ब्राह्मी लिपि अशोक-काल  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ashok ki brahmi lipi

any snbndhit lekh


  • sikndar ke 325 ee.poo. men pashchimottar bharat se hi vapas chale jane ke turnt bad chndragupt (324-300 ee.poo.) ne nndavnsh ka takhta ulatakar maury vnsh ki sthapana ki.
  • chndragupt ke bad usaka putr bindusar rajagaddi par baitha, aur bindusar ki mrityu ke bad usaka putr ashok 372 ee. poo. men raja bana. gyat hota hai ki rajagaddi ke lie shuroo men kafi jhagada hua tha; kyonki ashok ka rajyabhishek usake gaddi par baithane ke char sal bad 268 ee. poo. men hua. isake bad usane lagabhag 37 sal tak bharat ke ek vishal bhoo-bhag par rajy kiya. usane kaling ko bhi apane rajy men shamil kar liya tha. bauddh granthon ke ullekhon se pata chalata hai ki arnbh men vah, apani kroorata ke karan, chndashok kahalata tha; parntu bad men usane bauddh dharm ko svikar kiya aur vah dharmik kary karane laga to use dharmashok kaha jane laga.
  • ashok ke keval do dharmalekho yani gujarra madhy pradesh men datiya ke pas, tatha maski, ji0 rayachoor, karnatak ke laghu-shilalekhon men hi hamen usaka 'asok' nam dekhane men ata hai. shesh sabhi dharmalekhon men use devann piyen piyadasin lajin[1] kaha gaya hai. spasht hai ki yah nam usane bauddh dharm grahan karane ke bad hi dharan kiya hoga. ashok ka samakalin shrilnka ka tiss ya tishy raja bhi apane nam ke sath 'devananpriy' jodata tha. tiss raja ke samay men hi ashok ka putr mahendr evn putri snghamitra bauddh dharm ka prachar kare ke lie shrilnka pahunche the.
  • ashok ke lie kahin-kahin 'ashokavardhan' nam bhi milata hai. usake ek dharmalekh men use 'magadh ka raja' kaha gaya hai. parntu usake samrajy ke lie usake lekhon men adhikatar 'prithvi' ya 'jnboodvip' shabd hi milate hain. usaki rajadhani pataliputr, patana men thi. ashok ke dharmalekh bharat men jis bhi sthan par mile hain, vahan usaka rajy nishchit roop se tha hi. usane apane lekhon men 'aparajit' rajyon ka bhi spasht ullekh kiya hai. dakshin bharat ke chol, pandy, keral tatha tamraparni (shrilnka) desh ashok ke samrajy ke bahar the. usake lekhon men eshiya ke kee 'yon', yoonani rajaon tatha misr ke turamay ya tulamay (taaulami) raja ka bhi ullekh milata hai.
  • ashok ke dharmalekh pashchimottar bharat (pakistan) se lekar dakshin men karnatak tak mile hain. usake rajy ki simaen poorv men bngal ki khadi aur pashchim men arab sagar ko chhooti thin. ashok ke dharmalekhon men keval do yani shahabajagadhi aur manasehara ke shilalekh kharoshthi lipi men hai. kndahar ke pas ke shar-e-kuna sthan se ashok ka dvaibhashik, arameee-yoonani lekh mila hai. usake shesh sabhi lekh brahmi lipi men hain. in lekhon ki lipi ke lie sadaiv 'dhammalipi', 'dhammadipi' ya 'dhammalibi' shabdon ka prayog kiya gaya hai.
  • ashok ke samast dharmalekhon ko mukhyat: do bhagon men vibhajit kiya ja sakata hai:
  1. shilastnbh lekh, aur
  2. shilaphalak lekh.

shilastnbh ek hi prastar-khnd ke hain aur ye chunar ke balua pattharon se banae ge hain. in par kiya hua bahut badhiya op (paaulish) aj bhi hamen ashchary men dal deta hain. inhen door-door tak kitani kathinaee se le jaya gaya hoga, isaka andaja hamen phirojashah dvara 14vin shatabdi men topara aur merath se ashok ke stnbhon ke dilli lae jane ke vivaran se lag sakata hai. ashok ke shilastnbh aj nimnalikhit sthanon par hain:
ilahabad-kosam shilastnbh

