एनी बेसेंट  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

eni besent
Annie-Besant-2.jpg
any nam ayaran ledi
janm 1 aktoobar 1847
janm bhoomi lndan, inglaind
mrityu 20 sitnbar, 1933
mrityu sthan andayar, chennee
pati/patni reverend phraink besent
sntan ek putr aur ek putri
prasiddhi lekhika, samaj sevika, svatntrata senani
parti bharatiy rashtriy kangres
pad kangres adhyaksh
bhasha angrezi
puraskar-upadhi deshavasiyon ne unhen man vasnt kahakar sammanit kiya to mahatma gandhi ne unhen vasnt devi ki upadhi se vibhooshit kiya.
vishesh yogadan nari-mukti ki samarthak
rachanaen deth-aind aftar, in d autar kort, d selph aind its shiths adi.
any janakari lagabhag 505 grnthon v lekhon ki lekhika da. eni besent ne 'haoo indiya rauth phaaur phridam' (1915) men bharat ko apani matribhoomi batalaya hai.

eni besent (angrezi: Annie Besant, janm: 1 aktoobar, 1847, lndan; mrity: 20 sitnbar, 1933) bharat ki mitti se gahara lagav rakhane vali prakhyat samajasevi, lekhika aur svatntrata senani thin. eni besent ne kee maukon par anyay ka kada pratirodh karake 'ayaran ledi' ki chhavi banaee thi. eni besent bharatiy darshan evn hindoo dharm se bahut akarshit thi aur thiyosaauphi ka prasar karane ke lie bharat aeen thi. unhen bharat se adbhut prem evn anurag tha aur bharatavasiyon dvara unhen diya gaya samman evn adar bhi darshaniy tha. adhyatmik aur rajanitik roop se soe hue bharat ko jagane ke lie, bharat ko apana ghar kahane vali eni besent ne duniya bhar ke dharmon ka gahan adhyayan kiya. un dharmon ko jana parakha aur samajha ki ved aur upanishad ka dharm hi sachcha marg hai.

jivan parichay

eni besent ka janm 1 aktoobar, 1847 ko lndan ke 'vud' parivar men hua. eni besent ke pita ek kushal chikitsak the. vah kee bhashaon ke gyata the. mata dharmik astha vali ayarish mahila, pita vidvanh ganitgy angrez, ek bhaee do varsh bada tha. eni besent jab panch varsh ki thin tabhi unake pita ka svargavas ho gaya tha. 1852 ko unake pita ke nidhan ke bad mata dvara behad garibi men donon bachchon ka palan-poshan kiya gaya. unaka palan-poshan unaki man ne abhavon ki sthitiyon men kiya. eni besent ki adbhut pratibha bachapan men hi dikhayi dene lagi thi jisase prabhavit hokar ek shikshavid mahila 'sushri meriyat' ne unhen unaki man se apane snrakshan men le liya. sushri meriyat ke snrakshan men unhonne 16 varsh tak vidyarjan kiya, yoorop tatha jarmani ki yatra ki, laitin evn phrench bhashaon ka gahan adhyayan kiya.

vivah aur talak

eni ko dharmik, adhyatmik, rahasyavad ki pustaken padhane ka shauq tha. usi dauran eesa ke prati lagav hua. 1867 ko eni besent ka vivah 22 varsh ki umr men girajaghar ke padari 'reverend phraink besent' se hua. 1868-70 ke madhy ek putr aur ek putri ko janm diya, kintu svabhav se svatntr vicharashil evn dharmik pravritti ke karan unaka apane pati se antarvirodh raha aur isi karan se unhonne pati se snbndh vichchhed kar manavata se nata jodane ka snkalp liya. unake donon bachche british qanoon ke anusar unake pati ke pas rahe. eeshvar, baibil aur eesaee dharm par se unaki astha dig gee. padari-pati aur patni ka paraspar nirvah kathin ho gaya isi karan vaicharik matabhed ke chalate vivah-sambandh katuta ke chalate vichchhed ho ge. 'phroots aauph philaausaphi' lekh men 'barth-kantrol' parivar-parisiman par lekh likhakar samaj-sudhar ki pakshadhar eni dvara dharm ki avgya ki gee. is vidrohipan ke karan pati dvara utpidan ke chalate 1873 men unaka talak ho gaya. dharm viruddh lekh likhane par muqadama chala. nyayadhish unake tarkon se sahamat the par joori nahin. dnd ko apil men maph kar diya gaya aur nyayalay ne putri de di, par putr chhin liya.

