उपनिषद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

upanishad
hastalikhit grnth, eeshavasyopanishad
vivaran upanishad bharat ke anek darshanikon, jinhen rishi ya muni kaha gaya hai, ke anek varshon ke gambhir chintan-manan ka parinam hai.
rachanakal lagabhag 1000 se 300 eesapoorv
kul snkhya 108
bhasha snskrit
vyutpatti vidvanon ne 'upanishad' shabd ki vyutpatti 'up'+'ni'+'shad' ke roop men mani hai. inaka arth yahi hai ki jo gyan vyavadhan-rahit hokar nikat aye, jo gyan vishisht aur sampoorn ho tatha jo gyan sachcha ho, vah nishchit roop se upanishad gyan kahalata hai.
any janakari upanishadon ke rachanakal ke sambandh men vidvanon ka ek mat nahin hai. kuchh upanishadon ko vedon ki mool snhitaon ka ansh mana gaya hai. ye sarvadhik prachin hain. kuchh upanishad ‘brahman’ aur ‘aranyak’ granthon ke ansh svikar kiye gaye hain.

upanishad (rachanakal 1000 se 300 ee.poo. lagabhag)[1] kul snkhya 108. bharat ka sarvochch manyata prapt vibhinn darshanon ka sngrah hai. ise vedant bhi kaha jata hai. upanishad bharat ke anek darshanikon, jinhen rishi ya muni kaha gaya hai, ke anek varshon ke gambhir chintan-manan ka parinam hai. upanishadon ko adhar manakar aur inake darshan ko apani bhasha men roopantarit kar vishv ke anek dharmon aur vicharadharaon ka janm hua. upalabdh upanishad-granthon ki snkhya men se eeshadi 10 upanishad sarvamany hain. upanishadon ki kul snkhya 108 hai. pramukh upanishad hain- eesh, ken, kath, mandooky, taittiriy, aitarey, chhandogy, shvetashvatar, brihadaranyak, kaushitaki, mundak, prashn, maitraniy adi. adi shnkarachary ne jin 10 upanishadon par apana bhashy likha hai, unako pramanik mana gaya hai.

upanishad ki paribhasha (vibhinn mat)

brahmanon ki rachana brahman purohiton ne ki thi, lekin upanishadon ki darshanik parikalpanaon ke srijan men kshatriyon ka bhi mahattvapoorn bhag tha. upanishad us kal ke dyotak hain jab vibhinn varnon ka uday ho raha tha aur qabilon ko sngathit karake rajyon ka nirman kiya ja raha tha. rajyon ke nirman men kshatriyon ne pramukh bhoomika ada ki thi, halanki unhen is kam men brahmanon ka bhi samarthan prapt tha. daau. radhakrishnan ke anusar upanishad shabd ki vyutpatti up (nikat), ni (niche), aur shad (baitho) se hai. is snsar ke bare men saty ko janane ke lie shishyon ke dal apane guru ke nikat baithate the. upanishadon ka darshan vedant bhi kahalata hai, jisaka arth hai vedon ka ant, unaki paripoorti. inamen mukhyat: gyan se sambandhit samasyaaun par vichar kiya gaya hai.[2]
in granthon men paramatatv ke lie samany roop se jis shabd ka prayog kiya jata hai, vah hai brahmanh. yadyapi aisa mana jata hai ki ‘yah’ athava ‘vah’ jaisi aihik abhivynjanaon vali shabdavali men yah varnanatit hai aur isilie ise bahudha anirvachaniy kaha hai, tathapi kisi bhanti isaka tadatmy atma athava sv se sthapit kiya jata hai. upanishadon men isake lie atmanh shabd ka prayog kiya gaya hai. at: aupanishadik adarshavad ko, snkshep men, brahmanh se atmanh ka samikaran kaha jata hai. aupanishadik adarshavadiyon ne is atmanh ko kabhi ‘chetana-punj matr’ (vigyan-ghan) aur kabhi ‘param chetana’ (chith) ke roop men svikar kiya hai. ise annd aur sath ke roop men bhi svikar kiya gaya hai.[3]
svayn upanishadon ki apani vyakhya bhi is durbhagy ka shikar hone se n bach saki. pashchimi deshon ke vyakhyakaron ne bhi ek n ek bhashyakar ka anusaran kiya. gaf shnkar ki vyakhya ka anusaran karata hai. apani pustak filasafi aauf upanishads ki prastavana men vah likhata hai, ‘upanishadon ke darshanik tattv ka sabase bada bhashyakar shnkar, arthath shnkarachary hai. shnkar ka apana upadesh bhi svabhavik aur upanishadon ke darshanik tattv ki yuktiyukt vyakhya hai.’[4] maiksamoolar ne bhi isi mat ka samarthan kiya hai. ‘hamen avashy smaran rakhana chahie ki vedant ka sanatan mat vah nahin hai jise ham vikas kah sakate hain balki maya hai. brahm ka vikas athava parinam prachin vichar se bhinn hai, maya athava vivart hi sanatan vedant hai......lakshanik roop men ise yon kahenge ki sanatan vedant ke anusar yah jagath brahm se un arthon men udbhoot nahin hua jin arthon men bij se vriksh utpann hota hai, kintu jis prakar soory ki kiranon se mrigamarichika ki pratiti hoti hai, usi prakar brahm se jagath ki utpatti bhi bhrantivash pratit hoti hai.[5] dyoosan[6] ne yahi mat svikar kiya hai.[7]