moolat: is stnbh ko kaushnbi nagari (adhunik kosam- ilahabad se lagabhag 50 kilomitar door ek chhota-sa ganv) men sthapit kiya gaya tha. is bat ki koee nishchit janakari nahin milati ki kaun ise ilahabad le aya. is stnbh par ashok ke 6 lekh hain. is par usake do lekh aur hain, jo 'rani ka stnbhalekh' (kyonki isamen usaki ek rani kaluvaki ke dan ka ullekh hai) aur 'kaushanbi ka stnbhalekh' ke nam se prasiddh hain. isi stnbh par bad men samudragupt (320-375 ee.) ne bhi apana ek lekh khudavaya tha. mugal badashah jahangir (1605-27 ee.) ka bhi ek farasi lekh is par milata hai.
rumminadeee stnbhalekh
rumminadeee, lunbini ke mndir ke pas khada hone se ise yah nam diya gaya hai. yah sthan basti zile ke dulha ganv se lagabhag 8 kilomitar door nepal ki bhagavanapur tahasil men hai. isi sthan par bhagavan buddh ka janm hua tha. ashok apane rajyabhishek ke 20 sal bad is sthan par pooja karane aya tha.
nigali-sagar shilastnbh
yah sthan bhi basti zile ke uttar men nepal ki taraee men hai, aur rumminadeee se lagabhag bis kilomitar pashchimottar ki taraph hai. yah stnbh nigaliv ganv ke pas nigali sagar nam ke ek vishal sarovar ke pas khada hai. ashok yahan bhi pooja ke lie aya tha. gautam buddh ke bhi pahale ke kisi kanakamuni buddh ke shariravasheshon par yahan ek stoop banaya gaya tha.
dilli-topara shilastnbh
is stnbh ko phirojashah (1351-88 ee.) ne topara, anbala zila, hariyana se mngavakar dilli men khada karavaya tha. is par sat lekh hain.
dilli-merath shilastnbh
ise bhi phiroj merath se uthakar laya tha. pharrukhasiyar ke samay (1713-19 ee.) men baroodakhane ke phatane se is stnbh ko bada nuqasan pahuncha aur isake kee tukade ho ge. 1876 men ise vartaman roop men khada kiya gaya.
chnparan zile ke tin stnbh
bihar ke chnparan zile men ashok ke tin stnbh milate hain-

  1. radhiya ke pas lauriya araraj men,
  2. mathiya ke pas lauriya nndanagadh men,
  3. ramapurava men.

inamen se pratyek par chhah lekh hain.
sanchi stnbh
yah sthan madhy pradesh men bhopal ke pas hai. yahan ka stnbh khndit avastha men hai.
saranath stnbh
saranath stnbh varanasi ke pas hai. yahan se ashok ka ek bhagn stnbh aur suprasiddh sinhashirsh mila hai.

  • ashok ke stnbhalekh paaulish ki huee golakar satah par hone ke karan adhik spasht aur kalatmak hain. sabhi stnbhon par poorn lekh nahin milate. kuchh stnbhon ke toot jane ke karan un par khndit lekh hi milate hain, jaise ki saranath aur sanchi ke stnbhon par.
  • ashok ke jo lekh shilaon par milate hain, unake lie shilaphalak shabd ka prayog hua hai. shilaphalakon se yahan arth chattanon se hai. ab tak keval ek hi lekh aisa mila hai, jo alag prastar-khnd par utkirn hai. yah shilaphalak rajasthan men jayapur ke nikat bairat se mila tha. ab yah kalakatta ke sngrahalay, eshiyatik sosayati men rakha hua hai, isalie ise 'bairat-kalakatta shilalekh' ka nam diya gaya hai. ashok ke shesh sabhi shilalekh chattanon par khude hue hain. un-un sthanon par jo bhi pramukh chattan mili, us par lekh utkirn kar die ge. likhate samay stnbhon ki tarah chattanon ko chikana karane ka prayatn nahin kiya gaya hai; samanyat: kisi bhi sapat-se patthar-khnd ko chunakar us par lekh khudava die ge hain. yahi karan hai ki stnbhalekhon ki apeksha shilalekh kuchh bedhnge jan padate hain. suvidha ke lie ashok ke shilalekhon ko do bhagon men banta gaya hai-
  1. mukhy shilalekh ya chaturdash-shilalekh aur
  2. laghu-shilalekh.

laghu-shilalekh

laghu-shilalekh nimn sthanon par pae ge hain:

