गंगा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(गंगा नदी se punarnirdeshit)
gnga vishay soochi


gnga
gnga nadi
desh bharat, nepal aur bangladesh
rajy himachal pradesh, uttarakhnd, uttar pradesh, madhy pradesh, bihar aur pashchim bngal
pramukh nagar haridvar, kannauj, kanapur, varanasi, bhagalapur aur murshidabad zila
udgam sthal gngotri, uttarakhnd
lambaee 2,510 kimi
sahayak nadiyan yamuna, ramagnga, ghaghara, tapti, gndak, kosi adi
pauranik ullekh brahmand puran ke anusar gnga ko vishnu ke panv se evn shiv ke jatajoot men avasthit mana gaya hai.
dharmik mahattv bharat ki anek dharmik avadharanaon men gnga nadi ko devi ke roop men nirupit kiya gaya hai.
aitihasik mahattv aitihasik roop se gnga ke maidan se hi hindustan ka hriday sthal nirmit hai aur vahi bad men ane vali vibhinn sabhyataon ka palana bana. ashok ke samrajy ka kendr pataliputr (patana), bihar men gnga ke tat par basa hua tha.
googal manachitr gnga nadi
any janakari bharatiy bhashaon men tatha adhikrit roop se gnga nadi ko antarrashtriy star par isake angrezikrit nam ‘d gaingiz’ se hi jana jata hai. gnga sahasrabdiyon se hinduon ki pavitr tatha poojaniy nadi rahi hai.
adyatan‎

gnga (angrezi: Ganges) bharat ki sabase mahattvapoorn nadiyon men se ek hai. yah uttar bharat ke maidanon ki vishal nadi hai. gnga, bharat aur bangladesh men milakar 2,510 kilomitar ki doori tay karati huee uttaranchal men himalay se nikalakar bngal ki khadi men bharat ke lagabhag ek-chauthaee bhoo-kshetr ko pravahit hoti hai. gnga nadi ko uttar bharat ki arthavyavastha ka merudand bhi kaha gaya hai.

namakaran

bharatiy bhashaon men tatha adhikrit roop se gnga nadi ko antarrashtriy star par isake angrezikrit nam ‘d gaingiz’ se hi jana jata hai. gnga sahasrabdiyon se hinduon ki pavitr tatha poojaniy nadi rahi hai. apane adhikansh marg men gnga ek chaudi v mnd dhara hai aur vishv ke sabase zyada upajaoo aur ghani abadi vale ilaqon se hokar bahati hai. itane mahatv ke bavazood isaki lambaee 2,510 kilomitar hai, jo eshiya ya vishv star ki tulana men koee bahut zyada nahin hai. bharat ki pavan nadi, jisaki jaladhara men snan se papamukti aur jalapan se shuddhi hoti hai. yah prasiddh nadi, himachal pradesh men gngotri se nikalakar madhyadesh se hoti huee pashchim bngal ke pare gngasagar men milati hai. gnga ki ghati snsar ki urvaratam ghatiyon men se ek hai aur sarayoo, yamuna, son adi anek nadiyan usase a milati hain.

visheshataen

gnga ka udgam dakshini himalay men tibbat sima ke bharatiy hisse se hota hai. isaki panch arambhik dharaon bhagirathi, alakananda, mndakini, dhaulignga tatha pindar ka udgam uttarakhand kshetr, jo uttar pradesh ka ek snbhag tha (vartaman uttaranchal rajy) men hota hai. do pramukh dharaon men badi alakananda ka udgam himalay ke nnda devi shikhar se 48 kilomitar door tatha doosari bhagirathi ka udgam himalay ki gngotri namak himanad ke roop men 3,050 mitar ki oonchaee par barf ki gufa men hota hai. gngotri hinduon ka ek tirth sthan hai. vaise gngotri se 21 kilomitar dakshin-poorv sthit gomukh ko gnga ka vastavik udgam sthal mana jata hai. gnga nadi ki pradhan shakha bhagirathi hai, jo kumaoon men himalay ke gomukh namak sthan par gngotri himanad se nikalati hai.[1] gnga ke is udgam sthal ki oonchaee 3140 mitar hai. yahan gnga ji ko samarpit ek mndir bhi hai. gngotri tirth, shahar se 19 kilomitar uttar ki or 3892 mitar (12,770 phit) ki oonchaee par is himanad ka mukh hai.

