अशोक के शिलालेख  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ashok vishay soochi
ashok    jivan parichay    shasan kshetr    kalakram    dhamm    shilalekh    parivar    vistrit lekh
ashok ke chitr ki pratilipi

maury samrat ashok ke itihas ki sampoorn janakari usake abhilekhon se milati hai. yah mana jata hai ki, ashok ko abhilekhon ki prerana eeran ke shasak 'deriyas' se mili thi. ashok ke lagabhag 40 abhilekh prapt hue hain. ye brahmi, kharoshthi aur armeik-grik lipiyon men likhe gaye hain. samrat ashok ke brahmi lipi men likhit sandesh ko sarvapratham elegjendar kaningham ke sahakarmi jems prinsep ne padha tha. ashok ke abhilekhon ko tin bhagon men vibhajit kiya ja sakata hai-

  1. shilalekh
  2. stambhalekh
  3. guhalekh
  • shilalekhon aur stambh lekhon ko do upashreniyon men rakha jata hai. 14 shilalekh silasilevar hain, jinako chaturdash shilalekh kaha jata hai. ye shilalekh shahabajagadhi, manasera, kalasi, giranar, sopara, dhauli aur jaugadh men mile hain. kuchh phutakar shilalekh asambaddh roop men hain aur snkshipt hain. shayad isilie unhen laghu shilalekh kaha jata hai. is prakar ke shilalekh roopanath, sasaram, bairat, maski, siddhapur, jatingarameshvar aur brahmagiri men paye gaye hain.
  • doosari shreni ke laghu shilalekh bairat[1], yeragudi aur kopabal men mile hain. do any laghu shilalekh abhi hal men hi afaganistan men - ek jalalabad men aur doosara kndhar ke nikat mila hai.
  • isake alava sat lekh stambhon par utkirn hain, jisake karan vah stambh lekh ke nam se prasiddh hain. ye stambh lekh dilli, ilahabad, lauriya - araraj, lauriya nndanagadh aur ramapurava men mile hain. kuchh stambhon par keval ek ek lekh hai, at: unhen sat stambh lekhon ke kram se alag rakha gaya hai aur ve laghustambh lekh kahe jate hain. is prakar ke laghu stambhalekh saranath, sanhi, rumminadeh aur nigliv men mile hain.
  • antim tin lekh barabar pahadiyon ki guphaon men mile hain aur unako guphalekhon ke nam se pukara jata hai.[2]

shilalekhon men ashok

any snbndhit lekh


mauryakal ke shilaon tatha stnbhon par utkirn lekhon ke anushilan se ham is nishkarsh par pahunchate hain ki ashok ka dhamm vyavaharik phalamoolak (arthath phal ko drishti men rakhane vala) aur atyadhik manaviy tha. is dharm ke prachar se ashok apane samrajy ke logon men tatha bahar achchhe jivan ke adarsh ko charitarth karana chahata tha. isake lie usane jahan kuchh baten lakar bauddh dharm men sudhar kiya vahan logon ko dharm parivartan ke lie vivash nahin kiya. vastutah usane apane shasanakal men nirantar yah prayas kiya ki praja ke sabhi vargon aur sampradayon ke bich sahamati ka adhar dhoondha jae aur samany adhar ke anusar niti apanaee jae.

  • sataven shilalekh men ashok ne kaha, "sabhi sampraday sabhi sthanon men rah sakate hain, kyonki sabhi atmasnyam aur bhavashuddhi chahate hain."
  • barahaven shilalekh men usane ghoshana ki ki ashok sabhi sampradayon ke grihasth aur shravanon ka dan adi ke dvara samman karata hai. kintu maharaj dan aur man ko itana mahattv nahin dete jitana is bat ko dete hain ki sabhi sampraday ke logon men saravriddhi ho, saravriddhi ke lie moolamntr hai vakasnyam (vacho gutti). logon ko apane sampraday ki prashnsa tatha doosare sampradayon ki ninda nahin karani chahie. logon men sahamati (samavay) badhane ke lie dhamm mahapatr tatha any karmachariyon ko lagaya gaya hai.
  • ashok par yah arop lagaya gaya hai ki usane apane adesh (lekh) keval bauddh dharm ke prachar-prasar ke lie khudavaye hain par yah vichar nyayasngat nahin hai, kyonki usane sabhi sampradayon ko prakat roop se sahayata di.[3]

ashok ke chaturdash-shilalekh ya mukhy shilalekh nimnalikhit sthanon par pae jate hai :