  1. bairat : rajasthan ke jayapur zile men. yah shilaphalak kalakatta sngrahalay men hai.
  2. roopanath: jabalapur jila, madhy pradesh.
  3. maski : rayachoor zila, karnatak.
  4. gujarra : datiya zila, madhy pradesh.
  5. rajulamndagiri : ballari zila, karnatak.
  6. sahasaram : shahabad zila, bihar.
  7. gadhimath : rayachoor zila, karnatak.
  8. palkigundu : gavimat ke pas, rayachoor zila, karnatak.
  9. brahmagiri : chitradurg zila, karnatak.
  10. siddhapur : chitradurg zila, karnatak.
  11. jatinga rameshvar : chitradurg zila, karnatak.
  12. erragudi : karnool zila, andhr pradesh.
  13. dilli : amar kaauloni, dilli.
  14. aharaura : mirjapur zila, uttar pradesh.
  • ye sabhi laghu-shilalekh ashok ne apane rajakarmachariyon ko snbodhit karake likhavae hain. ashok ne sabase pahale laghu-shilalekh hi khudavae the, isalie inaki shaili usake any lekhon se kuchh bhinn hai.

mukhy shilalekh

ashok ke chaturdash-shilalekh ya mukhy shilalekh nimnalikhit sthanon par pae jate hai :