vyaktitv

ek videshi mahila jab bharat men rahane lagi to unhonne svayn ko kabhi videshi nahin samajha. hindoo dharm par vyakhh‍yan se poorv vah 'Om nam: shivay' ka uchcharan karati thi. vilakshan smaran shakti, nots nahin banati thi. veshabhoosha ke prati atyant savadhan rahati thi. samay ki atynt pabnd thi. 'mem sahab' kahalana pasnd nahin karati thi. 'amma' nam unhen pasnd tha. bharat se prem kiya aur bharatavasiyon ne unhen 'man basnt' kahakar sammanit kiya.[1]

lekhan kary

eni besent ne gnbhir arthik snkat ke samay svatntr vichar snbndhi lekh likhakar dhanoparjan kiya. khyatilabdh patrakar 'viliyam stid' ke snpark men unhonne lekhan evn prakashan ka kary ruchipoorvak kiya. vah inglaind ki sabase shaktishali 'mahila tred yooniyan' ki sachiv rahin. unhonne apana adhikansh samay mazadooron, akal piditon tatha abhavagraston ko suvidhaen dilavane men vyatit kiya.

bharat men samaj sudhar kary

san 1882 men ve 'thiyosaauphikal sosayati' ki snsthapika 'maidam blavatsaki' ke snpark men aeen aur poorn roop se snt snskaron vali mahila ban geen. sanh 1889 men unhonne ghoshana kar svayn ko 'thiyosaphist' ghoshit kiya aur shesh jivan bharat ki seva men arpit karane ki ghoshana ki. 16 navnbar 1893 ko ve ek vrihad karyakram ke sath bharat aeen aur sanskritik nagar kashi (banaras) ko apana kendr banaya. unhonne kashi ke tatkalin naresh 'maharaja prabhu narayan sinh' se bhent ki aur unase kamachchha sthit 'kashi naresh sabha bhavan' ke samip ki bhoomi prapt kar 7 julaee 1898 ko 'sentral hindoo kaaulej' ki sthapana ki. samajik buraiyon jaise bal vivah, jatiy vyavastha, vidhava vivah adi ko door karane ke lie 'bradars aauph sarvis' namak snstha banaee. is snstha ki sadasyata pane ke liye niche likhe pratigya patr par hastakshar karane padate the -

  1. main jati panti par adharit chhuachhoot nahin karunga.
  2. main apane putron ka vivah 18 varsh se pahale nahin karunga.
  3. main apani putriyon ka vivah 16 varsh se pahale nahin karunga.
  4. main patni, putriyon aur kutumb ki any striyon ko shiksha dilavaoonga, kanya shiksha ka prachar karunga. striyon ki samasyaon ko sulajhane ka prayas karunga.
  5. main jan sadharan men shiksha ka prachar karunga.
  6. main samajik evn rajanitik jivan men varg par adharit bhed-bhav ko mitane ka prayas karunga.
  7. main sakriy roop se un samajik bandhanon ka virodh karunga jo vidhava stri ke samane ate hain jab vah punarvivah karati hain.
  8. main karyakartaon men adhyatmik shiksha evn samajik aur rajanitik unnati ke kshetr men ekata lane ka prayatn bharatiy rashtriy kangres ke netritv v nirdeshan men karunga.
eni besent