ved ka vah bhag jisamen vishuddh riti se adhyatmik chintan ko hi pradhanata di gayi hai aur phal sambandhi karmon ke dridhanurag ko shithil karana sujhaya gaya hai, 'upanishad' kahalata hai. ved ka yah bhag usaki sabhi shakhaon men hai, parntu yah bat spasht-roop se samajh leni chahiye ki vartaman men upanishad sngya ke nam se jitane granth upalabdh hain, unamen se kuchh upanishadon (eeshavasy, brihadaranyak, taittiriy, chhandogy adi)- ko chhodakar baqi ke sabhi upanishad–bhag men upalabdh hon, aisi bat nahin hai. shakhagat upanishadon men se kuchh ansh ko samayik, samajik ya vaiyaktik avashyakata ke adhar par upanishad sngya de di gayi hai. isilie inaki snkhya evn upalabdhiyon men vividhata milati hai.

vedon men jo upanishad-bhag hain, ve apani shakhaon men sarvatha akshunn hain. unako tatha unhin shakhaon ke nam se jo upanishad-sngya ke granth upalabdh hain, donon ko ek nahin samajhana chahiye. upalabdh upanishad-granthon ki snkhya men se eeshadi 10 upanishad to sarvamany hain. inake atirikt 5 aur upanishad (shvetashvataradi), jin par acharyon ki tikaen tatha praman-uddharan adi milate hain, sarvasammat kahe jate hain. in 15 ke atirikt jo upanishad upalabdh hain, unaki shabdagat ojasvita tatha pratipadanashaili adi ki vibhinnata hone par bhi yah avashy kaha ja sakata hai ki inaka pratipady brahm ya atmatattv nishchayapoorvak apaurushey, nity, svat:praman ved-shabd-rashi se sambaddh hai. upanishadon ki kul snkhya 108 hai. pramukh upanishad hain- eesh, ken, kath, mandooky, taittiriy, aitarey, chhandogy, shvetashvatar, brihadaranyak, kaushitaki, mundak, prashn, maitraniy adi. lekin shnkarachary ne jin 10 upanishadon par apana bhashy likha hai, unako pramanik mana gaya hai.ye hain - eesh, ken, mandooky, mundak, taittiriy, aitarey, prashn, chhandogy aur brihadaranyak upanishad. isake atirikt shvetashvatar aur kaushitaki upanishad bhi mahattvapoorn hain. is prakar 103 upanishadon men se keval 13 upanishadon ko hi pramanik mana gaya hai. bharat ka prasiddh adarsh vaky 'satyamev jayate' mundopanishad se liya gaya hai. upanishad gady aur pady donon men hain, jisamen prashn, mandooky, ken, taittiriy, aitarey, chhandogy, brihadaranyak aur kaushitaki upanishad gady men hain tatha ken, eesh, kath aur shvetashvatar upanishad pady men hain.