  1. giranar : saurashtr, gujarat rajy men joonagadh ke pas. isi chattan par shak mahakshatrap rudradamanh ne lagabhag 150 ee. men snskrit bhasha men ek lekh khudavaya. bad men gupt-samrat skndagupt (455-67 ee.) ne bhi yahan ek lekh ankit karavaya. chndragupt maury ne yahan 'sudarshan' nam ke ek sarovar ka nirman karavaya tha. rudradaman tatha skndagupt ke lekhon men isi surdashan sarovar ke punarnirman ki charcha hai.
  2. kalasi : deharadoon zila, uttaranchal.
  3. sopara : (prachin soopparak) thane zila, maharashtr. yahan se ashok ke shilalekh ke kuchh tukade hi mile hain, jo munbee ke prins aph vels sngrahalay men rakhe hue hain.
  4. erragudi : karnool zila, andhr pradesh
  5. dhauli : puri zila, udisa
  6. jaugad : gnjam zila, udisa
  • inake alava kharoshthi lipi men ashok ke do aur chaturdash-shilalekh shahabajagadhi (peshavar zila) aur manasehara (hazara zila) men hain. ye donon sthan ab pakistan men hain.
  • shilalekhon aur stnbhalekhon ke alava ashok ke tin snkshipt gufalekh bhi milate hain. gaya ya buddhagaya ke pas 'barabar' nam ki pahadi par char kritrim gufaen hain. prachin kal men yah pahadi khalatik parvat (skhalatik) ke nam se jani jati thi. uparyukt char gufaon men se tin men ashok ke snkshipt lekh khude hue hain. in lekhon se pata chalata hai ki ashok ne ajivik snpraday ke bhikshuon ke lie in gufaon ka nirman karavaya tha. in gufaon ke pas ki chauthi gufa men maukhari raja anntavarman (chhathi shatabdi ee.) ka ek shilalekh hai. isi pahadi par, parntu in gufaon se lagabhag ek mil door, nagarjun pahadi par tin gufaen aur hain. inamen ashok ke pote 'devananpriy' dasharath ke lekh hain. ye gufaen bhi ajivik snpraday ke bhikshuon ke lie banaee gee thin.
  • ashok ke ek stnbhalekh se pata chalata hai ki usaka rajyabhishek (268 ee.poo.) hone ke 12 sal bad, arthath 256 ee.poo. se, usane dharmalekh khudavana arnbh kar diya tha. sabase pahale usane laghu-shilalekh khudavae aur usake anntar chatudarsh-shilalekh. tin gufalekhon men se do usane rajyabhishek ke 12 varsh bad aur tisara lekh rajyabhishek ke 19 varsh bad khudavaya tha. laghu-stnbhalekhon men koee tithi nahin milati. shesh stnbhalekhon men se kuchh usane shasan ke 21ven varsh men, kuchh 27ven tatha 28ven varsh men khudavae the.
  • is prakar, ashok ke vibhinn lekhon se kam-se-kam 15 se 20 salon ka antar hai. phir bhi, in sare lekhon ki lekhan-shaili men koee vishesh antar nahin dikhaee deta, siva isake ki shilalekhon ki apeksha stnbhalekh kuchh adhik achchhe likhe ge hain. isalie ashok ki brahmi lipi ke aksharon ko ham koee sudridh tithigat adhar pradan nahin kar sakate. inhen uttari aur dakshini jaisi shailiyon men vibhajit karana bhi uchit nahin jan padata. ashok ke abhilekhon ke sthanon par vichar karane se spasht ho jata hai ki jahan-jahan bhi usake rajy men rajamarg ge, vahan usake dharmalekhon ke sath 'lipikar' pahunche aur brahmi lipi bhi pahunchi. pashchimottar bharat ke keval do shilalekhon ko chhodakar ashok ke baki sabhi lekh brahmi lipi men hain.
  • takshashila se mile arameee lipi ke ek lekh ko bhi kuchh vidvanh ashok ka manate hain. usi prakar, yoonani aur arameee lipiyon men ek dvaibhashik lekh (share-kuna, kndahar, afaganistan se) mila hain, jo katipay vidvanon ki ray men ashok ka hai. is prakar ham dekhate hain ki pashchimottar bharat men kharoshthi, arameee tatha yoonani lipiyon ka prachar hone se ashok ne apane dharmalekhon ke le in sthaniy lipiyon ka istemal kiya hai. isase sahaj hi yah nishkarsh nikalata hai ki yadi us samay bharat ke any pradeshon men bhi sthaniy lipiyon ka prachar hota, to ashok apane lekh unamen khudavata. kintu ham dekhate hain ki pashchimottar bharat ke alava shesh samooche bharatiy pradeshon ke usake lekh brahmi lipi men hain. yahi nahin, is brahmi lipi ke svaroop men koee pradeshik antar dekhane men nahin ate. isase yah parinam nikalata hai ki ashok ke samay men pray: snpoorn bharatavarsh men brahmi lipi ka vyavahar tha aur sadharan janata bhi is lipi ko padh-likh sakati thi. ashok ke lekhon ki sarvadeshikata ka pata is bat se bhi chalata hai ki usane apane lekhon men sarvatr us samay ki bolachal ki prakrit bhasha ka prayog kiya hai. is prakrit ya pali men prant-bhed ke anusar thoda-sa antar zaroor drishtigat hota hai, parntu hai yah prakrit bhasha hi.
  • ashok ke lekhon men 'lipikar' ya 'dipikar' shabd milate hain; inake sath 'likhite' 'lekhite' kriyaen bhi milati hain. shahabajagadhi ke kharoshthi lekh men 'nipistamh' ya 'nipesitamh' kriya ka istemal kiya gaya hai. ye kriyaen 'ni-pish' arthath 'likhana' dhatu se bani hain. adhunik farasi men bhi lekh ke lie 'navishta' shabd ka upayog hota hai. darayabahu (deriyas) ke behistun-lekh men bhi 'dipi' (lipi) shabd milata hai. isalie 'lipikar' ya 'dipikar' shabd ko ham 'lekhak' ke arth men le sakate hain.
  • ashok ke chaudahaven arthath antim shilalekh se usake in lekhon ke vishay men kuchh janakari milati hai. giranar ka chaudahavan shilalekh hai:

ayn dhnmalipi devannpriyen priyadasina rana lekhapita asti ev snkhiten asti majhamen asti vistatan (.) n ch sarvn sarvat ghatitn (.) mahalake hi vijitn bahu ch likhitn likhapayisn chev (.) asti ch et kn pun vutn tas tas athas madhooratay kinti jano tatha patipajeth (.) tatr ekada asamatn as desn v sachhay karann v alochetva lipikaraparadhen v arthat ye dharmalekh devataon ke priy priyadarshi raja ne likhavae hain. (ye lekh) kahin snkshep men, kahin madhyam roop men aur kahin vistrit roop men hain. kyonki sab jagah sab baten lagoo nahin hotin (kisi kisi ne isaka arth 'sab jagah sab baten ya sab lekh nahin likhe ge hai', bhi kiya hai). mera rajy bahut vistrit hai, isalie bahut-se (lekh) likhavae ge hain aur bahut-se lagatar likhavae jaenge. kahin-kahin vishay ki rochakata ke karan ek hi bat bar-bar kahi gee hai, jisase ki log usake anusar acharan karen. in lekhon men jo kuchh apoorn likha gaya ho usaka karan desh-bhed, snkshipt lekh ya likhanevale ka aparadh samajhana chahie.

