मोरारजी देसाई  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

moraraji desaee
Morarji Desai.jpg
poora nam moraraji ranachhodaji desaee
janm 29 faravari 1896
janm bhoomi bhadeli, gujarat
mrityu 10 aprail, 1995
mrityu sthan nee dilli, bharat
abhibhavak ranachhodaji desaee, maniben
nagarikata bharatiy
parti kangres (1969), kangres-o (1969–1977), janata parti
pad bharat ke chauthe pradhanamntri
kary kal 24 march 1977 se 28 julaee 1979 tak
vidyalay elaphinstan kaaulej
jel yatra do bar jel yatra ki
puraskar-upadhi bharat ratn, tahariq-e-pakistan

moraraji desaee (angrezi: Morarji Desai, janm: 29 faravari 1896; mrityu: 10 aprail, 1995 ) ko bharat ke chauthe pradhanamntri ke roop men jana jata hai. vah 81 varsh ki ayu men pradhanamntri bane the. isake poorv kee bar unhonne pradhanamntri banane ki koshish ki parntu asaphal rahe. lekin aisa nahin hain ki moraraji pradhanamntri banane ke qabil nahin the. vastut: vah durbhagyashali rahe ki varishthatam neta hone ke bavazood unhen pndit neharoo aur lalabahadur shastri ke nidhan ke bad bhi pradhanamntri nahin banaya gaya. moraraji desaee march 1977 men desh ke pradhanamntri bane lekin pradhanamntri ke roop men inaka karyakal poorn nahin ho paya aur chaudhari charan sinh se matabhedon ke chalate unhen pradhanamntri pad chhodana pada.

janm

moraraji desaee ka janm 29 faravari 1896 ko gujarat ke bhadeli namak sthan par hua tha. unaka snbndh ek brahman parivar se tha. unake pita ranachhodaji desaee bhavanagar (saurashtr) men ek skool adhyapak the. vah avasad (nirasha evn khinnata) se grast rahate the, at: unhonne kuen men kood kar apani ihalila samapt kar li. pita ki mrityu ke tisare din moraraji desaee ki shadi huee thi. pita ko lekar unake hriday men kafi samman tha. is vishay men moraraji desaee ne kaha tha-

"mere pita ne mujhe jivan ke moolyavan path padhae the. mujhe unase kartavyon ka palan karane ki prerana prapt huee thi. unhonne dharm par vishvas rakhane aur sabhi sthitiyon men saman bane rahane ki shiksha bhi mujhe di thi."

moraraji desaee ki mata maniben krodhi svabhav ki mahila thin. vah apane ghar ki samarpit mukhiya thin. ranachhodaji ki mrityu ke bad vah apane nana ke ghar apana parivar le geen. lekin inaki nani ne inhen vahan nahin rahane diya. vah pun: apane pita ke ghar pahunch geen.

vidyarthi jivan

moraraji desaee ki shiksha-diksha munbee ke elaphinstan kaaulej men huee jo us samay kafi mahnga aur kharchila mana jata tha. munbee men moraraji desaee ni:shulk avas grih men rahe jo gokuladas tejapal ke nam se prasiddh tha. ek samay men vahan 40 shiksharthi rah sakate the. vidyarthi jivan men moraraji desaee ausat buddhi ke vivekashil chhatr the. inhen kaaulej ki vad-vivad tim ka sachiv bhi banaya gaya tha lekin svayn moraraji ne mushkil se hi kisi vad-vivad pratiyogita men hissa liya hoga. moraraji desaee ne apane kaaulej jivan men hi mahatma gandhi, bal gngadhar tilak aur any kangresi netaon ke snbhashanon ko suna tha. kaaulej jivan ke panch varshon men inhonne bahut si filmen dekhin lekin svayn ke paison se nahin. inaka kahana tha-

"main apane paison se film dekhana ya manornjan karana pasnd nahin karata. mujhamen kabhi aisi khvahish hi nahin uthati thi."

bachapan men moraraji desaee ko kriket dekhane ka bhi shauq tha lekin kriket khelane ka nahin. kriket maichon ko dekhane ke lie vah sahi vaqt ka intazar karate the aur suraksha prahari ki nazar bachakar darshak dirgha men pravisht ho jate the.

vyavasayik jivan

moraraji desaee ne munbee provinshal sivil sarvis hetu avedan karane ka man banaya jahan sarakar dvara sidhi bharti ki jati thi. julaee 1917 men unhonne yoonivarsiti trening kors men pravishti paee. yahan inhen british vyaktiyon ki bhanti saman adhikar evn suvidhaen prapt hoti rahin. yahan rahate hue moraraji afasar ban ge. mee 1918 men vah pariviksha par bataur up ziladhish ahamadabad pahunche. unhonne chetafild namak british kalektar (ziladhish) ke antargat kary kiya. moraraji 11 varshon tak apane rookhe svabhav ke karan vishesh unnati nahin prapt kar sake aur kalektar ke niji sahayak pad tah hi pahunche.