ved evn sambndhit upanishad

ved sambandhit upanishad

1- rigved

aitareyopanishad

2- yajurved

brihadaranyakopanishad

3- shukl yajurved

eeshavasyopanishad

4- krishn yajurved

taittiriyopanishad, kathopanishad, shvetashvataropanishad, maitrayani upanishad

5- samaved

vashkal upanishad, chhandogy upanishad, kenopanishad

6- atharvaved

mandookyopanishad, prashnopanishad, mundakopanishad

upanishad parichay

bharatiy-snskriti ki prachinatam evn anupam dharohar ke roop men vedon ka nam ata hai. 'rigved' vishv-sahity ki prachinatam pustak hai. manishiyon ne 'ved' ko eeshvariy 'bodh' athava 'gyan' ke roop men pahachana hai. vidvanon ne upanishadon ko vedon ka antim bhashy 'vedant' ka nam diya hai. isase poorv vedon ke lie 'snhita' 'brahman' aur 'aranyak' nam bhi prayukt kiye jate hain. upanishad brahmgyan ke granth hain. isaka shabdik arth hai- ‘samip baithana‘ arthath brahm vidya ko prapt karane ke lie guru ke samip baithana. is prakar upanishad ek aisa rahasy gyan hai jise ham guru ke sahayog se hi samajh sakate hain. brahm vishayak hone ke karan inhen 'brahmavidya' bhi kaha jata hai. upanishadon men atma-paramatma evn snsar ke sandarbh men prachalit darshanik vicharon ka sngrah milata hai. upanishad vaidik sahity ke antim bhag tatha sarabhoot siddhanton ke pratipadak hain, atah inhen 'vedant' bhi kaha jata hai. inaka rachana kal 800 se 500 ee.poo. ke madhy hai. upanishadon ne jis nishkam karm marg aur bhakti marg ka darshan diya usaka vikas shrimadbhagavatagita men hua.

paribhasha

  • upanishad shabd 'up' aur 'ti' upasarg tatha 'sad' dhatu ke snyog se bana hai. 'sad' dhatu ka prayog 'gati',arthath gaman,gyan aur prapt ke sandarbh men hota hai. isaka arth yah hai ki jis vidya se parabrahm, arthath eeshvar ka samipy prapt ho, usake sath tadatmy sthapit ho,vah vidya 'upanishad' kahalati hai.
  • upanishad men 'sad' dhatu ke tin arth aur bhi hain - vinash, gati, arthath gyan -prapti aur shithil karana . is prakar upanishad ka arth hua-'jo gyan pap ka nash kare, sachcha gyan prapt karaye, atma ke rahasy ko samajhaye tatha agyan ko shithil kare, vah upanishad hai.'
  • ashtadhyayi[8] men upanishad shabd ko paroksh ya rahasy ke arth men prayukt kiya gaya hai.
  • kautily ke arthashastr men yuddh ke gupt snketon ki charcha men 'aupanishad' shabd ka prayog kiya gaya hai. isase yah bhav prakat hota hai ki upanishad ka tatpary rahasyamay gyan se hai.
  • amarakosh upanishad ke vishay men kaha gaya hai-upanishad shabd dharm ke goodh rahasyon ko janane ke lie prayukt hota hai.[9]

upanishad shabd ki vyutpatti

vidvanon ne 'upanishad' shabd ki vyutpatti 'up'+'ni'+'shad' ke roop men mani hai. inaka arth yahi hai ki jo gyan vyavadhan-rahit hokar nikat aye, jo gyan vishisht aur sampoorn ho tatha jo gyan sachcha ho, vah nishchit roop se upanishad gyan kahalata hai. mool bhav yahi hai ki jis gyan ke dvara 'brahm' se sakshatkar kiya ja sake, vahi 'upanishad' hai. ise adhyatm-vidya bhi kaha jata hai.