da. eni besent janati thin ki bina rajanitik svatntrata ke in sabhi kathinaiyon ka samadhan sambhav nahin hai. unhonne apane 40 varsh bharat ke sarvangin vikas men vyatit kie. us samay mahamana madan mohan malaviy ek vishvavidyalay ki sthapana karana chahate the parntu niyamanusar isake lie ek kaaulej ka hona anivary tha. malaviy ji ne eni besent ke samaksh 'sentral hindoo kaaulej' ka prastav rakha to eni besent ne tatkal svikar karate hue kaha - 'mere pas jo kuchh bhi hai vah desh ke lie hi hai, yah vidyalay apaka hi hai pndit ji!' vah kashi hindoo vishvavidyalay ki sah snsthapika ke roop men jani jati hain. eni besent ne bharat men punarjagaran hetu shiksha, nari shiksha, adhyatmik sahity ka srijan evn vikas, dharm ka prasar, rajaniti adi sabhi kshetron men kary prarnbh kar diya. ve ek atynt kushal snsthapika, lekhika evn uchchakoti ki vakta thin. bharat ko svatntr karane ke prati vah chintit thin evn is disha men kary karane ke lie yahan ke rajanitigyon se bhi snpark banane lagi thin. deshavasiyon ne unhen man vasnt kahakar sammanit kiya to mahatma gandhi ne unhen vasnt devi ki upadhi se vibhooshit kiya.

bharatiy rajaniti men pravesh

bharatiy rajaniti men unhonne 1914 men 68 varsh ki umr men pravesh kiya aur ek atyant prabhavashali 'krantikari andolan hom rool' ka arnbh kiya. yah andolan bharatiy evn kangres ki rajaniti ka naya janm mana jata hai. is andolan ne bharat ki rajaniti tatha british sarakar ki niti men nitigat parivartan la diya. us samay ke mashahoor shayar 'brajanarayan chakabast' ne homarool par ek nazm bhi kahi jisamen eni besent ke prati deshavasiyon ka adar jhalakata hai.

bharat bhraman

eni besent ne poore desh ka bhraman prarnbh kar diya. unhonne jagah-jagah par hom rool ki shakhaen kholin tatha logon ko svarajy ka arth evn upayogita samajhayi. unhonne vishal prachar samagri taiyar ki. yah bharatiy rajaniti men ek naya qadam tha. 1914 me hi unhonne do patrikaen ‘nyoo indiya dainik’ tatha ‘d kaauman vhil saptahik’ prakashit ki. un patrikaon men british shasan ke virodh men likhane ke karan unhen 20 hazar rupaye ka dnd bhi dena pada. unhonne amarika aur inglaind men bhi homarool ki shakhaen kholin. ye shakhaen bhi bharat ki svatntrata ke lie kary karati thin. inglaind ki hom rool shakha ke mukhy karyakarta 'laaurd lensabari' tatha 'jaaurj barnad shaau' jaise mahanh vyakti the. unhonne ek aur mahattvapoorn kary kiya ki vaicharik roop se alag ho gaye lokamany tilak aur gokhale ko 1907 men apani koshishon se milakar ek kiya aur sath hi kangres tatha muslim lig men ekata banakar hindoo aur muslim samudayon men ekata sthapit karane men mukhy bhoomika nibhaee. 1917 men british sarakar ne eni besent ko unake do sahayogiyon ke sath nazarabnd kar diya gaya. phalasvaroop poore desh men sabhaen hueen, juloos nikale, mahilaon ne khulakar bhag liya. ant men british shasan ne unhen azad kiya aur qanoon men kee sudharon ki ghoshana bhi ki. 1917 men hi kalakatta men kangres ki sabha men unhen 'rashtriy kangres ka adhyaksh' banaya gaya.