rajanitik jivan

isake bad atmamnthan ka daur chala. moraraji desaee ne 1930 men british sarakar ki naukari chhod di aur svatntrata sngram ke sipahi ban ge. 1931 men vah gujarat pradesh ki kangres kameti ke sachiv ban ge. unhonne akhil bharatiy yuva kangres ki shakha sthapit ki aur saradar patel ke nirdesh par usake adhyaksh ban ge. 1932 men moraraji ko 2 varsh ki jel bhugatani padi. moraraji 1937 tak gujarat pradesh kangres kameti ke sachiv rahe. isake bad vah bnbee rajy ke kangres mntrimndal men sammilit hue. is dauran yah mana jata raha ki moraraji desaee ke vyaktitattv men jatilataen hain. vah svayn apani bat ko oopar rakhate hain aur sahi manate hain. is karan log inhen vyngy se 'sarvochch neta' kaha karate the. moraraji ko aisa kaha jana pasnd bhi ata tha. gujarat ke samachar patron men pray: unake is vyaktitv ko lekar vyngy bhi prakashit hote the. kartoonon men inake chitr ek lnbi chhadi ke sath hote the jisamen inhen gandhi topi bhi pahane hue dikhaya jata tha. isamen vyngy yah hota tha ki gandhiji ke vyaktitv se prabhavit lekin apani bat par ade rahane vale ek ziddi vyakti.

svatntrata sngram men bhagidari ke karan moraraji desaee ke kee varsh zelon men hi guzare. desh ki azadi ke samay rashtriy rajaniti men inaka nam vazanadar ho chuka tha. lekin moraraji ki prathamik ruchi rajy ki rajaniti men hi thi. yahi karan hai ki 1952 men inhen bnbee ka mukhyamntri banaya gaya. is samay tak gujarat tatha maharashtr bnbee provins ke nam se jane jate the aur donon rajyon ka prithakh gathan nahin hua tha. 1967 men indira gandhi ke pradhanamntri banane par moraraji ko up pradhanamntri aur grih mntri banaya gaya. lekin vah is bat ko lekar kunthit the ki varishth kangres neta hone par bhi unake bajay indira gandhi ko pradhanamntri banaya gaya. yahi karan hai ki indira gandhi dvara kie jane vale krantikari upayon men moraraji nirntar badha dalate rahe. darasal jis samay shri kamaraj ne sindiket ki salah par indira gandhi ko pradhanamntri banae jane ki ghoshana ki thi tab moraraji bhi pradhanamntri ki daud men shamil the. jab vah kisi bhi tarah nahin mane to parti ne is mudde par chunav karaya aur indira gandhi ne bhari matantar se bazi mar li. indira gandhi ne moraraji ke ahn ki tushti ke lie inhen up pradhanamntri ka pad diya.

Blockquote-open.gif moraraji desaee ekamatr aise bharatiy pradhanamntri hain jinhen bharat sarakar ki or se 'bharat ratn' tatha pakistan ki or se 'tahariq-e-pakistan' ka sarvashreshth nagarik samman prapt hua hai. Blockquote-close.gif

 

pradhanamntri pad par

pandit javahar lal neharoo ke samay kangres men jo anushasan tha, vah unaki mrityu ke bad bikharane laga. kee sadasy svayn ko parti se bada samajhate the. moraraji desaee bhi unamen se ek the. shri lalabahadur shastri ne kangres parti ke vafadar sipahi ki bhanti kary kiya tha. unhonne parti se kabhi bhi kisi pad ki mang nahin ki thi. lekin is mamale men moraraji desaee apavad men rahe. kangres sngathan ke sath unake matabhed jagazahir the aur desh ka pradhanamntri banana inaki prathamikataon men shamil tha. indira gandhi ne jab yah samajh liya ki moraraji desaee unake lie kathinaiyan paida kar rahe hain to unhonne moraraji ke par katarana arambh kar diya. is karan unaka kshubdh hona svabhavik tha. navambar 1969 men jab kangres ka vibhajan kangres-ar aur kangres-o ke roop men hua to moraraji desaee indira gandhi ki kangres-aee ke bajae sindiket ke kangres-o men chale ge. phir 1975 men vah janata parti men shamil ho ge. march 1977 men jab lokasabha ke chunav hue to janata parti ko spasht bahumat prapt ho gaya. parantu yahan par bhi pradhanamntri pad ke do any davedar upasthit the-chaudhari charan sinh aur jagajivan ram. lekin jayaprakash narayan jo svayn kabhi kangresi hua karate the, unhonne king mekar ki apani sthiti ka labh uthate hue moraraji desaee ka samarthan kiya.