prasiddh bharatiy vidvanon ki drishti men upanishad

  • svami vivekanand—'main upanishadon ko padhata hoon, to mere ansoo bahane lagate hain. yah kitana mahanh gyan hai? hamare lie yah avashyak hai ki upanishadon men sannihit tejasvita ko apane jivan men vishesh roop se dharan karen. hamen shakti chahie. shakti ke bina kam nahin chalega. yah shakti kahan se prapt ho? upanishaden hi shakti ki khanen hain. unamen aisi shakti bhari padi hai, jo sampoorn vishv ko bal, shaury evn navajivan pradan kar saken. upanishaden kisi bhi desh, jati, mat v sampraday ka bhed kiye bina har din, durbal, dukhi aur dalit prani ko pukar-pukar kar kahati hain- utho, apane pairon par khade ho jao aur bandhanon ko kat dalo. sharirik svadhinata, manasik svadhinata, adhyatmik svadhinata- yahi upanishadon ka mool mantr hai.'
  • kavi ravindranath taigor–'chakshu-sampann vyakti dekhegen ki bharat ka brahmgyan samast prithivi ka dharm banane laga hai. pratah kalin soory ki arunim kiranon se poorv disha alokit hone lagi hai. parantu jab vah soory madhyahr gagan men prakashit hoga, tab us samay usaki dipti se samagr bhoo-mandal diptimay ho uthega.'
  • da. sarvapalli radhakrishnan–'upanishadon ko jo bhi mool snskrit men padhata hai, vah manav atma aur param saty ke guhy aur pavitr sambandhon ko ujagar karane vale unake bahut se udgaron ke utkarsh, kavy aur prabal sammohan se mugdh ho jata hai aur usamen bahane lagata hai.'
  • sant vinova bhave— 'upanishadon ki mahima anekon ne gayi hai. himalay jaisa parvat aur upanishadon- jaisi koee pustak nahin hai, parantu upanishad koee sadharan pustak nahin hai, vah ek darshan hai. yadyapi us darshan ko shabdon men ankit karane ka prayatn kiya gaya hai, tathapi shabdon ke qadam ladakhada gaye hain. keval nishtha ke chihn ubhare hai. us nishtha ke shabdon ki sahayata se hriday men bharakar, shabdon ko door hatakar anubhav kiya jaye, tabhi upanishadon ka bodh ho sakata hai . mere jivan men 'gita' ne 'man ka sthan liya hai. vah sthan to usi ka hai. lekin main janata hoon ki upanishad meri man ki bhi hai. usi shraddha se mera upanishadon ka manan, nididhyasan pichhale battis varshon se chal raha hai.[10]'
  • govindaballabh –'upanishad sanatan darshanik gyan ke mool srot hai. ve keval prakharatam buddhi ka hi parinam nahin hai, apitu prachin rishiyon ki anubhootiyon ke phal hain.'

bharatiy manishiyon dvara jitane bhi darshanon ka ullekh milata hai, un sabhi men vaidik mantron men nihit gyan ka pradurbhav hua hai. sankhy tatha vedant (upanishad) men hi nahin, jain aur bauddh-darshanon men bhi ise dekha ja sakata hai. bharatiy snskriti se upanishadon ka avichchhinn sambandh hai. inake adhyayan se bharatiy snskriti ke adhyatmik svaroop ka sachcha gyan hamen prapt hota hai.

pashchaty vidvanon ki drishti men upanishad

keval bharatiy jigyasuon ki dhyan hi upanishadon ki or nahin gaya hai, anek pashchaty vidvanon ko bhi upanishadon ko padhane aur samajhane ka avasar prapt hua hai. tabhi ve in upanishadon men chhipe gyan ke udatt svaroop se prabhavit hue hai. in upanishadon ki samunnat vicharadhara, udatt chintan, dharmik anubhooti tatha adhyatmik jagath ki rahasyamayi goodh abhivyktiyon se ve chamatkrit hote rahe hain aur mukt kanth se inaki prashnsa karate aye hain.

