वन्दे मातरम्  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

vande mataramh
vande mataramh
vivaran 'vande mataramh' bharat ka rashtriy git hai, jisake pratham do pad snskrit men tatha shesh pad bngali bhasha men hain. isaka sh‍than rashtriy gan 'jan gan man' ke barabar hai.
rachanakar bnkim chandr chattopadhyay
angikrit 24 janavari, 1950
sngit yadunath bhattachary
vishesh ravindranath taigor ne is git ko svarabaddh kiya aur pahali bar 1896 men kangres ke kalakatta adhiveshan men yah git gaya gaya.
any janakari arabindo ghosh ne is git ka angrezi men aur arif mohammad khan ne isaka urdoo men anuvad kiya tha. 14 agast, 1947 ki ratri men snvidhan sabha ki pahali baithak ka prarnbh ‘vnde mataram’ ke sath aur samapan ‘jan gan man...’ ke sath hua tha.
bahari kadiyan rashh‍triy git vidiyo

vnde mataramh bharat ka rashtriy git hai jisaki rachana bnkim chandr chattopadhyay dvara ki gee thi. inhonne 7 navambar, 1876 ee. men bngal ke kantal pada namak ganv men is git ki rachana ki thi. vnde mataramh git ke pratham do pad snskrit men tatha shesh pad bangla bhasha men the. rashtrakavi ravindranath taigor ne is git ko svarabaddh kiya aur pahali bar 1896 men kangres ke kalakatta adhiveshan men yah git gaya gaya. arabindo ghosh ne is git ka angrezi men aur arif mohammad khan ne isaka urdoo men anuvad kiya. 'vnde mataramh' ka sh‍than rashtriy gan 'jan gan man' ke barabar hai. yah git sh‍vatntrata ki ladaee men logon ke lie prarena ka srot tha.

pad

vnde mataramh git ka pratham pad is prakar hai-

vnde mataramh, vnde mataramh!
sujalamh, suphalamh, malayaj shitalamh,
shasyashyamalamh, mataramh!
vnde mataramh!
shubhrajyotsanamh pulakitayaminimh,
phullakusumit drumadal shobhinimh,
suhasinimh sumadhur bhashinimh,
sukhadamh varadamh, mataramh!
vnde mataramh, vnde mataramh॥

arabind ka anuvad

gady roop men shri arabinh‍d ghosh dvara kie ge angrezi anuvad ka hinh‍di anuvad is prakar hai-

main apake samane natamash‍tak hota hoon. o mata,
pani se sinchi, phalon se bhari,
dakshin ki vayu ke sath shanh‍t,
kataee ki fasalon ke sath gahara,
mata!
usaki raten chandani ki garima men praphullit ho rahi hain,
usaki zamin khilate phoolon vale vrikshon se bahut sundar dhaki huee hai,
hnsi ki mithas, vani ki mithas,
mata, varadan dene vali, annd dene vali.

mool git

sujalan suphalan malayajashitalamh
sasy shyamalan matarnmh .
shubhr jyotsanamh pulakit yaminimh
phull kusumit drumadalashobhinimh,
suhasinin sumadhur bhashinimh .
sukhadan varadan mataramh ॥

Blockquote-open.gif git ke pahale do chhndon men matribhoomi ki sundarata ka gitatmak varnan kiya gaya hai, lekin 1880 ke dashak ke madhy men git ko naya ayam milana shuroo ho gaya. aisa isalie hua, kyonki bnkimachndr ne 1881 men apane upanyas 'anndamath' men is git ko shamil kar liya. usake bad kahani ki mang ko dekhate hue unhonne is git ko lnba kiya. bad men jode ge hisse men hi dashapraharanadharini (durga), kamala (lakshmi) aur vani (sarasvati) ke uddharan die ge hain. Blockquote-close.gif


koti koti kanth kalakal ninad karale
dvisapt koti bhujairdhrat kharakaravale
ke bole ma tumi abale
bahubal dharinimh namami tarinimh
ripudalavarinimh mataramh ॥