isake bad 23 march, 1977 ko 81 varsh ki avastha men moraraji desaee ne bharatiy pradhanamntri ka dayitv grahan kiya. inake pradhanamntritv ke arambhik kal men, desh ke jin nau rajyon men kangres ka shasan tha, vahan ki sarakaron ko bhng kar diya gaya aur rajyon men ne chunav karaye jane ki ghoshana bhi kara di gee. yah alokatantrik aur asnvaidhanik kary tha. janata parti, indira gandhi aur unaki samarthit kangres ka desh se safaya karane ko kritasnkalp nazar aee. lekin is krity ko buddhijiviyon dvara sarahana prapt nahin huee.

sahayogi dal sarakar

vidhanasabha chunavon men tamilanadu ko chhodakar any rajyon men janata parti aur sahayogi dal sarakar banane men saphal rahe. is dauran janata parti ne ek any kam bhi kiya, vah yah ki snvidhan ke 44ven snshodhan dvara 42ven snshodhan (ise indira gandhi ne apatakal ke dauran snshodhit kiya tha) men aisa pravadhan kiya, jisase snvidhan ko kamazor n karate hue pun: apatakal n lagaya ja sake. sath hi sath janata parti ne sarvochch nyayalay ka yah adhikar bhi bahal kiya jisake anusar kendr athava rajy sarakar dvara banae ge qanoonon ki vaidhanikata ke bare men sarvochch nyayalay nirnay kar sakati thi. apatakal men sarvochch nyayalay se kendr tatha rajyon ki qanoon ki samiksha karane ka adhikar bhi chhin liya gaya tha. janata parti ne indira gandhi ke khilaf 35 janch ayog gathit kie, jinamen 'shah ayog' sabase pramukh tha.

utar chadhav

jab shasan aksham aur kamazor hota hai to samasyaen thok ke bhav paida hoti hain. tripura, asam evn manipur samasyaon ka kendr ban ge. aligadh aur ranchi sahit desh ke kee any shaharon men sampradayik sauhardr bigadane laga, phir vahan par dnge bhi hue. vastut: janata parti men vibhinn vicharadharaon vale log mntri the, jo ki apane-apane anusar kary kar rahe the, n ki sarakar ke anusar. janata parti sarakar men sushasan pradan karane ki kshamata nahin thi aur n hi ve aisi snkalp shakti dikha rahe the. us samay janata parti sarakar men videsh mntri ke taur par atal bihari vajapeyi ek svachchh chhavi vale neta the.

chaudhari charan sinh jo kisan neta the aur krishi mntralay ke yogy the, vah desh ka grih mntralay sambhal rahe the. pradhanamntri moraraji desaee ne indira gandhi ke pradhanamntritv kal men svayn grih mntralay ka padabhar sambhala tha aur vah ek kushal prashasak bhi the. samajik nyay prapti ki disha men janata parti ek qadam nahin chali. gramin parivesh ki arthavyavastha sudharane ka bhi koee prayas nahin kiya gaya.

Blockquote-open.gif beshak moraraji desaee ek saphal pradhanamntri nahin sabit hue lekin isake lie tatkalin janata parti ki paristhitiyan hi zimmedar thin. tathapi ek saphal vyakti ke roop men bharatiy rajaniti men inaka sthan akshunn rahega. inaka jivan charitr ane vali naslon ke lie anukaraniy hoga. Blockquote-close.gif


desh ki janata men vibhinn mamalon ko lekar ansatosh badh raha tha. agadon ka vyavahar pichhadon ke prati atyachari hone laga. bihar men julm-o-sitam ki us vaqt inteha ho gee jab savarnon dvara pichhadon ko zinda jalane ki lomaharshak ghatana ghati. is prakar harijanon ko jalaya jana janata parti sarakar ke lie ghatak siddh hone vala tha. isake atirikt janata parti ke shasan kal men nimnalikhit karanon se bhi asntosh badha jo moraraji desaee ke patan ka karan bana-