  • arabadeshiy vidvanh alabaruni—'upanishadon ki sar-svaroopa 'gita' bharatiy gyan ki mahanatamh rachana hai.'
  • dara shikoh— 'maine quran, tauret, injil, jubar adi granth padhe. unamen eeshvar sambandhi jo varnan hai, unase man ki pyas nahin bujhi. tab hinduon ki eeshvariy pustaken padhin. inamen se upanishadon ka gyan aisa hai, jisase atma ko shashvat shanti tatha anand ki prapti hoti hai. hazarat nabi ne bhi ek ayat men inhin prachin rahasyamay pustakon ke sambandh men snket kiya hai.[11]'
  • jarman darshanik arthar shopen haauvar— 'mera darshanik mat upanishadon ke mool tattvon ke dvara vishesh roop se prabhavit hai. main samajhata hoon ki upanishadon ke dvara vaidik-sahity ke sath parichay hona, vartaman shatabdi ka sanase bada labh hai, jo isase pahale kisi bhi shatabdi ko prapt nahin hua. mujhe asha hai ki chaudahavin shatabdi men grik-sahity ke punarjagaran se yooropiy-sahity ki jo unnati huee thi, usamen snskrit-sahity ka prabhav, usaki apeksha kam phal dene vala nahin tha. yadi pathak prachin bharatiy gyan men dikshit ho saken aur gambhir udarata ke sath use grahan kar saken, to main jo kuchh bhi kahana chahata hoon, use ve achchhi tarah se samajh sakenge upanishadon men sarvatr kitani sundarata ke sath vedon ke bhav prakashit hain. jo koee bhi upanishadon ke farasi, laitin anuvad ka dhyanapoorvak adhyayan karega, vah upanishadon ki anupam bhav-dhara se nishchit roop se parichit hoga. usaki ek-ek pnkti kitani sudridh, sunirdisht aur susamanjas arth prakat karati hai, ise dekhakar ankhen khuli rah jati hai. pratyek vaky se atyant gambhir bhavon ka samooh aur vicharon ka aveg prakat hota chala jata hai. sampoorn granth atyant uchch, pavitr aur ekantik anubhootiyon se otaprot hain. sampoorn bhoo-mandal par mool upanishadon ke saman itana adhik phalotpadak aur uchch bhavoddipak granth kahi nahin hain. inhonne mujhe jivan men shanti pradan ki hai aur marate samay bhi yah mujhe shanti pradan karenge.'
  • shopen haauvar ne age bhi kaha— 'bharat men hamare dharm ki jade kabhi nahin gadengi. manav-jati ki ‘pauranik prgya’ gaililiyo ki ghatanaon se kabhi nirakrit nahin hogi, varanh bharatiy gyan ki dhara yoorop men pravahit hogi tatha hamare gyan aur vicharon men amool parivartan la degi. upanishadon ke pratyek vaky se gahan maulik aur udatt vichar prasphutit hote hain aur sabhi kuchh ek vichitr, uchch, pavitr aur ekagr bhavana se anupranit ho jata hai. samast snsar men upanishadon-jaisa kalyanakari v atma ko unnat karane vala koee doosara granth nahin hai. ye sarvochch pratibha ke pushp hain. der-saver ye logon ki astha ke adhar banakar rahenge.' shopen haauvar ke uparant anek pashchaty vidvanon ne upanishadon par gahan vichar kiya aur unaki mahima ko gaya.
  • imarsan— 'pashchaty vichar nishchay hi vedant ke dvara anupranit hain.'
  • maiksamoolar— 'mrityu ke bhay se bachane, mrityu ke lie poori taiyari karane aur saty ko janane ke ichchhuk jigyasuon ke lie, upanishadon ke atirikt koee any-marg meri drishti men nahin hai. upanishadon ke gyan se mujhe apane jivan ke utkarsh men bhari sahayata mili hai. mai unaka rini hoon. ye upanishaden, atmik unnati ke lie vishv ke samast dharmik sahity men atyant sammaniy rahe hain aur age bhi sada rahenge. yah gyan, mahan, manishiyon ki mahanh prgya ka parinam hai. ek-n-ek din bharat ka yah shreshth gyan yoorop men prakashit hoga aur tab hamare gyan evn vicharon men mahanh parivartan upasthit hoga.'
  • pro. hyoom— 'sukarat, arastu, afalatoon adi kitane hi darshanik ke granth mainne dhyanapoorvak padhe hai, parantu jaisi shantimayi atmavidya mainne upanishadon men payi, vaisi aur kahin dekhane ko nahin mili.[12]'
  • pro. ji. ark— 'manushy ki atmik, manasik aur samajik gutthiyan kis prakar sulajh sakati hai, isaka gyan upanishadon se hi mil sakata hai. yah shiksha itani saty, shiv aur sundar hai ki antaratma ki gaharaee tak usaka pravesh ho jata hai. jab manushy sansarik duahkho aur chintaon se ghira ho, to use shanti aur sahara dene ke amogh sadhan ke roop men upanishad hi sahayak ho sakte hain.[13]'
  • paaul dayasan— 'vedant (upanishad-darshan) apane avikrit roop men shuddh naitikata ka sashaktatam adhar hai. jivan aur mrityu ki pidaon men sabase badi santavana hai.‘
  • da. enibesent— ‘bharatiy upanishad gyan manav chetana ki sarvochch den hai.'
  • bebar— 'bharatiy upanishad eeshvariy gyan ke mahanatam granth hain. inase sachchi atmik shanti prapt hoti hai. vishv-sahity ki ye amooly dharohar hai.[14]'