tumi vidya tumi dharm, tumi hradi tumi marm
tvn hi pranaah sharire
bahute tumi ma shakti,
hridaye tumi ma bhakti,
tomarai pratima gadi mandire-mandire ॥

tvn hi durga dashapraharanadharini
kamala kamaladal viharini
vani vidyadayini, namami tvamh
namami kamalan amalan atulamh
sujalan suphalan mataramh ॥

shyamalan saralan susmitan bhooshitamh
dharanin bharanin mataramh ॥

git ke rag v avadhi

varshon se 'sngit sarita', 'svar sudha' aur 'rag-anurag' jaise karyakram sunane men ate rahe hain. in karyakramon se yah gyat ho jata hai ki dher sare filmi git kaun-kaun se rag par adharit hain. par khed hai ki ab tak yah janakari nahin mil saki ki rashtriy git vnde mataramh aur rashtriy gan 'jan gan man' kin ragon par adharit hain. yah donon hi rachanaen bangla bhasha ke kaviyon se nikali hain. svatntrata sngharsh ke dauran rachi gee in rachanaon ko ye kavi svayn jan sabhaon men gaya karate the, jisase lagata hai ki yah rachanaen 'ravindr sngit' men nibaddh hai. rashtriy gan ke to rachanakar hi ravindranath taigor hain.

bnkimachndr chatarji dvara rachit 'vnde mataramh' to bahut lambi rachana hai, jisamen man durga ki shakti ka bhi bakhan hai, par pahale antare ke sath ise sarakari git ke roop men manyata mili hai aur ise rashtriy git ka darza dekar isaki n keval dhun balki git ki avadhi tak snvidhan sabha dvara tay ki gee hai, jo 52 sekend hai. is tarah lagata hai ki 'rashtriy gan' aur 'rashtriy git' ke n sirf rag balki isamen bajane vale saz bhi lagabhag tay hai.

nirman

1870 ke dauran angrez hukmaranon ne 'gaaud sev d kvin' git gaya jana anivary kar diya tha. angrezon ke is adesh se bnkimachndr chatarji ko, jo tab ek sarakari adhikari the, bahut thes pahunchi aur unhonne snbhavat: 1876 men isake vikalp ke taur par snskrit aur bangla ke mishran se ek ne git ki rachana ki aur usaka shirshak diya "vnde mataramh". shuruat men isake keval do pad rache ge the, jo keval snskrit men the.

git ka virodh

git ke pahale do chhndon men matribhoomi ki sundarata ka gitatmak varnan kiya gaya tha, lekin 1880 ke dashak ke madhy men git ko naya ayam milana shuroo ho gaya. aisa isalie hua, kyonki bnkim chndr ne 1881 men apane upanyas 'anndamath' men is git ko shamil kar liya. usake bad kahani ki mang ko dekhate hue unhonne is git ko aur lnba kiya. bad men jode ge hisse men hi 'dashapraharanadharini'[1], kamala[2] aur vani[3] ke uddharan die ge hain. lekhak hone ke nate bnkimachndr ko aisa karane ka poora adhikar tha aur isako lekar turnt koee nakaratmak pratikriya nahin huee. yani tab kisi ne aisa nahin kaha ki yah moorti ki vndana karane vala git hai ya 'rashtragit' nahin hai. kafi samay bad jab vibhajanakari muslim aur hindoo sanpradayik takaten ubharin to yah rashtragit se ek aisa git ban gaya, jisamen sanpradayik nihitarth the. 1920 aur khasakar 1930 ke dashak men is git ka virodh shuroo hua.[4]

