ईरानी भाषा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

eerani bhasha bharat-yooropiy bhashaparivar ki shakha hidn-eerani ki upashakha, eerani, bharatiy upashakha ki bhanti hi mahatvapoorn hai. prachin kal men yah prachin pharasi (parasi) ke roop men ek rajakiy bhasha thi aur avesti ke roop men dharmik bhasha. madhy eerani ke kal men do prabhoot janabhashaen vikasit hueen, poorv pradesh men sogdi aur pashchimi pradesh men pahalavi. inake atirikt pharasi bahut samay tak eshiya ke bade bhoobhag men snskriti ki bhasha rahi.

prachin pharasi eeran ke dakshin-pashchimi kone ki bhasha thi. usaka parichay hamen kilaksharon men khude hue hakhmani badashahon ke abhilekhon se milata hai. inaki lipi snbhavat: akkadi lipi se snbaddh hai. sabase purana lekh ariy-ragn (610-580ee.poo.) ka bataya jata hai, kintu sabase mahatv ke lekh badashah dara (520-486 ee.poo.) ke hen jo usake samrajy men sarvatr pae jate hain. inamen bhi bihistoon ka abhilekh sarvaprasiddh hai. prachin pharasi ke atirakt ye lekh any do bhashaon (elami aur bebiloni) men bhi pae jate hain.

avesti dharmagrnth ki bhasha hai. avesta ahuramazd ke upasak parasi logon ka dharmagrnth hai. isamen bhinn-bhinn kalon men rachit upasana aur prarthana ke sookt pae jate hain. rigved ki bhanti avesta bhi shrutiparnpara par hi nirbhar thi aur yah pahalavi varnamala men sasani badashahon ke samay men lekhabaddh ki gee. vidvanh‌ isake prachin bhagon ka kal ee.poo. athavi sadi nirdharit karate hain. yah eeran ke poorvi bhag ki bhasha thi. prachin eerani ka avesti aur prachin pharasi ko chhodakar hamen aur koee lekh nahin milata.

madhy eerani ke do samuday hain : ek pashchimi aur doosara poorvi. pashchimi madhy eerani ko pahalavi kahate hain. is shabd ka snbndh pahalavikh‌ jati se samajha jata hai. yah sasani samrajy (226 ee.poo.-652 ee.) ki rajabhasha thi aur isamen likhit bahut se dharmik tatha any grnth milate hain. inaki lipi aramini se prabhoot tatha prabhavit maloom hoti hai.

madhy eerani ki kee bhashaon ke abhilekh bhashaon ke abhilekh aur pustaken abhi 50-60 varsh poorv turfan (poorvi turkistan) men prapt huee hain. inamen parathi bhasha ullekhaniy hai. madhyakalin pharasi bhi isi samuday ki hai. isamen sasani badashahon ke abhilekh milate hain. yahi bhasha paznd nam se avesti dharm ki pustakon ke lie bhi prayog men aee hai.

madhy eerani ke poorvi samuday men poorvi turkistan men prapt hue sahity ki bhashaen hain. inamen bukhara aur samaraknd ke kshetr ki prachin bhasha sogdi hai jo eshiya ke madhyavarti vistrit kshetr ki bhasha rahi hogi. yah mngoliya se lekar tibbat ke simaprant tak phaili huee thi. isamen bauddh dharmagrnth (bahudha chini bhasha se anoodit), eesaee dharmagrnth (siriyaee bhasha se anoodit tatha maulik) aur manichi grnth milate hain. sabase purane grnthon ka samay eesavi chauthi shati hoga.

sogdi ke atirikt is samuday ki doosari mahatv ki bhasha khotani hai. ise sak bhi kahate hain. isamen bahut se dharmagrnth athavin se 10vin shati ke likhe hue prapt hue hain. inamen bahut se bauddhadharm snbndhi hain. lipi sabaki brahmi hai aur shabdavali men prakrit ke bahut se shabd milate hain.

adhunik eerani ki sabase mahatvapoorn bhasha pharasi hai. yah arabi lipi men likhi jati hai. yah afaganistan se lekar pashchim ke kaphi bade bhoopradesh men snskriti ki pratinidhi bhasha hai. isamen athavin shati ee. se lekar prabhoot sahity ka srijan hua hai.

gathan ki drishti se pamiri, kurdi, balochi aur pashto bhi eerani upashakha ke antargat hain.[1]

vistar ki drishti se hind-eerani shakha ki tin bhashaon ne mahatv prapt kiya-snskrit, pali aur pharasi, aur ye tinon sabhyata aur snskriti ki pracharak rahin. eerani upashakha men pharasi sabase adhik mahatvapoorn bhasha hai.[2]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 2 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 36 |
  2. sn.grn.-e. meie : le lang du mand (peris, 1952)

snbndhit lekh

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