upanishadon ke srot aur unaki snkhya

prayah upanishad vedon ke mantr bhag, brahman granth, aranyak granth adi se sambandhit hain. katipay uttar vaidikakal ke rishiyon dvara astitv men aye hain, jinaka svatantr astitv hai.

  • 'muktikopanishad' men,(shlok snkhya 30 se 39 tak) 108 upanishadon ki soochi di gayi hai. in 108 upanishadon men se—
  1. 'rigved' ke 10 upanishad hai.
  2. 'shukl yajurved' ke 19 upanishad hain.
  3. 'krishn yajurved' ke 32 upanishad hain.
  4. 'samaved' ke 16 upanishad hain.
  5. 'atharvaved' ke 31 upanishad hain.

'muktikopanishad' men charon vedon ki shakhaon ki snkhya bhi di hai aur pratyek shakha ka ek-ek upanishad hona bataya hai. is prakar charon vedon ki anek shakhaen hai aur un shakhaon ki upanishaden bhi anek hain. vidvanon ne rigved ki ikkis shakhaen, yajurved ki ek sau nau shakhaen, samaved ki ek hazar shakhaen tatha atharvaved ki pachas hazar shakhaon ka ullekh kiya hain. is drishti se to sabhi vedon ki shakhaon ke anusar 1,180 upanishad honi chahie, parantu prayah 108 upanishadon ka ullekh prapt hota hai. inamen bhi kuchh upanishad to atyant laghu hain.

upanishadon ka rachanakal

upanishadon ke rachanakal ke sambandh men vidvanon ka ek mat nahin hai. kuchh upanishadon ko vedon ki mool snhitaon ka ansh mana gaya hai. ye sarvadhik prachin hain. kuchh upanishad ‘brahman’ aur ‘aranyak’ granthon ke ansh svikar kiye gaye hain. inaka rachanakal snhitaon ke bad ka hai. kuchh upanishad svatantr roop se rache gaye hain. ve sabhi bad men likhe gaye hain. upanishadon ke kal-nirnay ke lie mantron ko adhar mana gaya hai. unamen—

  1. bhaugolik paristhitiyan
  2. sooryavnshi-chandravnshi rajaon ya rishiyon ke nam aur
  3. khagoliy yogon ke vivaran adi prapt hote hain. unake dvara upanishadon ke rachanakal ki sambhavana abhivyakt ki jati hai, parantu inase rachanatmak ka satik niroopan nahin ho pata; kyonki bhaugolik paristhitiyon men jin nadiyon adi ke nam ginaye jate hain, unake udbhav ka kal hi nishchitt nahin hai. isi prakar rajaon aur rishiyon ke ek-jaise kitane hi nam bar-bar granthon men prayog kiye jate hain. ve kab aur kis yug men hue, isaka sahi akalan thik prakar se nahin ho pata. jahan tak khagoliy yogon ke varnan ka prashn hai, use bhi kuchh sima tak hi sunishchit mana ja sakata hai.

