हिन्दू धर्म  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

hindoo dharm
hindoo dharm ka pavitr chihn svastik
vivaran bharat ka sarvapramukh dharm hindoo dharm hai, jise isaki prachinata evn vishalata ke karan 'sanatan dharm' bhi kaha jata hai. hindoo dharm kisi vyakti vishesh dvara sthapit dharm nahin hai, balki yah prachin kal se chale a rahe vibhinn dharmon, matamatantaron, asthaon evn vishvason ka samuchchay hai.
pramukh devata shiv, vishnu, ganesh, krishn, ram, hanuman, soory adi
pramukh deviyan durga, parvati, prithvi, mahalakshmi, sarasvati, kali, gayatri adi
das avatar matsy, koorm, varah, nrisinh, vaman, parashuram, ram, krishn, buddh, kalki
dharm pravartak aur snt adi shnkarachary, chaitany mahaprabhu, dayannd sarasvati, nimbarkachary, svami ramannd, samarth ramadas, svami vivekanand, svami haridas, ramakrishn paramahns, ramanuj, vallabhachary adi
dharmagrnth 4 ved (rigved, samaved, yajurved aur atharvaved), 13 upanishad, 18 puran, ramayan, mahabharat, gita, ramacharitamanas adi.
sampraday shaiv mat, vaishnav, shakt, ary samaj, kabirapnth, chaitany, dadoopanth, dvaitavad, nimbark, brahmasamaj, vallabh, sakhibhav adi
tirth sthal hindoo mandir, shaktipith, jyotirling
snbndhit lekh Om, svastik, vaidik dharm, hindoo snskar, hindoo karmakand, arati stuti stotr
any janakari hindoo dharm ki paramparaon ka mool ved hi hain. vaidik dharm prakriti-poojak, bahudevavadi tatha anushthanaparak dharm tha.
hindoo dharm (angrezi: Hinduism) bharat ka sarvapramukh dharm hai, jise isaki prachinata evn vishalata ke karan 'sanatan dharm' bhi kaha jata hai. eesaee, islam, bauddh, jain adi dharmon ke saman hindoo dharm kisi paigambar ya vyakti vishesh dvara sthapit dharm nahin hai, balki yah prachin kal se chale a rahe vibhinn dharmon, matamatantaron, asthaon evn vishvason ka samuchchay hai. ek vikasashil dharm hone ke karan vibhinn kalon men isamen naye-naye ayam judate gaye. vastav men hindoo dharm itane vishal paridrishy vala dharm hai ki usamen adim gram devataon, bhoot-pishachi, sthaniy devi-devataon, jhad-phoonk, tntr-matr se lekar tridev evn any devataon tatha nirakar brahm aur atynt goodh darshan tak- sabhi bina kisi antarvirodh ke samahit hain aur sthan evn vyakti vishesh ke anusar sabhi ki aradhana hoti hai. vastav men hindoo dharm laghu evn mahanh paramparaon ka uttam samanvay darshata hai. ek or isamen vaidik tatha puranakalin devi-devataon ki pooja-archana hoti hai, to doosari or kapalik aur avadhooton dvara bhi atynt bhayavah karmakandiy aradhana ki jati hai. ek or bhakti ras se sarabor bhakt hain, to doosari or anishvar-anatmavadi aur yahan tak ki nastik bhi dikhaee pad jate hain. dekha jay, to hindoo dharm sarvatha virodhi siddhanton ka bhi uttam evn sahaj samanvay hai. yah hindoo dharmavalambiyon ki udarata, sarvadharmasamabhav, samanvayashilata tatha dharmik sahishnuta ki shreshth bhavana ka hi parinam aur parichayak hai.

hindoo dharm ke srot

hindoo dharm ki paramparaon ka adhyayan karane hetu hazaron varsh pichhe vaidik kal par drishtipat karana hoga. hindoo dharm ki paramparaon ka mool ved hi hain. vaidik dharm prakriti-poojak, bahudevavadi tatha anushthanaparak dharm tha. yadyapi us kal men pratyek bhautik tattv ka apana vishesh adhishthatri devata ya devi ki manyata prachalit thi, parantu devataon men varun, poosha, mitr, savita, soory, ashvin, usha, indr, rudr, parjany, agni, vrihaspati, som adi pramukh the. in devataon ki aradhana ygy tatha mntrochcharan ke madhyam se ki jati thi. mndir tatha moorti pooja ka abhav tha. upanishad kal men hindoo dharm ke darshanik paksh ka vikas hua. sath hi ekeshvaravad ki avadharana balavati huee. eeshvar ko ajar-amar, anadi, sarvatravyapi kaha gaya. isi samay yog, sankhy, vedant adi shad darshanon ka vikas hua. nirgun tatha sagun ki bhi avadharanaen utpann huee. naunvin se chaudahavin shatabdi ke madhy vibhinn puranon ki rachana huee. puranon men panch vishayon (pnch lakshan) ka varnan hai-