bhaugolik vistar

gnga ke besin men is upamahadvip ki vishalatam nadi pranali sthit hai. yahan jal ki apoorti mukhyat: julaee se aktoobar ke bich dakshin-pashchimi manasoon tatha apral se joon ke bich grishm ritu ke dauran pighalane vali himalay ki barf se hoti hai. nadi ke besin men manasoon ke un katibndhiy toofanon se bhi varsha hoti hai, jo joon se aktoobar ke bich bngal ki khadi men paida hote hain. disambar aur janavari men bahut kam matra men varsha hoti hai

gngotri himanad men gomukh
Gomukh in Gangotri Himnad

sahayak nadiyan

gnga men uttar ki or se akar milane vali pramukh sahayak nadiyan yamuna, ramagnga, karanali (ghaghara), tapti, gndak, kosi aur kakshi hain tatha dakshin ke pathar se akar isamen milane vali pramukh nadiyan chnbal, son, betava, ken, dakshini tos adi hain. yamuna gnga ki sabase pramukh sahayak nadi hai jo himalay ki bandarapoonchh choti ke adhar par yamunotri himakhand se nikali hai. [2] himalay ke oopari bhag men isamen tons[3] tatha bad men laghu himalay men ane par isamen giri aur asan nadiyan milati hain. chambal, betava, sharada aur ken yamuna ki sahayak nadiyan hain.

mahattv

aitihasik roop se gnga ke maidan se hi hindustan ka hriday sthal nirmit hai aur vahi bad men ane vali vibhinn sabhyataon ka palana bana. ashok ke ee. poo. ke samrajy ka kendr pataliputr (patana), bihar men gnga ke tat par basa hua tha. mahanh mugal samrajy ke kendr dilli aur agara bhi gnga ke besin ki pashchimi simaon par sthit the. satavin sadi ke madhy men kanapur ke uttar men gnga tat par sthit kannauj, jisamen adhikansh uttari bharat ata tha, harsh ke samantakalin samrajy ka kendr tha.

aitihasik mahattv

aitihasik roop se gnga ke maidan se hi hindustan ka hriday sthal nirmit hai aur vahi bad men ane vali vibhinn sabhyataon ka palana bana. ashok ke ee. poo. ke samrajy ka kendr pataliputr (patana), bihar men gnga ke tat par basa hua tha. mahanh mugal samrajy ke kendr dilli aur agara bhi gnga ke besin ki pashchimi simaon par sthit the. satavin sadi ke madhy men kanapur ke uttar men gnga tat par sthit kannauj, jisamen adhikansh uttari bharat ata tha, harsh ke samantakalin samrajy ka kendr tha. muslim kal ke dauran, yani 12vin sadi se musalamanon ka shasan n keval maidan, balki bngal tak phaila hua tha. delta kshetr ke dhaka aur murshidabad muslim satta ke kendr the.

varanasi men gnga nadi ke ghat
Ghats of Ganga River in Varanasi

arthik mahattv

gnga apani upatyakaon men bharat aur bangladesh ke krishi adharit arth men bhari sahayog to karati hi hai, yah apani sahayak nadiyon sahit bahut bade kshetr ke lie sinchaee ke barahamasi srot bhi hain. in kshetron men ugaee jane vali pradhan upaj men mukhyatah dhan, ganna, dal, tilahan, aloo evn gehoon hain. jo bharat ki krishi aj ka mahattvapoorn srot hain. gnga ke tatiy kshetron men daladal evn jhilon ke karan yahan legyoom, mirch, sarason, til, ganna aur joot ki achchhi fasal hoti hai. nadi men matsy udyog bhi bahut zoron par chalata hai.

