नेल्सन मंडेला  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

nelsan mndela
Nelson-Mandela.png
poora nam nelsan rolihlala mndela
janm 18 julaee, 1918
janm bhoomi 'mabasa nadi' ke kinare 'mavejon ganv', 'transki'
mrityu 5 disambar, 2013 (ayu- 95 varsh)
mrityu sthan johansabarg, dakshin afrika
abhibhavak gedala henari (pita), nekyoofi nosakeni (mata)
pati/patni 'ivalin mes' (pratham patni), 'nomajamo vini medikijala' (dvitiy patni) tatha 'gres mekal' (tisari patni)
nagarikata dakshin afika
prasiddhi rngabhed virodhi neta ke roop men khyati prapt.
parti 'afrikan neshanal kangres yooth lig'
pad poorv rashtrapati dakshin afrika
vidyalay 'methadist mishanari skool', 'klarkaberi mishanari skool' aur 'heldataun kaaulej' se snatak
puraskar-upadhi bharat ratn (1990 ee.), nobel puraskar (1993 ee.)

nelsan mndela (angrezi: Nelson Mandela, janm:18 julaee, 1918 - mrityu: 5 disambar, 2013) dakshin afrika ke bhootapoorv rashtrapati the. nelsan mndela yahan ke pratham ashvet rashtrapati bane the. unhonne apani zindagi ke 27 varsh raauben dvip par karagar men rngabhed niti ke khilaf ladate hue bitae.

jivan parichay

mabasa nadi ke kinare transki ke mavejon ganv men 'nelsan rohilhala mndela' ka 18 julaee, 1918 ko janm hua tha. unake pita ne unhen nam diya 'rohilhala' arth ped ki daliyon ko todane vala ya phir pyara shaitan bachcha. nelsan ke pita 'gedala henari' ganv ke pradhan the. unaka parivar parampara se hi ganv ka pradhan parivar tha. ghar ka koee ladaka hi is pad par sushobhit hota tha. nelsan ke parivar ka sambandh kshetr ke shahi parivar se tha. atharahavin shatabdi men yah is kshetr ka pramukh shasak parivar raha tha, jab tak ki yoorop ne is kshetr par adhikar nahin kar liya.

nelsan apani pita ki tisari patni 'nekyoofi nosakeni' ki pahali santan the. kul milakar vah terah bhaeeyon men tisare the. log ummid kar rahe the ki vah parivar ki parampara ke anusar shahi salahakar banenge. nelsan ki man ek methadist thin. vah 'methadist mishanari skool' ke vidyarthi bane. isi bich barah sal ki umr men hi nelsan ke sir se pita ka saya uth gaya. nelsan ne 'klarkaberi mishanari skool' se apani prarambhik shiksha poori ki.

rngabhed se sakshatkar

vidyarthi jivan men unhen roz yad dilaya jata ki unaka rng kala hai aur sirf isi vazah se vah yah kam nahin kar sakate. unhen roz is bat ka ehasas karavaya jata ki agar ve sina tan kar sadak par chalenge to is aparadh ke lie unhen jel jana pad sakata hai. aise anyay ne unake andar asnntosh bhar diya. ek krantikari taiyar ho raha tha. unhonne 'heldataun' se apani snatak shiksha poori ki. heldataun ashveton ke lie banaya gaya ek vishesh kaaulej tha. yahin par unaki mulaqat 'aaulivar tambo' se huee, jo jivan bhar ke lie unake dost aur sahayogi ban jane vale the. 1940 tak nelsan mndela aur aaulivar tambo ne kaaulej kaimpas men apane rajanitik vicharon aur karyakalapon ke lie prasiddhi pa li. kaaulej prashasan ko jab is bat ka pata laga to donon ko kaaulej se nikal diya gaya aur parisar men unake pravesh par pratibndh laga diya gaya. 'phort heyar' unake kriyakalapon ke moort gavah ke roop men aj bhi khada hai. kaaulej se nikal die jane ke bad vah mata-pita ke pas transki laut ae.

parivar se vidroh

unhen kranti ki rah par dekhakar parivar pareshan tha aur chahata tha ki vah hamesha ke lie ghar laut aen. jaldi hi ek ladaki pasand ki gee jisase nelsan ko parivarik zimmedariyon men bandh diya jae. ghar men vivah ki taiyariyan zor-shor se chal rahi thin, doosari or nelsan ka man udvelit tha aur akhir men unhonne apane niji jivan ko darakinar karane ka faisala kiya aur ghar se bhagakar johansabarg a ge. vah johansabarg ki vishal sadakon par yayavar ki tarah bhatak rahe the. nelsan ne ek sone ki khadan men chaukidar ki naukari karana shuroo kar diya. johansabarg ki ek basti alekzendara unaka thikana thi.

