कीलाक्षर लिपि  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

kilakshar lipi ek atyadhik prachin lipi hai. isake akshar dekhane men kil jaise dikhaee padate hain, isalie is lipi ko 'kilakshar lipi' ke nam se pukarate hain. gili mitti ki eeton athava pattikaon par kathor kalam ya chheni se tnkit kie jane ke karan is lipi ke aksharon ki akriti svabhavik roop se kil ki si ho jaya karati thi. is prakar ke aksharon aur inase bani lipi ka upayog sabase pahale gair-sami sumeriyon ne kiya tha.

nirmanakarta

dakshini baibiloniya athava dajala-pharat ke muhanon ke doab men base prachani sumeriyon ko is lipi ke nirman ka shrey diya jata hai. kalakram se bhashaen badalati geen, par yahi prachin sumeri lipi bani rahi. elami, babuli, asoori (athava asur), khatti, urartoo ke nivasi, sabhi ne bari-bari se is kilakshar lipi ka apane-apane rajyadhikaron men upayog kiya tha. aj hazaron chhote-bade abhilekh is lipi men likhe hue upalabdh hain, jinaka sngrah 7vin sadi ee. poo. men hi prachin puravid aur sngrahakarta asiriya ke raja asurabanipal ne nineve ke apane grnthagar men kar liya tha.[1]

abhilekh

nineve ki khudaee se prapt abhilekh ab turki, eeran, soviyat, jarmani, frans, inglaind, shikago aur pensilaveniya ke sngrahalayon men surakshit hain. jal pralay ki pahali charcha karane vala babuli mahakavy 'gilagamesh' bhi inhin kilaksharon men anek eeton par likha gaya tha, jisaki mool prati leninagrad ke eramitaj sngrahalay men surakshit hain. khatti rani ne khattiyon aur misri pharaooon ne paraspar yuddh bndakar shanti sthapit karane ke lie advait ke upasak misri nripati ikhanatoon ko antarjatiy vidhi sthapak svaroop jo pahala patr likha, vah inhin kilaksharon men likha gaya tha.

bogajakoee ka vah prasiddh sndhipatr bhi, jisake dvara khattiyon aur mitanniyon ka apasi yuddh bnd kiya gaya tha aur jisamen sakshi svaroop bharatiy rigvaidik devataon- indr, mitr, varun, nasatyon, ka ullekh kiya gaya hai, inhin kilaksharon men likha hai. kilaksharon ke upayog ki sima elam se turki tak, arab se arminiya tak thi.

udbhav

kilakshar lipi ke lie yooropiy bhashaon men samanarthak shabd 'kyoonifarm' hai. is lipi ka udbhav kab hua, yah kah sakana snbhav nahin hai, par isamen sndeh nahin ki isaka vyavahar ee. poo. tisari sahasrabdi se poorv avashy shuroo ho gaya tha. vidvanon ka mat hai ki is lipi ka pradurbhav prathamat: chitralipi se hua aur vah shabdachihn, dhvanyatmak, svaratmak dashaon se gujarakar varnatmak sthiti ko prapt huee. yah lipi arnbh men vynjan pradhan thi; dhire-dhire svaron ke uday se varnatmak bani aur is kalavidhi men anek bhashaon ne apane ko isake dvara vyakt kar ise manyata di. amariki, bharatiyon, chiniyon, sindhiyon, kritiyon aur snbhavat: misriyon ki chitralipi ko chhodakar snsar ki pray: lipiyan-babuli aur asoori, khatti aur phiniki ibrani aur arabi, grik aur roman, aramee aur farasi, isi kilakshar lipi se nikali hain. usaki upalipiyon ka parivar bada hai aur aj samast snsar usi lipi ka, usake annt vikasit roopon men, upayog kar raha hai.[1]

rahasyabhed

is lipi ka rahasyabhed 19vin sadi ke madhy men tab hua, jab eeran sthit angrez rajadoot ralinsan ne dara ke likhavae behistoon ke shilalekh ki tribhashik ibarat ko any vidvanon ki sahayata se padh dala. usamen prachin farasi, elami aur babuli bhashaon men dara ki vijay prashasti vyaktivachi namon ke karan asan tha. jab prachin farasi vale pahale khane ki ibarat padh li gee to usaki madad se doosare aur tisare khanon ki elami aur babuli bhi padhane men der n lagi. is prakar rozetta ston ki misri lipi ki hi bhanti behistoon ki yah tribhashik kilakshar lipi bhi padhi gee, yah ghatana 19vin sadi ke aitihasik ashcharyon men gini jati hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 kilakshar lipi (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 19 march, 2014.

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