  • lekin ashok ke abhilekhon se yah bat pata nahin chalati ki ye shilalekh kis vidhi se khudavae ge. aisa lagata hai ki lekhon ko khudavane ka kam do staron men poora hota tha. 'lipikar' ka kam patthar par lekh ko likh dene tak simit tha. lekh khodanevala koee doosara hi peshevar vyakti (shilpi) hota tha. hamare prachin sahity men khodane ki kriya ke lie 'chhindati' shabd milata hai, jo 'chhidh' dhatu se bana hai. 'lipikar' ya lekhak kisi patthar par pahale choona-patthar ya koyale se aksharo ko likhata tha, aur bad men khodane ka kam karane vala (shilpi) un aksharon ka anusaran karate hue patthar par akshar khodata tha. aksharon ke akar-prakar ke lie 'lipikar' hi jimmevar hota tha, parntu khodate samay aksharo ke akar-prakar men yatkinchith farq padana svabhavik hai. vastut: lekh khodane vale ka sthan gaun tha. ashok ke lekhon ke aksharon ki rekhaon ki motaee bhi pray: ek-si dekhane ko milati hai kyonki jis khadiya se lipikar ne pattharon par akshar likhe honge, vah aisi rahi hogi ki akshar saman motaee ke banen. khodane vale ne lekhak ke aksharon ka hi anusaran kiya hai. bad ke brahmi abhilekhon men jis prakar aksharon ke siron par hamen ghundiyan dikhaee deti hain, vaisi ashok ke brahmi lekhon men dekhane ko nahin milatin. ashok ke shilalekhon men aksharo ki khadi rekhaon ki lnbaee inaki adi rekhaon se samanyat: duguni dekhane ko milati hai. parntu karnatak ke shilalekhon men yah lnbaee dugane se kuchh adhik aur ilahabad kosam stnbhalekh men dugane se kuchh kam dikhaee deti hai.
  • ashok ke brahmi lekhon men keval chhah mool svaron ke snket pae jate hain- 'a' , 'a', 'i', 'u', 'e' aur 'o'. inamen 'ri' evn 'lri' tatha inake dirgh roopon ke lie akshar nahin hain. inamen 'ee' , 'oo', 'ai' tatha 'au' ke mool svaron ke lie bhi akshar nahin hain. vyajanon ke sath judanevali svaron ki matraon ke roop men ashok ke lekhon men keval 'a', 'i', 'ee', 'e', 'ai' tatha 'o' ki matraen milati hain. 'au' ke svatntr svar-snket ya vynjanon ke sath laganevali isaki matra ke lie ashok ke likhon men koee chihn nahin dekhane men ataph. anusvar ke lie ek bindu (n) ka prayog hua hai, jo pray: akshar ki dahini or kuchh oopar rakha jata tha. visarg ka chihn (:) bhi ashok ke kisi lekh men nahin paya jata.
  • ashok ke lekhon men nimnalikhit 33 vynjanon ke lie akshar-snket hain :

k kh g gh y r l v ch chh j jh n sh sh s h t th d dh n d (ळ) t th d dh n p ph b bh m

brahmi lipi
ashok ki brahmi lipi ke akshar

brahmi lipi
ashok ke brahmi vynjanon ke sath svar-matraen jodane ki vyavastha

in sabhi vynjanon men 'a' svar nihit hai, arthath ye svarant hain, halnt nahin hain. yahan par pratyek akshar ki visheshata ko vyakt karana mudran ki kathinaiyon ke karan snbhav nahin hai. phir bhi ham mote taur par ashok ke lekhon ke aksharon ki kuchh visheshataon par prakash dalenge. 'k' jod ke chihn-sa 'kraaus' ki tarah ka hai. ashok ke kisi bhi lekh men 'n' ke lie snket nahin milata. ashok ke lekhon men sabhi ooshma vynjan milate hain, parntu unamen se 's' ka hi sarvadhik prayog dekhane ko milata hai. 'sh' aur 'sh' kalasi ke shilalekh men milate hain. 'sh' karnatak ke lekhon men bhi hai. ashok ke kharoshthi lekhon men bhi 'sh', 'sh' tatha 's' ke lie akshar hain. stnbhalekhon men 'd' ('ळh') ke lie akshar milata hai. eळhk, dळi jaise pashuvachak shabdon men is akshar ka upayog dekhane ko milata hai.