sahayogi

nelsan ne apani man ke sath johansabarg men hi rahane ka irada kiya. isi jagah par unaki mulaqat 'valtar sisuloo' aur 'valtar elbaratain' se huee. nelsan ke rajanitik jivan ko in do hastiyon ne bahut prabhavit kiya. nelsan ne jivanayapan ke lie ek qanooni farm men lipik ki naukari kar li, lekin ve lagatar apane apase lad rahe the. vah dekh rahe the ki unake apane logon ke sath isalie bhed kiya ja raha tha kyonki prakriti ne unako doosaron se alag rng diya tha. is desh men ashvet hona aparadh ki tarah tha. ve samman chahate the aur unhen lagatar apamanit kiya jata tha. roz kee bar yad dilaya jata ki ve ashvet hain aur aisa hona kisi aparadh se kam nahin hai.

vivah ka nirnay

1944 men nelsan ki zindagi men 'ivalin mes' aeen aur donon shadi ke bandhan men bndh ge. ivalin unake sahayogi aur mitr valtar sisuloo ki bahin thin. vah inhin dinon 'afrikan neshanal kangres' men shamil ho ge. jaldi hi unhonne tambo, sisuloo aur apane kuchh sathiyon ke sath milakar 'afrikan neshanal kangres yooth lig' ka nirman kiya. 1947 men mndela is snstha ke sachiv chun lie ge. sath hi unhen 'trannsaval e.en.si.' ka adhikari bhi niyukt kiya gaya.

shiksha aur rajaniti

nelsan ki vichar shaili aur kam karane ki kshamata se log prabhavit hone lage. ek mahanh neta dhire-dhire janm le raha tha. isi bich apane ap ko qanoon ka behatar janakar banane ke lie nelsan ne qanoon ki padhaee shuroo kar di, lekin apani vyastata ke karan ve el.el.bi. ki pariksha pas karane men asaphal rahe. is asaphalata ke bad unhonne ek vaqil ke taur par kam karane ke bajay atarni ke taur par kam karane ke lie patrata pariksha pas karane ka faisala kiya. isi bich afrikan neshanal kangres ko chunavon men karari parajay ka samana karana pada. kangres ke adhyaksh ko pad se hatakar kisi ne adhyaksh ko lane ki mang zor pakadane lagi. yooth kangres ke vicharon ko apanakar mukhy parti ko age badhane ka vichar rakha gaya. valtar sisuloo ne ek karyayojana ka nirman kiya, jo 'afrikan neshanal kangres' ke dvara svikar kar liya gaya. 1951 men nelsan ko 'yooth kangres' ka adhyaksh chun liya gaya. nelsan ne apane logon ko qanooni ladaee ladane ke lie 1952 men ek qanooni farm ki sthapana ki.

gandhi ji ka prabhav

yah vah daur tha jab poori duniya gandhi se prabhavit ho rahi thi, nelsan bhi unamen se ek the. vaicharik roop se vah svayn ko gandhi ke nazadik pate the, aur yah prabhav unake dvara chalae ge andolanon par spasht roop se dikhaee de raha tha. kuchh hi samay men unaki farm desh ki 'pahali ashveton' dvara chalaee ja rahi farm ho gee, lekin nelsan ke lie vaqil ka rozagar aur rajaniti ko ek sath lekar chalana mushkil sabit ho raha tha. isi dauran unhen trannsaval kangres ka adhyaksh bana diya gaya. zimmedariyan badhati ja rahi thin.

lokapriyata aur kangres

sarakar ko nelsan ki badhati huee lokapriyata bilkul pasand nahin a rahi thi aur un par pratibndh laga diya gaya. unako vargabhed ke arop men johansabarg ke bahar bhej diya gaya aur un par kisi tarah ki baithak men bhag lene par rok laga di gee. afrikan neshanal kangres ka bhavishy hi danv par lag gaya tha. sarakar ke damanachakr se bachane ke lie nelsan aur aaulivar tamb ne ek 'em' plan banaya. yahan par em se matalab mndela se tha. phaisala liya gaya ki kangres ko tukadon men todakar kam kiya jae aur zaroorat pade to bhoomigat rahakar bhi kam kiya jaega. pratibndh ke bavajood nelsan bhagakar klip taun pahunch ge aur kangres ke jalason men bhag lene lage. logon ki bhid ki ad men bachate hue unhonne un tamam sngathanon ke sath kam kiya, jo ashveton ki svatntrata ke lie sngharsh kar rahe the.