upanishadon ka pratipady vishay

upanishadon ke rachayita rishi-muniyon ne apani anubhutiyon ke saty se jan-kalyan ki bhavana ko sarvopari mahattv diya hai. unaka rachana-kaushal atyant sahaj aur saral hai. yah dekhakar ashchary hota hai ki in rishiyon ne kaise itane goodh vishay ko, isake vividhapoorn tathyon ko, atyant thode shabdon men tatha ek atyant sahaj aur sashakt bhasha men abhivyakt kiya hai. bharatiy darshan ki aisi koee dhara nahin hai, jisaka sar tattv in upanishadon men vidyaman n ho. saty ki khoj athava brahm ki pahachan in upanishadon ka pratipady vishay hai. janm aur mrityu se pahale aur bad men ham kahan the aur kahan jayenge, is sampoorn srishti ka niyanta kaun hai, yah charachar jagath kisaki ichchha se parichalit ho raha hai tatha hamara usake sath kya sambandh hai— in sabhi jigyasaon ka shaman upanishadon ke dvara hi sambhav ho saka hai.

upanishadon ki bhasha-shaili

  • upanishadon ki bhasha devavani snskrit hai. is devabhasha ke sath bhavon ka badi sahajata ke sath samanjasy hua hai. rishiyon ki sahaj aur gahan anubhutiyon ko abhivyakt karane men is bhasha ne gagar men sagar bharane-jaisa kary kiya hai. un rishiyon ne apane bhasha-gyan ko klisht, adambarapoorn aru goodh banakar adhyetaon par thopane ka kinjit bhi prayas nahin kiya hai. unhonne apane anubhavajany gyan ko atyant sahaj roop se, tarkasammat, samikshatmak, kathopakathan, udaharan aur samayanukool upayog karate hue, apane bhavon ko sahaj hi bodhagamy banane ka unhonne prayas kiya hai.
  • upanishadon ki shaili adbhut hai. yadyapi unhonne goodh rahasyon ko samajhane ki tivr utkantha aur anubhooti ki gahan kshamata ko abhivyakt karane men sahajata ka sahara liya hai, tathapi sthan-sthan par sanketik rahasyatmakata se pichha chhudane men ve vivash dikhaee padate hain. isake anek karan ho sakate hain. atyant goodh gyan ko sugam banane men bhasha sath chhod jati hai. goonge ke gud ki bhanti unaka rasasvadan ‘snket’ to deta hai, par shabdon ke chayan men ve vivash ho jate hain. isake atirikt adhyeta ki apani bhi buddhi-sima hoti hai jo use grahan karane men sahayak nahin ho pati.

upanishadon ka mahattv

  • upanishadon men rishiyon ne apane jivan-paryant anubhavon ka nichod dala hai. isi karan vishv sahity men upanishadon ka mahattv sarvopari svikar kiya gaya hai.
  • jivan ke sabhi vichar aur chintan bemani siddh ho sakate hain, kintu jiv aur paramatma ke milan ke lie kiya gaya adhyatmik chibtab kabhi bemani nahin ho sakata. vah shashvat hai, sanatan hai aur jivan ke mahanatam lakshy par pahunchane vala sarathi hai. jis prakar mahabharat men krishn ne arjun ke lie sarathi ka kary sampann kiya tha, usi prakar jan-jan ke lie upanishadon ne yah mahanh ka kary sampann kiya hai. vah alok hai, jo samast manavata ke agyanapoorn andhakar ko door karane ke lie rishiyon dvara avatarit karaya gaya hai. isilie upanishadon ka mahattv, sarv-kalyan ka shreshthatam pratik hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. bharatiy darshan |lekhak: daau. radhakrishnan |
  2. ke.damodaran | bharatiy chintan parampara | prishth snkhya-48
  3. devi prasad chattopaddhyay | bharatiy darshan men kya jivnt hai aur kya mrit | prishth snkhya-19
  4. pnchastikayasamayasar, 8
  5. saikred buks aauf d eest, khnd 15, prishth 27
  6. Deussen, Paul The Philosophy of the Upanishads.
  7. daau. radhakrishnan | bharatiy darshan | prishth snkhya-113
  8. ashtadhyayi 1/4/79
  9. 'dharme rahasyupanishath syath'amarakosh 3/99
  10. upanishad – ek adhyayan
  11. farasi upanishad anuvad
  12. Dogmas of Budhism
  13. Is God Knowable
  14. indishe stoodiyan

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