kangres ki adhyaksh

eni bharatiyon ki svatntrata ki jabaradast pakshadhar thin. 1914 men unhonne bharatiy rajaniti men pravesh kiya aur 1917 men nirvachan samiti dvara bharatiy rashtriy kangres ki adhyaksh chuni gee. amataur par parti ka adhiveshan samapt hone par rajanitik dal ke adhyaksh niji jivan men vyast ho jate the, lekin daau. besent ne poore varsh desh ke alag-alag hisson men ghoomakar parti ko sngathit karane ka kary kiya. unhonne 'nyoo indiya' namak ek samacharapatr bhi prarambh kiya tha. vah british nagarik thin, isalie deshadroh ke arop men unhen jel bheja gaya. svatntrata ke vishay men vah gandhi ji ke vicharon se asahamat thin. vah kangres ke garam dal ke vicharon se prabhavit thin aur unhonne ajivan lokamany tilak ke sath desh ki azadi ke lie kam kiya. gandhi ji se vaicharik matabhedon hone ke karan unhonne dhire-dhire kangres men apani sakriyata kam kar di. 1924 men gandhi ji ke netritv men belaganv (karnatak) men kangres ka adhiveshan hua. rel ki lnbi yatra kar daau. besent jab belaganv pahunchin to adhiveshan prarambh ho chuka tha. tab gandhi ji sahit upasthit janasamooh unake svagat men uthakar khada ho gaya, kintu vah adhiveshan men adhyaksh ke sthan ko chhodakar parti ke any sadasyon ke sath baithin. gandhi ji ne adhiveshan ki karyavahi rok kar daau. besent se agrah kiya ki vah apane vichar vyakt karen. apane bhashan men unhonne kaha- 'ab meri umr zyada ho gee hai. isalie main sakriy rajaniti se sannyas le rahi hoon.' sannyas ke bad bhi vah bharat men shiksha ke prachar-prasar aur samaj sudhar snbndhi karyo men tan man se lagi rahin.[2]1919 tak ve sakriy rajaniti men rahane ke pashchath rajaniti se alag ho geen.

svabhav v vichar

eni besent ke jivan ka mool mntr tha - karm. vah jis siddhant par vishvas karati thin use apane jivan men utar leti thin. vah svabhavat: dharmik pravritti ki thin. unake rajanitik vicharon ki adharashila unake adhyatmik evn naitik mooly the. unaka vichar tha ki achchhaee ke marg ka nirdharan bina adhyatm ke snbhav nahin hai. rashtr ka vikas evn nirman tabhi snbhav hai, jab us desh ke vibhinn dharmon, manyataon evn snskritiyon men ekata sthapit ho. unaka uddeshy hindoo samaj evn usaki adhyatmikata men aee vikritiyon ko door karana tha.

poorv kendriy mntri aur varishth rajaneta vasnt sathe ke mutabik eni besent ek aisi mahila thin jinaki ichchhashakti aur sngharsh karane ki kshamata hi unaki poonji aur pahachan thi. unhonne kaha ki besent ek nee soch aur kshamata lekar aeen aur unhonne bharat ki mahilaon men ek nee chetana ka snchar kiya.

  • bharat ki or akarshit hone ke karan unhen laga ki mera karmakshetr bharat hi ho sakata hai. 16 navambar 1893 ko bharat ke tootikorin bndaragah par utarin.
  • lagabhag 505 grnthon v lekhon ki lekhika da. eni besent ne 'haoo indiya rauth phaaur phridam' (1915) men bharat ko apani matribhoomi batalaya hai.
  • 'indiya : e neshan' namak jo pustak jabt kar li gayi thi usamen unhonne svayatt-shasan ki vichar dhara pratipadit ki hai.
  • 1817 men nazaraband kiye jane se pahale sattar varshiy vriddha ne apane bharat ke bhaiyon aur bahanon ko akhiri sandesh diya tha- main vriddha hoon, kintu mujhe vishvas hai ki marane ke pahale hi main dekhoongi ki bharat ko svayatt-shasan mil gaya hai.