isi dauran unhen am logon ke sath zyada se zyada vaqt bitane ka mauqa mila aur unamen janamanas ko samajhane ki samajh vikasit huee. dhire-dhire ashveton ke adhikaron ke liy chalae ja rahe andolan men unaki sakriyata badhati hi chali gee. andolan men apani vyastata ke karan ve parivar ko samay nahin de pa rahe the. patni elvin se unaki dooriyan badhati hi chali geen aur akhir men vah vaqt bhi a gaya jab hamesha ke lie sath nibhane aur sath chalane ka vada kar chukin elvin ne unaka sath chhod diya. nelsan ke lie yah ek vyaktigat kshati thi. lekin unhen kahin bade lakshy ke lie kam karana tha.

andolan aur nelsan

nelh‍san mndela
Nelson Mandela

andolan aur nelsan jivanasngi ban ge. nelsan ke netritv men andolan ki tivrata badhati hi ja rahi thi. sarakar buri tarah se ghabaraee huee thi. isi bich e.en.si. ne svatntrata ka chartar svikar kiya aur is qadam ne sarakar ka snyam tod diya. poore desh men giraftariyon ka daur shuroo ho gaya. e.en.si. ke adhyaksh aur nelsan ke sath poore desh se rngabhed ka andolan ka samarthan karane vale ek sau chhappan neta giraftar kar lie ge. andolan netritv vihin ho gaya. nelsan aur sathiyon par desh ke khilaf yuddh chhedane aur deshadroh karane ka arop lagaya gaya. is aparadh ki saza mrityudand thi. in sabhi netaon ke khilaf muqadama chalaya gaya aur 1961 men nelsan aur 29 sathiyon ko nirdosh ghoshit karate hue riha kar diya gaya. isi muqadame ke dauran nelsan ki mulaqat 'nomajamo vini medikijala' se huee, jo jaldi hi unaki doosari jivan sngini banane vali thin.

afrikan neshanal kangres aur nelsan

sarakar ke dvara chalaya gaya damanachakr afrikan neshanal kangres aur nelsan ka janadhar badha raha tha. log sngathan se judane lage aur andolan din pratidin mazaboot hota ja raha tha. rngabhedi sarakar andolan ko todane ke lie har sambhav prayas kar rahi thi. isi bich kuchh aise qanoon pas kie ge, jo ashveton ko nagavar the. nelsan ne in qanoonon ka virodh karane ke lie pradarshan kiya. isi tarah ke ek pradarshan men dakshin afriki pulis ne sharpavile shahar men pradarshanakariyon par goliyon ki bauchhar kar di. 180 log mare ge aur 69 log ghayal hue. har ek desh ke andolan ka apana ek jaliyanvala bag ban gaya tha. is tarah ki ghatanaon aur sarakar dvara chalae ja rahe kroor damanachakr ne nelsan ka ahinsa par se vishvas utha diya.

naye dal ka gathan

rngabhedi sabhi simaon ko todati ja rahi thi. dakshin afrika ki zamin atyacharon ke rng se surkh lal ho chuki thi. eenasi aur doosare pramukh dal ne hathiyaband ladaee ladane ka faisala kiya. donon ne hi apane ladaka dal vikasit karane shuroo kar die. nelsan apani maulik rah chhodakar ek doosare raste par nikal pade, jo unake usoolon se mool nahin khata tha. eenasi ke ladake dal ka nam rakha gaya, "spiyar af di neshan" aur nelsan ko is ne gut ka adhyaksh bana diya gaya. ve ne raste par poore josh ke sath nikal pade. bas rasta naya tha, mnzil abhi bhi vahi thi—apane logon ke lie nyay aur samman. is qadam ne rahi—sahi qasar poori kar di aur rngabhedi sarakar ne nelsan ke dal par pratibndh laga diya. damanachakr apane poore zor par tha. baukhalaee sarakar koee bhi qasar nahin chhod nahin thi. poori duniya men is kam ke lie sarakar ki alochana ho rahi thi. manavadhikar sngathan is haivani krity ki taraf poori duniya ka dhyan akarshit karava rahe the. nelsan vaishvik neta ke taur par ubhar rahe the. sarakar ka poora dhyan nelsan ko giraftar kar poore sngathan ko khatm karane men tha. is trasadi se bachane ke lie unhen chori se desh ke bahar bhej diya gaya, taki ve svatntr rahakar apane logon ka netritv kar saken. desh ke bahar ate hi unhonne sabase pahale adis ababa men afriki neshanalist lidars kanfrens ko sambodhit kiya aur behatar jivan ke apane adharabhoot adhikar ki mang ki. vahan se nikalakar ve aljiriya chale ge aur ladane ki gurilla takanik ka gahan prashikshan liya. isake bad unhonne lndan ki rah pakadi jahan olivar tambo ek bar phir unake sath a mile. lndan men vipakshi dalon ke sath unhonne mulaqat ki aur apani bat ko poori duniya ke samane samajhane ki koshish ki. isake bad ve ek bar phir dakshin afrika pahunche. vahan ki sarakar unake svagat ke lie ekadam taiyar thi, aur pahunchate hi unhen giraftar kar liya gaya.