  • snyukt vynjanon ko likhate samay adhikatar pahale uchcharit vynjan ko oopar aur bad men uchcharit vynjan ko usake niche likha jata tha. parntu kahin-kahin yah bhi dekhane ko milata hai ki bad men uchcharit vynjan oopar likha gaya hai aur pahale uchcharit vynjan usake niche hai. vastut: yah likhanevale ki galati ke karan hua hai aur isase yahi pata chalata hai ki 'lipikar' ya lekhak shuddh likhana nahin janate the. udaharan ke lie, giranar ke lekh men 'vy' ke sthan par 'yv' likha gaya hai. 'r' ke lie brahmi lipi men ek laharadar khadi lakir ka chihn hai. jab yah 'r' akshar kisi any vynjan ke sath snyuktakshar ke roop men ata hai, to samanyat: 'r' ka akshar spasht roop se oopar rahata hai aur doosara vynjanakshar kuchh chhote akar men niche rahata hai. is niyam ke apavad bhi milate hain, aur isalie ek hi snyuktakshar ko 'str' ya 'rs' tatha 'vr' ya 'rv' padha jata hai. ashok ke samay men 'rh' (reph) ki dharana ka abhi poorn vikas nahin hua tha. asal men, snyukt vynjanon men pahale anevale rh (reph) aur bad men anevale r ka bhed ashok ke lipikar spasht roop se nahin janate the. aj bhi n keval chhote vidyarthi, balki padhe-likhe vayask bhi 'punarlikhit' ko 'purnalikhit', 'ashirvad' ko 'arshivad' adi likh jate hain.
  • ashok ke brahmi lekhon men viramachihnon ka upayog apavad roop men hi milata hai. stnbhalekhon men shabdon ke bich kuchh antar dikhaee deta hai. kuchh any shilalekhon men shabdon ke bich kabhi-kabhi antar rakha gaya hai. parntu ashok ke sabhi lekhon men shabdon ke bich spasht antar diya gaya ho, aisi bat nahin hai. kuchh lekhon men poorn-viram ke roop men dndachihn (.) ka bhi istemal dekhane ko milata hai; jaise, sahasaram ke laghu-shilalekh men.
  • ashok ke lekhon men kuchh akshar kabhi-kabhi ulate likhe hue bhi milate hain. aise akshar hain : 'gh' 'o' aur 'no'.

vaise, in shilalekhon ko khodate samay kafi savadhani barati gee thi. lekh ke khud jane par use pun: shuddh bhh kiya jata tha. dekhane men ata hai ki kuchh jagah bhool se chhoot ge akshar ko pun: likha gaya hai aur ashuddh akshar ko mita diya gaya hai. yah sahi hai ki ashok ki brahmi lipi ke kee aksharon ke do-do, tin-tin roop dekhane ko milate hain, kintu yah pradeshik antar nahin hai. ant men ham yahi kahenge ki ashok ke ye dharmalekh bharatiy snskriti ki amooly nidhi hain. aj ke bharat ki pray: sabhi lipiyan, aur videshon ki bhi bahut-si lipiyan, ashok ke lekhon ki is brahmi ko apani janani man sakati hain. snsar ke itihas men ashok ko chhodakar any kisi bhi shasak ne itane vishal star par naitik evn dharmik lekh nahin khudavae hain. yahan ham ashok ke brahmi lekhon ke kuchh namoone de rahe hain- lipyntar aur arth-sahit.

brahmi lipi
rumminadeee ke ashok-stnbh par khuda hua yah lekh
brahmi lipi men hai aur baeen or se daeen or ko padha jata hai :

lipyntar

  1. devann piyen piyadasin lajin visativasabhisiten
  2. atan agach mahiyite hid budhe jate sakyamuniti
  3. silavigadabhicha kalapit silathabhe ch usapapite
  4. hid bhagavn jateti lunminigame ubalike kate
  5. athabhagiye ch

arth :

  1. devataon ke priy priyadarshi raja ne (apane) rajyabhishek ke 20 varsh bad svayn akar is sthan ki pooja ki,
  2. kyonki yahan shakyamuni buddh ka janm hua tha.
  3. yahan patthar ki ek divar banavaee gee aur patthar ka ek stnbh khada kiya gaya.
  4. buddh bhagavan yahan janame the, isalie lumbini gram ko kar se mukt kar diya gaya aur
  5. (paidavar ka) athavan bhag bhi (jo raj ka hak tha) usi gram ko de diya gaya hai.

