आलवार  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

alavar tamil bhasha ke is shabd ka vyutpattilabhy arth hai- adhyatm gyan ke samudr men gota lagane vala vyakti. alavar vaishnav sampraday ke sant the, jinhonne eesa ki satavin-athavi shatabdi men dakshin bharat men 'bhaktimarg' ka prachar kiya. inaka hriday narayan ki bhakti se aplavit tha aur ye lakshminarayan ke sachche upasak the. inake jivan ka ek hi uddeshy tha-vishnu ki pragadh bhakti men svat: lin hona aur apane upadeshon se doosare sadhakon ko lin karana. inaki matribhasha tamil thi jisamen inhonne sahasron saras aur bhaktisnigdh padon ki rachana kar samany janata ke hriday men bhakti ki mndakini baha di. in snton ka avirbhavakal saptam shatak aur dasham shatak ke antargat mana jata hai. in alavaron men goda stri thi, kulashekhar keral ke raja the, jinhonne rajapat chhodakar apana antim samay shrirngam ke aradhyadev shrirnganath ji ki upasana men bitaya. inaka mukundamala namak snskrit stotr nitant prakhyat hai. andal alavar vishnuchitt ki poshy putri thi aur jivan bhar kaumary dharan kar vah rnganath ko hi apana priyatam manati rahi. use ham tamil desh ki mira kah sakate hain. donon ke jivan men ek prakar ki madhuryamayi nishtha tatha snehamay jivan is samata ka mukhy adhar hai. aur shesh bhakton men kee achhoot tatha chori dakaiti kar jivanayapan karanevale vyakti bhi the.

any nam

alavaron ke do prakar ke nam milate hain-ek tamil, doosare snskrit nam. inaki stutiyon ka sngrah nalayiraprabndhamh‌ (4,000 pady) ke nam se vikhyat hai jo bhakti, gyan, prem saundary tatha annd se otaprot adhyatmikata ki drishti se yah sngrah '"tamilaved"' ki sngya se abhihit kiya jata hai.

shrivaishnav achary parashar bhatt ne in bhakton ke snskrit namon ka ekatr nirdesh is prakhyat pady men kiya hai:

bhootn sarashch mahadahvay-bhattanath-
shribhaktisar-kulashekhar-yogivahanh‌.
bhaktanghraren-parakal-yatindramishranh‌
shrimatparankushamunin pranatoasmi nityamh‌..

alavaron ke donon prakar ke nam hain-(1) saroyogi (poyagaialavar), (2) bhootayogi (bhootattalavar), (3) mahatyogi (pey alavar), (4) bhaktasagar (tirumadisai alavar), (5) shathakop ya parankush muni (namm alavar), (6) madhur kavi, (7) kulashekhar, (8) vishnuchitt (pari alavar), (9) goda ya rnganayaki (andal), (10) vipranarayan ya bhaktapadarenu (tondar dippoli), (11) yogavah ya munivahan (tiruppan), (12) parakal ya nilanh‌ (tirumngaiyalavar).[1]

dharm rakshak

jab kabhi bhi bharat men videshiyon ke prabhav se dharm ke lie khatara utpann hua, tab-tab anek santon ne lok manas men dharm ki pavitr dhara bahakar usaki raksha karane ka prayatn kiya. dakshin bharat ke alavar santon ki bhi yahi bhoomika rahi hai. 'alavar' ka arth hota hai ki "jisane adhyatm-gyan roopi samudr men gota lagaya ho." alavar snt 'gita' ki sajiv moorti the. ve upanishadon ke upadesh ke jite jagate udaharan the.[2]

snkhya

alavar vishnu bhakton ki snkhya paryapt roop se adhik thi, parntu unamen se 12 bhakt hi pradhan aur mahatvapoorn mane jate hain. in santon men nathamuni, yamunachary aur ramanujachary adi pramukh the. ramanuj ne 'vishishtadvait siddhant' ka pratipadan kiya tha, jo shnkarachary ke 'advaitavad' ka snshodhit roop tha.

rachanaen

alavar snton men pratham tinon vyakti atynt prachin aur samakalin mane jate hain. inake banae 300 bhajan milate hain jinhen shrivaishnav log rigved ka sar manate hain. achary shatakop apani vipul rachana, pavitr charitr tatha kathin tapasya ke karan alavaron men vishesh prakhyat hain. inaki ye charon kritiyan shrutiyon ke samakaksh adhyatmamayi tatha pavan mani jati hain : (k) tiruviruttamh‌, (kh) tiruvashiriyamh‌, (g) periy tiruvntati tatha (gh) tiruvayamoli. vedantadeshik (1269 ee.-1369 ee.) jaise prakhyat achary ne antim grnth ka upanishadon ke saman goodh tatha rahasyamay hone se 'dravidopanishath‌', nam diya hai aur usaka snskrit men anuvad bhi kiya hai. tamil ke sarvashreshth kavi knban ki ramayan rnganath ji ko bhi tabhi svikrit huee, jab unhonne shathakop ki stuti grnth ke arnbh men ki. is lokaprasiddh ghatana se inaka mahatmy tatha gaurav anka ja sakata hai. alavar snton ne bhagavan narayan, shriram aur shrikrishn adi ke gunon ka varnan karane vale hazaron padon ki rachana ki thi. in padon ko sunakar v gakar aj bhi log bhakti ras men doob jate hain. alavar snt prachar aur lokapriyata se door hi rahate the. ye itane saral aur sidhe svabhav ke snt hote the ki n to kisi ko du:kh pahunchate the aur n hi kisi se kuchh apeksha karate the.[2] alavaron ke pad bhasha ki drishti se bhi lalit aur bhavapoorn mane jate hain. bhakti se snigdh hriday ke ye udh gar tamil bhasha ki divy snpatti hain tatha bhakti ke nana bhavon men madhur ras ki bhi chhata in padon men, visheshat: namm alavar ke padon men, kam nahin hai.[3]



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 445 |
  2. 2.0 2.1 devasare, daauktar harikrishn. alavar sant (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 19 mee, 2012.
  3. sn.grn.-doopar : hims aauv di alavaras, kalakatta, 1929; baladev upadhyay : bhagavat snpraday, kashi, sn. 2010.

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