jel aur nelsan

nelsan ko poore panch sal ki saza sunaee gee. arop laga ki ve avaidhanik tariqe se desh se bahar ge. sarakar abhi bhi unhen kisi kranti ka neta manane ko taiyar nahin thi. ek adami ne poori sarakar ko dara rakha tha. isi bich johanasabarg ke lilisalif men sarakar ne chhapa marakar esake mukhyalay ko tahas—nahas kar diya. emake ke sabhi bade neta pakade ge aur nelsan sahit sabhi logon par desh ke khilaf ladane ka arop tay kiya gaya. unake sahit panch aur logon ko umraqaid ki saza sunaee gee. am janata se door rakhane ke lie unhen roban dvip par bhej diya gaya. yah dakshin afrika ka kalapani mana jata hai.

nelsan ki jit

jel jane se pahale adalat ko apane bayan se sambodhit karate hue nelsan ne kaha-

"apane poore jivan ke dauran mainne apana sabakuchh afriki logon ke sngharsh men jhonk diya. main shvet rngabhed ke khilaf lada hoon, aur men ashvet rngabhed ke khilaf bhi lada hoon. mainne hamesha ek mukt aur lokatantrik samaj ka sapana dekha hai. jahan sabhi log ek sath poore samman, prem aur saman avasar ke sath apana jivan yapan kar payenge. yahi vah adarsh hai, jo mere lie jivan ki asha bani aur main isi ko pane ke lie zinda hoon, aur agar kahin zaroorat hai ki mujhe is lakshy ko prapt karane ke lie marana hai to main isake lie bhi poori tarah se taiyar hoon."

adalat men upasthit har ek atma nelsan ka hi samarthan kar rahi thi. in shabdon ne dakshin afriki andolan ko hamesha ek nee oorja di. 1976 men pulis mntri jimi krugar nelsan ke pas sarakar ki taraf se ek prastap lekar ae ki agar ve andolan ko samapt kar den to sarakar unhen mukt kar transki men basane ki anumati de degi. rngabhedi sarakar par poori duniya se dabav badhata ja raha tha. in dabavon ne asar dikhaya aur nelsan tatha sisuloo ko roban dvip se afrika lakar kepataun ke nazadik palsamoor jel men rakha gaya. yah nelsan ki neta ke taur par jit thi. apane prabhav se ve sarakar ko jhukane men saphal rahe. isi bich unaki tabiyat kharab huee. sarakar ne apatakal ghoshit kar diya. nelsan ko tatkal aspatal le jaya gaya. prosted glend ka apareshan saphal raha. is ghatana ke bad sarakar nelsan ke prati thodi naram huee.