'vandemataram' gayan

15 agast, 1947 ko pratah 6:30 baje akashavani se pandit onkaranath thakur ka rag-desh men nibaddh 'vandemataram' ke gayan ka sajiv prasaran hua tha. azadi ki suhani subah men deshavasiyon ke kanon men rashtrabhakti ka mntr phoonkane men 'vandemataram' ki bhoomika avismaraniy thi. onkaranath ji ne poora git stoodiyo men khade hokar gaya tha; arthat unhonne ise rashtragit ke taur par poora samman diya. is prasaran ka poora shrey saradar ballabh bhaee patel ko jata hai. pandit onkaranath thakur ka yah git 'di gramophon kampani aauf indiya' ke rikaaurd snkhya STC 048 7102 men maujood hai.[5]

rashh‍triy git ki manyata

24 janavari, 1950 ko snvidhan sabha ne nirnay liya ki svatntrata sngram men 'vandemataram' git ki ullekhaniy bhoomika ko dekhate hue is git ke pratham do antaron ko 'jan gan man..' ke samakaksh manyata di jay. daau. rajendr prasad ne snvidhan sabha ka yah nirnay sunaya. "vandemataram' ko rashtragan ke samakaksh manyata mil jane par anek mahattvapoorn rashtriy avasaron par 'vandemataram' git ko sthan mila. aj bhi 'akashavani' ke sabhi kendron ka prasaran 'vandemataram' se hi hota hai. aj bhi kee sanskritik aur sahityik snsthaon men 'vandemataram' git ka poora-poora gayan kiya jata hai.[5]

itihas

san 1905 ke bngal ke svadeshi andolan ne vnde mataramh ko rajanitik nare men tabdil kar diya. rashtravadi virodh-pradarshan ki aguaee karate hue ravindranath taigor ne ise gaya aur aravind ghosh ne bnkimachndr ko rashtravad ka rishi kahakar pukara. san 1920 tak subrahmanyam bharati tatha doosaron ke hathon vibhinn bharatiy bhashaon men anoodit hokar yah git rashtragan ki haisiyat pa chuka tha. baharahal, san 1930 ke dashak men vnde mataramh ki is haisiyat par vivad utha aur log is git ki moorti-poojakata ko lekar apatti uthane lage. javaharalal neharoo ke netritv men gathit ek samiti ki salah par bharatiy rashtriy kangres ne san 1937 men is git ke un anshon ko chhant diya, jinamen butaparasti ke bhav zyada prabal the aur git ke snpadit ansh ko rashtragan ke roop men apana liya.[6]

rashtragit ka darja

jab azad bharat ka naya snvidhan likha ja raha tha, tab vnde mataramh ko n rashtragan ke roop men apanaya gaya aur n hi use rashtragit ka darza mila. lekin snvidhan sabha ke adhyaksh aur bharat ke pahale rashtrapati rajendr prasad ne 24 janavari, 1950 ko ghoshana ki ki vnde mataramh ko rashtragit ka darza diya ja raha hai.[7]

svadhinata sngram men rashtragit ki bhoomika

bngal men chale azadi ke andolan men vibhinn railiyon men josh bharane ke lie yah git gaya jane laga. dhire-dhire yah git logon men lokapriy ho gaya. britrani hukoomat isaki lokapriyata se sashnkit ho uthi aur usane is par pratibndh lagane par vichar karana shuroo kar diya. 1896 men 'bharatiy rashtriy kangres' ke 'kalakatta adhiveshan' men bhi gurudev ravindranath taigor ne yah git gaya. panch sal bad yani 1901 men kalakatta men hue ek any adhiveshan men charan das ne yah git punah gaya. 1905 men banaras men hue adhiveshan men is git ko sarala devi ne svar diya.

kangres ke adhiveshanon ke alava bhi azadi ke andolan ke dauran is git ke prayog ke kafi udaharan maujood hain. lala lajapat ray ne lahaur se jis jarnal ka prakashan shuroo kiya, usaka nam 'vnde mataram' rakha. angrezon ki goli ka shikar banakar dam todane vali azadi ki divani matngini hazara ki juban par akhiri shabd 'vnde mataram' hi the. san 1907 men maidam bhikaji kama ne jab jarmani ke statagart men tirnga phaharaya to usake madhy men 'vnde mataramh' hi likha hua tha.