  1. giranar : saurashtr, gujarat rajy men joonagadh ke pas. isi chattan par shak mahakshatrap rudradaman ne lagabhag 150 ee. men snskrit bhasha men ek lekh khudavaya. bad men gupt-samrat skndagupt (455-67 ee.) ne bhi yahan ek lekh ankit karavaya. chndragupt maury ne yahan 'sudarshan' nam ke ek sarovar ka nirman karavaya tha. rudradaman tatha skndagupt ke lekhon men isi surdashan sarovar ke punarnirman ki charcha hai.
  2. kalasi : deharadoon zila, uttarakhnd.
  3. sopara : (prachin soopparak) thane zila, maharashtr. yahan se ashok ke shilalekh ke kuchh tukade hi mile hain, jo munbee ke prins aph vels sngrahalay men rakhe hue hain.
  4. yerragudi : karnool zila, andhr pradesh.
  5. dhauli : puri zila, udisa.
  6. jaugad : gnjam zila, udisa.
  • laghu-shilalekh nimn sthanon par pae ge hain:
  1. bairat : rajasthan ke jayapur zile men. yah shilaphalak kalakatta sngrahalay men hai.
  2. roopanath: jabalapur zila, madhy pradesh.
  3. maski : rayachoor zila, karnatak.
  4. gujarra : datiya zila, madhy pradesh.
  5. rajulamndagiri : ballari zila, karnatak.
  6. sahasaram : shahabad zila, bihar.
  7. gadhimath : rayachoor zila, karnatak.
  8. palkigundu : gavimat ke pas, rayachoor, karnatak.
  9. brahmagiri : chitradurg zila, karnatak.
  10. siddhapur : chitradurg zila, karnatak.
  11. jatinga rameshvar : chitradurg zila, karnatak.
  12. yerragudi : karnool zila, andhr pradesh.
  13. dilli : amar kaauloni, dilli.
  14. aharaura : mirzapur zila, uttar pradesh.
  • ye sabhi laghu-shilalekh ashok ne apane rajakarmachariyon ko snbodhit karake likhavae hain. ashok ne sabase pahale laghu-shilalekh hi khudavae the, isalie inaki shaili usake any lekhon se kuchh bhinn hai.

ashok ke brahmi lekhon ke kuchh namoone de rahe hain- lipyntar aur arth-sahit.

brahmi lipi
rumminadeee ke ashok-stnbh par khuda hua yah lekh
brahmi lipi men hai aur baeen or se daeen or ko padha jata hai :

lipyntar

  1. devann piyen piyadasin lajin visativasabhisiten
  2. atan agach mahiyite hid budhe jate sakyamuniti
  3. silavigadabhicha kalapit silathabhe ch usapapite
  4. hid bhagavn jateti lunminigame ubalike kate
  5. athabhagiye ch

arth :

  1. devataon ke priy priyadarshi raja ne (apane) rajyabhishek ke 20 varsh bad svayn akar is sthan ki pooja ki,
  2. kyonki yahan shakyamuni buddh ka janm hua tha.
  3. yahan patthar ki ek divar banavaee gee aur patthar ka ek stnbh khada kiya gaya.
  4. buddh bhagavan yahan janame the, isalie lumbini gram ko kar se mukt kar diya gaya aur
  5. (paidavar ka) athavan bhag bhi (jo raj ka hak tha) usi gram ko de diya gaya hai.