jel aur khrarab svasthy

qanoon mntri kobi koetji ne unase agrah kiya ki ve azadi prapt karane ke apane lakshy men hinsa ka rasta tyag den. halanki nelsan ne ek bar phir se saf inkar kar diya, lekin sarakar ne un par riyayaton ki jhadi laga di. unhen parivar se milane ki chhoot di gee. sath hi ve ab ek jel vardan ke sath kepataun men ghoomane bhi ja sakate the. kafi lambe arase ke bad nelsan ne bahari duniya ki khuli hava men sans lena shuroo kiya tha. ek premil vyakti apani sabase badi ichchha doobate hue sooraj ko dekhana aur sath men behatarin sngit sunana, poori karane ke lie taras gaya tha. ek sakshatkar ke dauran nelsan ne svikar kiya ki unhonne apani zindagi men in chizon ki kami mahasoos ki, lekin lakshy zyada bada tha. 1983 ek bar phir se nelsan ke lie maut qarib le aya. janch men paya gaya ki unhen ti. bi. ho gaya hai. upachar dene ke lie unhen behatar jagah ki zaroorat thi. unhen parl ke nazadik viktar jel men pahuncha diya gaya. zindagi bas nikali ja rahi thi. sngharsh pak raha tha aur akhir men rngabhed ke din ladate hue dikhaee dene lage. 1989 men dakshin afrika men satta parivartan hua aur udar ef dablyoo klark desh ke mukhiya bane. satta sambhalate hi unhonne sabhi ashvet dalon par laga hua pratibndh hata liya. sath hi sabhi rajanitik bndiyon ko azad kar diya gaya jin par kisi tarah ka aparadhik muqadama darj nahin tha. nelsan bhi unamen se ek the. zindagi ki sham men azadi ka soory nelsan ke jivan ko roshan karane laga. 11 faravari, 1990 ko nelsan akhir men poori tarah se azad kar die ge.

azadi ki or

ashveton ko unaka adhikar dilavane ke lie 1991 men 'kanavenshan phaaur e demokretik sauth afrika' ya 'kodasa' ka gathan kar diya gaya, jo desh ke snvidhan men avashyak parivartan karane vali thi. di klark aur mndela ne is kam men apani saman bhagidari nibhaee. apane is utkrisht kary ke lie hi unhen nobel puraskar diya gaya.

samman aur puraskar

1990 men bharat sarakar ki or se nelh‍san mndela ko bharat ratn puraskar diya gaya. apane is utkrisht kary ke lie hi 1993 men nelsan mndela aur di klark donon ko snyukt roop se shanti ke lie nobel puraskar diya gaya.

rajanitik jivan

thik agale sal dakshin afrika men rngabhed rahit chunav hue. afrikan neshanal kangres ne sabako pachhadate hue basath pratishat maton par apana qabza kar liya. 10 mee, 1994 ko ashveton ke lie dakshin afrika ki us bhoomi par nelsan mndela ne apani janata ko sambodhit karate hue kaha-

"akhirakar hamane apane rajanitik lakshy ko prapt kar hi liya. ham apane ap se vada karen ki ham apane sabhi logon ko azadi denge, garibon se, mushkilon se, taqalifon se, lingabhed se aur kisi bhi tarah ke shoshan se. aur kabhi bhi is khoobasoorat dharati par ek-doosare ke sath kisi tarah ka bhedabhav nahin kiya jaega. svatntrata ka lutf uthaie. eeshvar afrika par apani kripa banae rakhe."- nelsan

nelsan ke is sambodhan ne afrika ke shvet logon ke man se dar ko nikal diya, jo desh ki bahusnkhyak janata ka pratinidhitv karati thi. jise yugon se unake dvara pratadit aur shoshit kiya gaya tha. 1997 men nelsan ne sakriy rajaniti jivan se kinara kar liya. 1999 men unhonne dal ke adhyaksh pad ko bhi chhod diya. vini mndela se alag hone ke bad apane assiven janmadin par gres mekal se vivah kiya. nelsan ne azadi ki ladaee men apana sau pratishat diya. ek bar unhonne kaha tha-

"mainne ek sapana dekha hai, sabake lie shanti ho, kam ho, roti ho, pani aur namak ho. jahan ham sabaki atma, sharir aur mastishk ko samajh sake aur ek—doosare ki zarooraton ko poora kar saken. aisi duniya banane ke lie abhi milon chalana baqi hai. hamen abhi chalana hai, chalate rahana hai.

mrityu

dakshin aphrika ke poorv rashtrapati nelsan mndela ka 5 disambar, 2013 ko nidhan ho gaya. ve 95 sal ke the. sitambar men aspatal se chhutti milane ke bad unaka ghar par hi ilaj kiya ja raha tha. dakshin aphrika ke rashtrapati jaikab zooma ne kaha, "sathiyon, hamare pyare nelsan mndela hamare lokatantrik rashtr ke snsthapak rashtpati hamen chhodakar chale ge hain. 5 disnbar ko rat ath bajakar pachas minat par ve apane parivar ke bich the aur tabhi hamen alavida kah ge. hamare rashtr ne apana sabase mahanh sapoot kho diya hai. hamane apana pita kho diya hai. ham janate the ki ek din ye din bhi ana tha lekin hamen jo kshati huee hai vo apoornaniy hai."


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