thiyosaauphikal sosayati

eni besent ke samman men jari dak tikat

1888 ko shrimati sted dvara 'rivyoo aur rivyooj' ke lie pustak samalochana likhane ke lie madam blavataski ki do pustaken din. eni besent inhen padhakar bahut prabhavit hueen. 1889 ko madam blavataski se milin. madam blavataski ne eni besent ko thiyosaauphikal sosayati ke uddeshy batae. unake uddeshy sunakar 21 mee ko thiyosaauphikal sosayati men ve pravisht ho geen. 1907 ko thiyosaauphikal sosayati ki antararashtriy adhyaksh chuni geen. jiddoo krishnamoorti ko apanaya. 1908 ko 'aaurdar aauph thiyosaauphikal snnyasi' pit vastradhari, sevavrati samarpit logon ki snstha banaee. julaee 1921 men peris men ayojit pratham thiyosaauphikal varld kangres ki adhyaksh banaee geen.

unhonne bharatiy dharm ka gnbhir adhyayan kiya. unhonne gita ka angreji bhasha men anuvad kiya. unhonne lagabhag 200 pustaken likhi hain. kee patrikaon ka prakashan kiya. unhen 6 julaee 1907 men hi 'thiyosaphikal sosayati' ka adhyaksh chun liya gaya tha. vah jivan paryant is snstha ki adhyaksh rahin. 1908 men adayar (chennee) men 'vasnt pres' ka shubharnbh kiya. 1918 men 'indiyan bharat skaauut' ki ninv rakhi. 14 disnbar 1921 ko banaras hindoo vishvavidyalay ne inhen 'daauktar aauf letars' ki upadhi se vibhooshit kiya.

andayar men jo thiyosaphikal sosayati ka antararashtriy mukhyalay hai, unhonne sabhi dharmon ke mandiron ki sthapana ki. sath hi vishv bndhutv ki bhavana badhane par nirntar zor deti rahin. inhin sndarbhon men unake jivan ka ek mahattvapoorn kary tha ki vishv ke mahanh darshanik 'je. krishnamoorti' ko 1909 men apane matapita se apane snrakshan men le lena. tab je.krishnamoorti ki ayu panch varsh thi. unhin ke snrakshan men krishnamoorti ne gyanarjan kiya. eni besent ne yah kary matritv ke sarvochch adarshon ke anuroop hi kiya. aj je.krishnamoorti vishvaguru ke roop men sammanit hain.

rachanaen

pratibha-sampann lekhika aur svatntr vicharak hone ke nate shrimati eni besent ne thiyosaauphi (brahmavidya) par qarib 220 pustaken v lekh likhe. 'ajaiks' upanam se bhi unhonne lekhan kary kiya tha. poorv-thiyosaauphikal pustakon evn lekhon ki snkhya lagabhag 105 hai. 1893 men unhonne apani atmakatha prakashit ki thi. unaki jivaniparak pustakon ki snkhya 6 hai. unhonne ek sal, 1995 men solah pustakon aur anek paimphalet prakashit kiye, jinaki snkhya 900 prishthon se adhik thi. eni besent ne bhagavadgita ka angreji-anuvad kiya aur pustakon ke lie prastavanaen bhi likhin. unake dvara 'kvins haaul' men diye gaye vyakhyanon ki snkhya lagabhag 20 hogi. unhonne bharatiy snskriti, shiksha v samajik sudharon par 48 grnthon aur paimphalet ki rachana ki. bharatiy rajaniti par lagabhag 77 pustaken likhin. unaki maulik kritiyon men se chayanit 28 grnthon ka nirman hua. samay-samay par 'loosipher', 'd kamanavil' v 'nyoo indiya' ke snpadan bhi eni besent ne kiye. gat shatabdi men prakashit unake prasiddh grnth is prakar hain -