git ke aitihasik tathy

  • 7 navnbar 1876 men bngal ke kantal pada ganv men bnkim chandr chattopadhyay ne 'vnde mataram' ki rachana ki thi.
  • 1882 men vnde mataram bnkim chandr chattopadhyay ke prasiddh upanyas 'anndamath' men sammilit hua.
  • 1896 men ravindr nath taigor ne pahali bar ‘vnde mataram’ ko bngali shaili men lay aur sngit ke sath kalakatta ke kangres adhiveshan men gaya.
  • moolaroop se ‘vnde mataram’ ke prarnbhik do pad snskrit men the, jabaki shesh git bangla bhasha men.
  • vnde mataramh ka angrezi anuvad sabase pahale aravind ghosh ne kiya.
  • disambar 1905 men kangres karyakarini ki baithak men git ko rashtragit ka darza pradan kiya gaya, bng-bhng andolan men ‘vnde mataramh’ rashtriy nara bana.
  • 1906 men ‘vnde mataram’ devanagari lipi men prastut kiya gaya, kangres ke kalakatta adhiveshan men gurudev ravindr nath taigor ne isaka snshodhit roop prastut kiya.
  • 1923 men kangres adhiveshan men vnde mataramh ke virodh men svar uthe.
  • pn. neharoo, maulana abul kalam azad, subhash chndr bos aur achary narendr dev ki samiti ne 28 aktoobar 1937 ko kangres ke kalakatta adhiveshan men pesh apani riport men is rashtragit ke gayan ko anivary badhyata se mukt rakhate hue kaha tha ki is git ke shuruati do pad hi prasngik hai, is samiti ka margadarshan ravindr nath taigor ne kiya.
  • 14 agast 1947 ki ratri men snvidhan sabha ki pahali baithak ka prarnbh ‘vnde mataram’ ke sath aur samapan ‘jan gan man...’ ke sath hua.
  • 1950 ‘vnde mataram’ rashtriy git aur ‘jan gan man’ rashtriy gan bana.
  • 2002 bi.bi.si. ke ek sarvekshan ke anusar ‘vnde mataramh’ vishv ka doosara sarvadhik lokapriy git hai.[8]

rashtragit ka mahattv

rashtriy ekata ko mazaboot karane men git, sngit aur nrity ki mahattv bhoomika hoti hai. logon ko ekasootr men bandhane ke sath hi sngit man ko khushi bhi deti hai. sarvapratham 1882 men prakashit is git ko pahale-pahal 7 sitnbar, 1905 men kangres adhiveshan men rashtragit ka darza diya gaya. isilie 2005 men isake sau sal poore hone ke upalaksh men ek sal ke samaroh ka ayojan kiya gaya. 7 sitnbar, 2006 men is samaroh ke samapan ke avasar par 'manav snsadhan mntralay' ne is git ko skoolon men gae jane par bal diya. halanki isaka virodh hone par us samay ke 'manav snsadhan vikas mntri' arjun sinh ne snsad men kaha ki- "git gana kisi ke lie avashyak nahin kiya gaya hai, yah svechchha par nirbhar karata hai."


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. durga
  2. lakshmi
  3. sarasvati
  4. bhattachary, savyasachi. ek sahityik rachana ka rajanitikaran (hindi) ech ti em el. abhigaman tithi: 11 aktoobar, 2010.
  5. 5.0 5.1 'vandemataram' git ka ek aur navin prayog (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) avaz. abhigaman tithi: 29 disambar, 2012.
  6. vnde mataramh (hindi) pustak daaut o ar ji. abhigaman tithi: 11 aktoobar, 2010.
  7. raman, sunil. vnde mataramh se jude hain anek pahaloo (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) bibisi. abhigaman tithi: 11 aktoobar, 2010.
  8. ‘vnde mataramh’ ko sanpradayik kahana shahidon ka apaman hai (hindi) hindi midiya. abhigaman tithi: 11 aktoobar, 2010.

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