brahmi lipi
ashok ka giranar ka pratham shilalekh

lipyntar

  1. iyn dhnmalipi devannpriyen
  2. priyadasina raja lekhapita [.] idh n kin
  3. chi jivn arabhitpa prajoohitavyn [.]
  4. n ch samajo katavyo [.] bahukn hi dosn
  5. samajamhi pasati devannpriyo priyadasi raja [.]
  6. asti pi tu ekacha samaja sadhumata devann
  7. priyas priyadasino rano [.] pura mahanasamhi
  8. devannpriyas priyadasino rano anudivasn b
  9. hooni pranasatasahastrani arabhisu soopathay [.]
  10. se aj yada ayn dhnmalipi likhita ti ev pra
  11. na arabhare soopathay dvo mora eko mago so pi
  12. mago n dhruvo [.] ete pi tri prana pachha n arabhisare [॥]

arth

  1. yah dharmalipi devataon ke priy
  2. priyadarshi raja ne likhaee. yahan (mere samrajy men)
  3. koee jiv marakar havan n kiya jae.
  4. aur n samaj (amod-pramod vala utsav) kiya jae. kyonki bahut dosh
  5. samaj men devataon ka priy priyadarshi raja dekhata hai.
  6. (parntu) ek prakar ke (aise) samaj bhi hain jo devataon ke
  7. priy priyadarshi raja ke mat men sadhu hain. pahale pakashala men-
  8. devataon ke priy priyadarshi raja ki – pratidin kee
  9. lakh prani soop ke lie mare jate the.
  10. kintu aj jab yah dharmalipi likhaee gee, tin hi prani
  11. mare jate- do mayoor tatha ek mrig. aur vah bhi
  12. mrig nishchit nahin. ye tin prani bhi bad men nahin mare jaenge.

brahmi lipi
ashok ka giranar ka dvitiy shilalekh

lipyntar

  1. sarvat vijitamhi devannpriyas piyadasino rano
  2. evamapi prachnteshu yatha choda pada satiyaputo ketalaputo a tnb-
  3. pnni antiyako yonaraja ye va pi tas antiyakas samipn
  4. rajano sarvatr devannpriyas priyadasino rano dve chikichh kata
  5. manusachikichha ch pasuchikichha ch [.] osudhani ch yani manusopagani ch
  6. pasopagani ch yat yat nasti sarvat harapitani ch ropapitani ch [.]
  7. moolani ch phalani ch yat tatr nasti sarvat harapitani ch ropapitani ch [.]
  8. pnthesoo koopa ch khanapita vrachha ch ropapita paribhogay pasumanusann [॥]

arthath

  1. devataon ke priy priyadarshi raja ne apane rajy men sab jagah aur
  2. simavarti rajy- chod, pandy, satiyaputr, keralaputr tatha tamraparni (shrilnka)- tak
  3. aur antiyok yavanaraj tatha us antiyok ke jo padosi raja hain,
  4. un sabake rajyon men devataon ke priy priyadarshi raja ne do prakar ki chikitsa ka prabndh kiya hai-
  5. manushyon ki chikitsa ke lie aur pashuon ki chikitsa ke lie.
  6. manushyon aur pashuon ke lie jahan-jahan aushadhiyan nahin thin vahan-vahan laee aur ropi gee hain.
  7. isi prakar, jahan-jahan mool v phal nahin the vahan-vahan lae aur rope ge hain.
  8. margon par manushyon tatha pashuon ke aram ke lie kuen khudavae ge hain aur vriksh lagae ge hain.

brahmi lipi
ashok ka barabar gufalekh (dvitiy)

lipyntar :

  1. lajina piyadasina duva
  2. dasavasabhisitena iyn
  3. kubha khalatik pavatasi
  4. dina (ajivi) kehi

(ashok ke barabar gufa ke pratham aur is dvitiy lekh men, lagata hai, kisi ne bad men 'ajivikehi' shabd mitane ki koshish ki hai. ashok-pautr dasharath ke nagarjun pahadi ke pratham lekh men bhi aisa hi hua hai.)
arth:
dvadash varsh se abhishikt raja priyadarshi ne khalatik parvat par (sthit) yah gufa ajivikon ko pradan ki.

tika tippani

  1. devataon ke priy aur sabhi par kripa karane vale raja

snbndhit lekh

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