dharmik mahattv

bharat ki anek dharmik avadharanaon men gnga nadi ko devi ke roop men nirupit kiya gaya hai. bahut se pavitr tirthasthal gnga nadi ke kinare par base huye hain jinamen varanasi aur haridvar sabase pramukh hain. gnga nadi ko bharat ki pavitr nadiyon men sabase pavitr mana jata hai evn yah manyata hai ki gnga men snan karane se manushy ke sare papon ka nash ho jata hai. marane ke bad log gnga men apani rakh visarjit karana moksh prapti ke liye avashyak samajhate hain, yahan tak ki kuchh log gnga ke kinare hi pran visarjan ya antim snskar ki ichchha bhi rakhate hain.

pauranik mahattv

gnga nadi ke sath anek pauranik kathaen judi huee hain. kuchh puranon ne gnga ko mandakini ke roop men svarg men, gnga ke roop men prithvi par aur bhogavati ke roop men patal men pravahit hote hue varnit kiya hai.[4] vishnu adi puranon ne gnga ko vishnu ke bayen pair ke angoothe ke nakh se pravahit mana hai.[5] kuchh puranon men aisa aya hai ki shiv ne apani jata se gnga ko sat dharaon men parivartit kar diya, jinamen tin (nalini, hladini evn pavani) poorv ki or, tin (sita, chakshus evn sindhu) pashchim ki or pravahit huee aur satavin dhara bhagirathi huee[6]. koorm puran[7]ka kathan hai ki gnga sarvapratham sita, alakannda, suchaksh evn bhadra namak char vibhinn dharaon men bahati hai. alakannda dakshin ki or bahati hai, bharatavarsh ki or ati hai aur saptamukhon men hokar samudr men girati hai.[8]

sahityik ullekh

bharat ki rashtr-nadi gnga jal hi nahin, apitu bharat aur hindi sahity ki manaviy chetana ko bhi pravahit karati hai.[9] rigved, mahabharat, ramayan evn anek puranon men gnga ko puny salila, pap-nashini, moksh pradayini, saritshreshtha evn mahanadi kaha gaya hai. snskrit kavi jagannath ray ne gnga ki stuti men 'shrigngalahari'[10] namak kavy ki rachana ki hai. hindi ke adi mahakavy prithviraj raso[11] tatha visaladev ras[12]narapati nalh) men gnga ka ullekh hai. adikal ka sarvadhik lok vishrut grnth jaganik rachit alhakhand[13] men gnga, yamuna aur sarasvati ka ullekh hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

vithika

varanasi men gnga ka vihngam drishy
gnga ka vihngam drishy, (varanasi)

bahari kadiyan

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. uttaranchal-ek parichay (echatiem) tidiaeeel. abhigaman tithi: 28 apral, 2008.
  2. bharat ke bare men jano bharat sarakar. abhigaman tithi: 21 joon, 2009.
  3. uttarakhnd ki pramukh nadiyan indiya vatar portal. abhigaman tithi: 21 joon, 2009.
  4. padm puran 6|267|47
  5. vamapadambujangushthanakhasrotovinirgatamh. vishnorbabharti yan bhaktya shirasahaninshn dhruv:.. vishnu puran (2|8|109); kalpataru (tirth, prishth 161) ne ‘shiv:’ pathantar diya hai. ‘nadi sa vaishnavi prokta vishnupadasamudabhava.’ padm puran (5|25|188).
  6. (matsy puran 121|38-41; brahmand puran 2|18|39-41 evn 1|3|65-66)
  7. (1|46|30-31) evn varah puran (adhyay 82, gady men)
  8. tathaivalakannda ch dakshinadety bharatamh. prayati sagarn bhittva saptabheda dvijottam:.. koorm puran (1|46|31).
  9. hindi kavy men gnga nadi abhivyakti. abhigaman tithi: 30 joon, 2009.
  10. gnga ki upasthiti sujalamh. abhigaman tithi: 22 joon, 2009.
  11. indo kin andoliya ami e chakkivn gnga sire. .................etane charitr te gng tire
  12. ki re himali mahin gilun. ki tu jhnphaghadn gng-duvari...................bahin divaoon rai ki. thara byah karabun gng ni pari
  13. pragaraj so tirath dhyavaun. jahn par gng matu laharay.. / ek or se jamuna aee. donon milin bhuja phailay.. / sarasvati niche se nikali. tirabeni so tirth kahay..

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