  1. sarg (jagat ki srishti),
  2. pratisarg (srishti ka vistar, lop evn pun: srishti),
  3. vnsh (rajaon ki vnshavali),
  4. manvntar (bhinn-bhinn manuon ke kal ki pramukh ghatanaen) tatha
  5. vnshanucharit (any gauravapoorn rajavnshon ka vistrit vivaran).

is prakar puranon men madhy yugin dharm, gyan-vigyan tatha itihas ka varnan milata hai. puranon ne hi hindoo dharm men avataravad ki avadharana ka sootrapat kiya. isake alava moortipooja, tirthayatra, vrat adi isi kal ke den hain. puranon ke pashchath bhaktikal ka agaman hota hai, jisamen vibhinn snton evn bhakton ne sakar eeshvar ki aradhana par zor diya tatha janaseva, paropakar aur prani matr ki samanata evn seva ko eeshvar aradhana ka hi roop bataya. phalasvaroop prachin durooh karmakandon ke bndhan kuchh dhile pad gaye. dakshin bharat ke alavar snton, gujarat men narasi mehata, maharashtr men tukaram, pashchim bngal men chaitany mahaprabhu, uttar bharat men tulasi, kabir, soor aur guru nanak ke bhakti bhav se ot-prot bhajanon ne janamanas par apani amit chhap chhodi.