  • janata parti men vilay huee partiyon ne use apana ghar nahin mana tha. unake lie svayn ki parti ka vajood bana hua tha. is karan nishtha bhav ki kami thi. sabhi partiyan satta sukh bhogane men lagi huee thin.
  • chhatron ko apane andolanon men sath rakhakar hi janata parti satta tak pahunchi thi. lekin kaaulejon aur vishvavidyalayon ki samasyaon ka koee samadhan n hone se shiksharthi varg bhi inake khilaf ho gaya.
  • 1979 men arddhasainik balon ne vidroh kar diya, jise kuchalane men kafi samay laga. lekin is vidroh ne yah sabit kar diya ki janata parti ki sarakar ka kahin par bhi niyntran nahin hai.
  • desh ki pnchavarshiy yojana ko purane kalaindar ki bhanti lapetakar rakh diya gaya. is karan desh ki samagr vikas dar buri tarah se prabhavit huee.
  • 'kam ke badale anaj yojana' arambh ki gee, lekin isamen vyapt bhrashtachar ke karan vanchhit saphalata prapt nahin huee.
  • 1978-79 men kee rajyon men sookha pada. jisase aqal ki sthiti paida ho gee. sarakari khadyann bhandar rikt ho ge. khadyannon ki qimaton men vriddhi huee. kerosin tel bhi garib janata ke lie divasvapn ho gaya.
  • janata parti sarakar men shamil ghatak dal apane svarth ki rotiyan senk rahe the. bharatiy janasngh parti hindutv ka kard khel rahi thi. jabaki kangres-o dharmanirepeksh ka dikhava kar rahi thi.
  • pradhanamntri moraraji desaee kahane bhar ko pradhanamntri rah ge. unaka kisi bhi mntri par koee zor nahin rah gaya tha.
  • mudra sphiti ki dar 20 pratishat ke par ho gee. is karan 1979 tak anavarat qimaton men vriddhi jari thi.

15 julaee, 1979 ko moraraji desaee ki sarakar alpamat men a gee aur unhen tyagapatr dene ko vivash hona pada.

is prakar moraraji desaee ki chirapratikshit abhilasha avashy poorn ho gee ki vah desh ke pradhanamntri banen.

vyaktiv visheshataen

  • moraraji desaee ko gandhivadi niti ka param samarthak mana jata hai. lekin is niti men inhonne kshama bhav ko shayad svikar nahin kiya tha aur hi nijata ke ahn ka tyag kiya tha. moraraji jo nirnay kar lete the, us par qayam rahate the. british naukari chhodakar jab vah svatntrata sngram ke sipahi bane tab bhi inhonne apani antaratma par hi nirnay diya tha.
  • moraraji ke vyaktitv men sadagi, eemanadari tatha kartavyanishtha thi. vah saty evn ahinsa ke upasak bhi the. isilie rajaniti unake vyaktitv se mel nahin khati thi. rajaniti men samajhaute kiye jate hain aur parti ki ichchha ka adar kiya jata hai. lekin moraraji desaee is prakar ke samajhaute nahin kar pate the.
  • lal bahadur shastri rajaniti men inase kafi jooniyar the, isilie unaka pradhanamntri banana moraraji desaee pacha nahin pae the, jabaki rajaniti men is prakar ki baten svabhavat: sahan ki jati hain.
  • moraraji desaee spasht vakta the aur anyay sahan nahin karate the. vah apani pratikriya tatkal vyakt kar dete the. jaise-atal bihari vajapeyi ko inhonne kah diya tha ki 'ghar par bhi raha karo.'
  • moraraji desaee ko bharatiy snskriti aur usaki parampara par atoot vishvas tha. vah adhyatmavadi vyakti bhi the. moraraji desaee apane svasthy ko lekar jo unhen thik lagata tha, usaka palan karate the. vah bhojan men thoda doodh, mausami phalon ka ras evn kuchh sookhe meve lete the. jab vah pradhanamntri tab vah koee bhi ann nahin khate the.
  • moraraji desaee 'sv-mootrapan' ko svasthy ki drishti se uttam aushadhi manate the. 'shivangu' arthath sv-mootrapan ke sambandh men unhonne sarvajanik roop se svikar kiya tha aur isake labh bhi batae the.
  • moraraji desaee 'shrimadabhagavadh gita' ke darshan se kafi prabhavit the. lekin ratri nau baje apane shayan kaksh men avashy pahunch jate the. inhen ratri men jagana gavara nahin tha, jab tak ki koee bhari vipatti n a jae. pradhanamntri rahate hue bhi inaki yahi prakriya jari rahi.
  • moraraji desaee men anootha atmabal tha. inaki ziddi svabhav men yah bat bhi shamil thi ki inhen shatayu (100 varsh ki umr) avashy hona hai. lekin inaki mrityu 99 varsh aur kuchh mah guzarane ke bad 1995 men hi ho gee.
  • moraraji desaee ekamatr aise bharatiy pradhanamntri hain jinhen bharat sarakar ki or se 'bharat ratn' tatha pakistan ki or se 'tahariq-e-pakistan' ka sarvashreshth nagarik samman prapt hua hai.



bharat ke pradhanamntri
Arrow-left.png poorvadhikari
indira gandhi
moraraji desaee uttaradhikari
chaudhari charan sinh
Arrow-right.png


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