar prant men hain aur jammoo prant ke zile, kathua, udhamapur, rajauri, doda aur punchh ka kuchh bhag, ye sabhi bharat ke jammoo - kashmir rajy ke bhag hain.
jammoo - kashmir rajy ka sngh sarakar men ek vishesh darja bana hua hai. bharat ke shesh rajy bharatiy snvidhan ka palan karate hain, lekin jammoo - kashmir ka apana prithakh snvidhan (1956 men svikrit) hai, jo bharatiy ganarajy ka abhinn ang hone ki pushti karata hai. sngh sarakar ke pas pratiraksha, videsh niti evn snchar ke mamalon men pratyaksh vaidhanik adhikar hain aur nagarikata, suprim kort ke kshetradhikar aur apatakalin shaktiyon ke mamalon men apratyaksh prabhav hasil hai. jammoo - kashmir ke snvidhan ke antargat, rajy ke rajyapal ki niyukti bharat ke rashtrapati dvara ki jati hai. prashasanik adhikar, nirvachit mukhyamntri aur mntrimndal ke pas hote hain. vidhanasabha ke do sadan hai - vibhinn kshetron ke 87 pratinidhiyon se gathit vidhanasabha aur 36 sadasyiy vidhan parishad, rajy se chhah nirvachit pratinidhi sidhe bharatiy snsad ki lokasabha men bheje jate hain aur vidhanasabha v vidhan parishad dvara snyukt roop se nirvachit chhah sadasy rajyasabha men bheje jate hain. uchch nyayalay men ek mukhy nyayadhish aur 11 any nyayadhish hote hain, jo bharat ke rashtrapati dvara niyukt kie jate hain.

shiksha aur svasthy

shiksha har star par niahshulk hai. saksharata ki dar, visheshakar leh men, rajy ke ausat ke barabar hai. uchch shiksha ke do kendr hain. donon 1969 men sthapit hue the. ye hain – kashmir mahavidyalay, shrinagar aur jammoo vishvavidyalay, chikitsa seva rajy bhar men phaile hue aspatalon aur davakhanon dvara pradan ki jati hai. 1982 men sthapit chikitsa vigyan ka ek uchch stariy visheshgy snsthan shrinagar men hai. isake alava do krishi vishvavidyalay bhi shrinagar aur jammoo men kramashah 1982 se 1999 men sthapit kie ge the. laddakh men svasthy suvidhaon ki upalabdhata apekshakrit kam hai. inafluenza, dama aur pechish svasthy sambandhi samany samasyaen hain. hriday rog, kainsar v kshayarog ke mamale bhi ghati men badh rahe hain.

oonton ka jhund, jammoo aur kashmir

yatayat

bharatiy sngh sarakar ne jammoo - kashmir men rajamargon aur snchar suvidhaon ke vikas par bhari viniyog kiya hai. desh ke vibhajan aur kashmir par bharat - pakistan vivad ke karan shrinagar se jhelam ki ghati hote hue ravalapindi ka marg avaruddh ho gaya. isake karan ek lambe aur adhik kathin gadi marg ko, jo banihal darre se hokar jata tha, sabhi mausamon men upayog yogy rajamarg men badalana zaroori ho gaya. isi men shamil hai 'javahar surng' (1959) ka nirman, jo eshiya ki sabase lambi surng hai. magar yah sadak kee bar tikhe mausam ke karan durgam ho jati hai. jisake karan ghati men avashyak vastuon ki kami ho jati hai. ek sadak shrinagar ko karagil aur leh se milati hai. jammoo uttar relave ka antim steshan hai. shrinagar aur jammoo vayamarg se dilli aur doosare bharatiy shaharo se jude hue hain. shrinagar se leh, leh—jammoo aur leh—dilli ke bich bhi vayusevaen upalabdh hain.

snskriti

lamayuru math, jammoo aur kashmir
  • navareh shabd snskrit shabd "navavarsh" se bana hai. kashmir men navareh navachndr varsh ke roop men manaya jata hai.
  • shivaratri bhi jammoo aur kashmir men shraddha aur bhakti ke sath manaee jati hai.
  • rajh‍y men manae jane vale char muslim th‍yohar hain- eed-ul-phitar, eed ul zuha, eed-e-milad ya miladunnabi aur meraj alam. muharram bhi manaya jata hain.
  • laddakh ka vishh‍v prasiddh gomh‍pa uth‍sav joon mahine men manaya jata hai.
  • hemis uth‍sav ka pramukh akarshak mukhauta nrith‍y hai.
  • leh men spituk bauddh vihar men har sal janavari men hone vale parv men kali ki pratimaen bade paimane par pradarshit ki jati hain.
  • isake alava sardi ke charam ka th‍yohar lohadi tatha ramaban aur pados ke ganvon men sinh snkranti aur agash‍t mah men bhadaravah men mela pat manaya jata hain.

paryatan sh‍thal

hausabot, shrinagar

paryatan suvidhaon men kafi sudhar kie ge hain, yadyapi sambhavanaon ka abhi bhi kafi upayog karana shesh hai. paryatan ka laddakh par mahattvapoorn samajik - arthik prabhav pada hai. yah 1970 tak bahari logon se samanyatah kata raha tha. (1974 men 500 paryatak aur 1992 men 16,018). aitihasik aur dharmik sthalon ke alava paryatakon ke akarshan ke kendr hain -

  • gulamarg men ais sketing kendr, jo baramoola ke dakshin men pir pnjal shreni men sthit hai aur pahalagam, jo liddar nadi ke kinare sthit hai.
  • gndhak ke sote, jo jodon ke dard aur gathiya ke rogon ke shighr ilaj ke lie prasiddh hain, leh ke nikat chumathng men aur nobara v pooga (chagathng) men sthit hai, paryatakon ko akarshit karate hain.
  • kashh‍mir ghati ko prithh‍vi ka sh‍varg mana jata hai. kashh‍mir ghati men chashh‍meshahi jharana, shalimar bag, dal jhil, gulamarg, pahalagam, sonamarg aur amaranath ki parvat gupha tatha jammoo ke nikat vaishh‍no devi mndir, patani tap aur laddakh ke bauddh math rajh‍y ke pramukh paryatan kendr hain. 15 sitnbar ko laddakh mahoth‍sav tatha joon sindhu darshan prasiddh th‍yohar hain.
leh
leh ka vihngam drishy
Panoramic View Of Leh


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. Indian Census
  2. Population density
  3. https://jk.gov.in/jammukashmir/ adhikarik vebasait

snbndhit lekh