daau. eni besent ki pramukh kritiyan
kram nam san vivaran
1- deth-aind aftar (thiyosaauphikal mainyual III) 1893
2- atmakatha 1893
3- in d autar kort 1895
4- karm (thiyosaauphikal mainyual IV) 1895 karm-vyavastha ka sundar chitran.
5- d selph aind its shiths 1895
6- main aind hiz baaudij (thiyosaauphikal mainyual VII) 1896
7- d path aauph disaipilship 1896 mumuksh ka marg.
8- d ainshyient vizdam 1897
9- phaaur gret rilijans 1897 dharm par prasiddh pustak - kalantar men char bhagon men prakashit -
  1. hindooijm,
  2. zoraistriyanijm,
  3. buddhijm,
  4. krishchiyainiti.
10- evolyooshan aauph laiph end phaaurm 1899
11- sam praaublams aauph laiph 1900
12- thaaut pavar : its kantrol aind kalchar 1901
13- rilijas praaublam in indiya 1902 yah unaki ek mahanh sahityik kriti thi jo kalantar men char bhagon - islam, jainizm, sikkhizm, thiyosaauphi - men prakashit huee.
14- d pedigri aauph main 1904
15- e stadi in kaaunshasanes 1904
16- e stadi in karm 1912 karm-siddhant par pranit.
17- vek ap, indiya : e pli phaaur soshal riphaaurm 1913
18- indiya aind e empayar 1914
19- phaaur indiyaz apalipht 1914
20- d kaaumanavil 1914 julaee se nikalana shuroo kiya (prasiddh saptahik patr).
21- nyoo indiya 1915 madras (chennee) se nikalane vala dainik patr.
22- haoo indiya rauth phaaur phridam 1915 yah prasiddh grnth aauphishiyal rikardon ke adhar par rachit rashtriy kangres ki kahani hai.
23- indiya : e neshan 1915 d pipuls buks siriz ki is pustak ko 1916 men angrez sarakar ne jabt kar liya aur eni besent ko alage varsh nazaraband kar diya gaya.
24- kangres spichej 1917
25- d barth aauph nyoo indiya 1917 yah pustak phaaur indiyaz apalipht - 1914, se milati julati hai.
26- letars too e yng indiyan prins 1921 is grnth men chhote-chhote deshi rajyon ko adhunik tarikon se punarganit karane ki snstuti ki gayi hai.
27- d phyoochar aauph indiyan paaulitiks 1922 isaki upadeyata tatkalin samasyaon ko samajhane ke lie rahi hai.
28- brahm vidya 1923
29- indiyan art 1925 bharatiy snskriti par yah pustak kalakatta vishvavidyalay men diye gaye kamala lekchar par adharit hai.
30- indiya : baund aaur phri? 1926 yah pustak adbhut sahityik aur mananiy ruchi ka ek niji dastavej hai. sath hi sath bharatiy itihas ki ek apoorv nidhi hai. isamen bharat ke bhoot, vartaman aur bhavishy ka vyavasthit sarvekshan kiya gaya hai.
15- e stadi in kaaunshasanes 1904

nidhan

bharatiy snskriti se daau.besent ka gahara lagav tha. british samachar patron ne unhen 'poorab ka sitara' ka khitab diya tha. vah kaha karati thin - eeshvar se meri prarthana hai ki mera agala janm hindoo parivar men ho. bharat premi, hindoo dharm premi evn sachche arthon men shiksha shastri eni besent ne varanasi ke gnga tat par apana antim snskar karane ki ichchha prakat ki thi| 20 sitnbar sanh 1933 men andayar chennee ke nikat 86 varsh ki ayu men unaka nidhan ho gaya. us jamane men yah snbhav nahin tha ki viman ya rel dvara unaka parthiv sharir varanasi laya ja sake. itihas ki is mahanh nayika ki antim ichchha poori karane ke lie unaki ichchhaon ke anusar bharatiy paddhati se unaka dah snskar hua. unaka asthi kalash banaras laya gaya tatha dashashvamedh ghat par usaka visarjan hua.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. eni besent nahin 'man basnt' kaho (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) vebaduniya hindi. abhigaman tithi: 15 march, 2011.
  2. poorab ka sitara daau.eni besent (hindi) (pi.ech.pi) jagaran yahoo indiya. abhigaman tithi: 15 march, 2011.

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