hindoo dharm ki avadharanaen evn paramparaen

hindoo dharm ki pramukh avadharanaen nimnalikhit hain-

  • brahm- brahm ko sarvavyapi, ekamatr satta, nirgun tatha sarvashaktiman mana gaya hai. vastav men yah ekeshvaravad ke 'ekoahn, dvitiyo nasti' (arthath ek hi hai, doosara koee nahin) ke 'parabrahm' hain, jo ajar, amar, anant aur is jagat ka janmadata, palanahara v kalyanakarta hai.
  • atma- brahm ko sarvavyapi mana gaya hai at: jivon men bhi usaka ansh vidyaman hai. jivon men vidyaman brahm ka yah ashn hi atma kahalati hai, jo jiv ki mrityu ke bavajood samapt nahin hoti aur kisi navin deh ko dharan kar leti hai. antat: moksh prapti ke pashchath vah brahm men lin ho jati hai.
  • punarjanm- atma ke amaratv ki avadharana se hi punarjanm ki bhi avadharana pusht hoti hai. ek jiv ki mrityu ke pashchath usaki atma nayi deh dharan karati hai arthath usaka punarjanm hota hai. is prakar deh atma ka madhyam matr hai.
  • yoni- atma ke pratyek janm dvara prapt jiv roop ko yoni kahate hain. aisi 84 karod yoniyon ki kalpana ki gee hai, jisamen kit-patnge, pashu-pakshi, vriksh aur manav adi sabhi shamil hain. yoni ko adhunik vaigyanik bhasha men jaiv prajatiyan kah sakate hain.
  • karmaphal- pratyek janm ke dauran jivan bhar kiye gaye krityon ka phal atma ko agale janm men bhugatana padata hai. achchhe karmon ke phalasvaroop achchhi yoni men janm hota hai. is drishti se manushy sarvashreshth yoni hai. parantu karmaphal ka antim lakshy moksh prapti arthath atma ka brahmalin ho jana hi hai.
  • svarg-narak- ye karmaphal se sambndhit do lok hain. svarg men devi-devata atynt aisho-aram ki zindagi vyatit karate hain, jabaki narak atynt kashtadayak, andhakaramay aur nikrisht hai. achchhe karm karane vala prani mrityuparant svarg men aur bure karm karane vala narak men sthan pata hai.
  • moksh- moksh ka tatpary hai- atma ka jivan-maran ke dushchakr se mukt ho jana arthath paramabrahm men lin ho jana. isake lie nirvikar bhav se satkarm karana aur eeshvar ki aradhana avashyak hai.
  • char yug- hindoo dharm men kal (samay) ko chakriy mana gaya hai. is prakar ek kalachakr men char yug-krit (saty), sat treta, dvapar tatha kali-mane gaye hain. in charon yugon men krit sarvashreshth aur kali nikrishtatam mana gaya hai. in charon yugon men manushy ki sharirik aur naitik shakti kramash: kshin hoti jati hai. charon yugon ko milakar ek mahayug banata hai, jisaki avadhi 43,20,000 varsh hoti hai, jisake ant men prithvi par mahapralay hota hai. tatpashchath srishti ki navin rachana shuroo hoti hai.
  • char varn- hindoo samaj char varnon men vibhajit hai- brahman, kshatriy, vaishy tatha shoodr. ye char varn prarambh men karm ke adhar par vibhajit the. brahman ka kartavy vidyarjan, shikshan, poojan, karmakand sampadan adi hai, kshatriy ka dharmanusar shasan karana tatha desh v dharm ki raksha hetu yuddh karana, vaishyon ka krishi evn vyapar dvara samaj ki arthik avashyakataen poorn karana tatha shoodron ka any tin varnon ki seva karana evn any zarooraten poori karana. kalantar men varn vyavastha jatil hoti gee aur yah vnshanugat tatha shoshanaparak ho gee. shoodron ko achhoot mana jane laga. bad men vibhinn varnon ke bich daihik sambandhon se any madhyavarti jatiyon ka janm hua. vartaman men jati vyavastha atynt vikrit roop men drishtigochar hoti hai.
  • char ashram- prachin hindoo snhitaen manav jivan ko 100 varsh ki ayu vala manate hue use char charanon arthath ashramon men vibhajit karati hain- brahmachary, grihasth, vanaprasth aur sannyas. pratyek ki snbhavit avadhi 25 varsh mani gee. brahmachary ashram men vyakti guru ashram men jakar vidyadhyayan karata hai, grihasth ashram men vivah, sntanotpatti, arthoparjan, dan tatha any bhog vilas karata hai, vanaprasth men vyakti dhire-dhire snsarik uttaradayitv apane putron ko saunp kar unase virakt hota jata hai aur antat: sannyas ashram men grih tyagakar nirvikar hokar eeshvar ki upasana men lin ho jata hai.
  • char purusharth- dharm, arth, kam aur moksh- ye char purusharth hi jivan ke vanchhit uddeshy hain upayukt achar-vyavahar aur kartavy parayanata hi dharm hai, apani bauddhik evn sharirik kshamatanusar parishram dvara dhan kamana aur unaka uchit tarike se upabhog karana arth hai, sharirik anand bhog hi kam hai tatha dharmanusar acharan karake jivan-maran se mukti prapt kar lena hi moksh hai. dharm vyakti ka jivan bhar margadarshak hota hai, jabaki arth aur kam grihasthashram ke do mukhy kary hain aur moksh sampoorn jivan ka anti lakshy.
  • char yog- gyanayog, bhaktiyog, karmayog tatha rajayog- ye char yog hain, jo atma ko brahm se jodane ke marg hain. jahan gyan yog darshanik evn tarkik vidhi ka anusaran karata hai, vahin bhaktiyog atmasamarpan aur seva bhav ka, karmayog samaj ke din dukhiyon ki seva ka tatha rajayog sharirik evn manasik sadhana ka anusaran karata hai. ye charon paraspar virodhi nahin, balki sahayak aur poorak hain.
  • char dham- uttar, dakshin, poorv aur pashchim- charon dishaon men sthit char hindoo dham kramash: badrinath, rameshvaramh, jagannathapuri aur dvaraka hain, jahan ki yatra pratyek hindoo ka punit kartavy hai.
  • pramukh dharmagranth- hindoo dharm ke pramukh grnth hain- char ved (rigved, samaved, yajurved aur atharvaved) terah upanishad, atharah puran, ramayan, mahabharat, gita, ramacharitamanas adi. isake alava anek kathaen, anushthan grnth adi bhi hain.

solah snskar

manushy ke janm se lekar mrityu tak solah athava satrah pavitr snskar sampann kiye jate hain-

  1. garbhadhan
  2. punsavan (garbh ke tisare mah tejasvi putr prapti hetu kiya gaya snskar),
  3. simontonnayan (garbh ke chauthe mahine garbhini stri ke sukh aur santvana hetu),
  4. jatakarm (janm ke samay)
  5. namakaran
  6. nishkraman (bachche ka sarvapratham ghar se bahar lana),
  7. annaprashan (panch mahine ki ayu men sarvapratham ann grahan karavana),
  8. choodakaran (mundan)
  9. karnachhedan
  10. upanayan (ygyopavit dharan evn guru ashram ko prasthan)
  11. keshant athava gaudan (dadhi ko sarvapratham katana)
  12. samavartan (shiksha samapt kar grih ko vapasi)
  13. vivah
  14. vanaprasth
  15. sannyas
  16. antyeshti

is prakar hindoo dharm ki vividhata, jatilata evn bahu ayami pravritti spasht hai. isamen anek darshanikon ne alag-alag prakar se eeshvar evn saty ko samajhane ka prayas kiya, phalasvaroop anek darshanik maton ka pradurbhav hua.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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