brahmi lipi
ashok ka giranar ka pratham shilalekh

lipyntar

  1. iyn dhnmalipi devannpriyen
  2. priyadasina raja lekhapita [.] idh n kin
  3. chi jivn arabhitpa prajoohitavyn [.]
  4. n ch samajo katavyo [.] bahukn hi dosn
  5. samajamhi pasati devannpriyo priyadasi raja [.]
  6. asti pi tu ekacha samaja sadhumata devann
  7. priyas priyadasino rano [.] pura mahanasamhi
  8. devannpriyas priyadasino rano anudivasn b
  9. hooni pranasatasahastrani arabhisu soopathay [.]
  10. se aj yada ayn dhnmalipi likhita ti ev pra
  11. na arabhare soopathay dvo mora eko mago so pi
  12. mago n dhruvo [.] ete pi tri prana pachha n arabhisare [॥]

arth

  1. yah dharmalipi devataon ke priy
  2. priyadarshi raja ne likhaee. yahan (mere samrajy men)
  3. koee jiv marakar havan n kiya jae.
  4. aur n samaj (amod-pramod vala utsav) kiya jae. kyonki bahut dosh
  5. samaj men devataon ka priy priyadarshi raja dekhata hai.
  6. (parntu) ek prakar ke (aise) samaj bhi hain jo devataon ke
  7. priy priyadarshi raja ke mat men sadhu hain. pahale pakashala men-
  8. devataon ke priy priyadarshi raja ki – pratidin kee
  9. lakh prani soop ke lie mare jate the.
  10. kintu aj jab yah dharmalipi likhaee gee, tin hi prani
  11. mare jate- do mayoor tatha ek mrig. aur vah bhi
  12. mrig nishchit nahin. ye tin prani bhi bad men nahin mare jaenge.

brahmi lipi
ashok ka giranar ka dvitiy shilalekh

lipyntar

  1. sarvat vijitamhi devannpriyas piyadasino rano
  2. evamapi prachnteshu yatha choda pada satiyaputo ketalaputo a tnb-
  3. pnni antiyako yonaraja ye va pi tas antiyakas samipn
  4. rajano sarvatr devannpriyas priyadasino rano dve chikichh kata
  5. manusachikichha ch pasuchikichha ch [.] osudhani ch yani manusopagani ch
  6. pasopagani ch yat yat nasti sarvat harapitani ch ropapitani ch [.]
  7. moolani ch phalani ch yat tatr nasti sarvat harapitani ch ropapitani ch [.]
  8. pnthesoo koopa ch khanapita vrachha ch ropapita paribhogay pasumanusann [॥]

arthath

  1. devataon ke priy priyadarshi raja ne apane rajy men sab jagah aur
  2. simavarti rajy- chod, pandy, satiyaputr, keralaputr tatha tamraparni (shrilnka)- tak
  3. aur antiyok yavanaraj tatha us antiyok ke jo padosi raja hain,
  4. un sabake rajyon men devataon ke priy priyadarshi raja ne do prakar ki chikitsa ka prabndh kiya hai-
  5. manushyon ki chikitsa ke lie aur pashuon ki chikitsa ke lie.
  6. manushyon aur pashuon ke lie jahan-jahan aushadhiyan nahin thin vahan-vahan laee aur ropi gee hain.
  7. isi prakar, jahan-jahan mool v phal nahin the vahan-vahan lae aur rope ge hain.
  8. margon par manushyon tatha pashuon ke aram ke lie kuen khudavae ge hain aur vriksh lagae ge hain.

brahmi lipi
ashok ka barabar gufalekh (dvitiy)

lipyntar :

  1. lajina piyadasina duva
  2. dasavasabhisitena iyn
  3. kubha khalatik pavatasi
  4. dina (ajivi) kehi

(ashok ke barabar gufa ke pratham aur is dvitiy lekh men, lagata hai, kisi ne bad men 'ajivikehi' shabd mitane ki koshish ki hai. ashok-pautr dasharath ke nagarjuni gufa ke pratham lekh men bhi aisa hi hua hai.)
arth:
dvadash varsh se abhishikt raja priyadarshi ne khalatik parvat par (sthit) yah gufa ajiviko ko pradan ki.

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. jise bhabroo bhi kahate hain
  2. bhattachary, sachidannd bharatiy itihas kosh (hindi). lakhanoo: uttarapradesh hindi snsthan, 27.
  3. 'prachin bharat ki snskriti aur sabhyata' | lekhak: damodar dharmannd kosnbi | anuvadak: gunakar mule | prakashak: rajakamal prakashan | prishth snkhya: 200

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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