वैदिक काल  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bharat ka itihas
pashan yug- 70000 se 3300 ee.poo
meharagadh snskriti 7000-3300 ee.poo
sindhu ghati sabhyata- 3300-1700 ee.poo
hadappa snskriti 1700-1300 ee.poo
vaidik kal- 1500–500 ee.poo
prachin bharat - 1200 ee.poo–240 ee.
mahajanapad 700–300 ee.poo
magadh samrajy 545–320 ee.poo
satavahan samrajy 230 ee.poo-199 ee.
maury samrajy 321–184 ee.poo
shung samrajy 184–123 ee.poo
shak samrajy 123 ee.poo–200 ee.
kushan samrajy 60–240 ee.
poorv madhyakalin bharat- 240 ee.poo– 800 ee.
chol samrajy 250 ee.poo- 1070 ee.
gupt samrajy 280–550 ee.
pal samrajy 750–1174 ee.
pratihar samrajy 830–963 ee.
rajapoot kal 900–1162 ee.
madhyakalin bharat- 500 ee.– 1761 ee.
dilli saltanat
gulam vnsh
khilaji vnsh
tugalaq vnsh
saiyyad vnsh
lodi vnsh
mugal samrajy
1206–1526 ee.
1206-1290 ee.
1290-1320 ee.
1320-1414 ee.
1414-1451 ee.
1451-1526 ee.
1526–1857 ee.
dakkan saltanat
bahamani vnsh
nizamashahi vnsh
1490–1596 ee.
1358-1518 ee.
1490-1565 ee.
dakshini samrajy
rashtrakoot vnsh
hoyasal samrajy
kakatiya samrajy
vijayanagar samrajy
1040-1565 ee.
736-973 ee.
1040–1346 ee.
1083-1323 ee.
1326-1565 ee.
adhunik bharat- 1762–1947 ee.
maratha samrajy 1674-1818 ee.
sikh rajyasngh 1716-1849 ee.
aupanivesh kal 1760-1947 ee.

sindhu sabhyata ke patan ke bad jo navin snskriti prakash men ayi usake vishay men hamen sampoorn janakari vedon se milati hai. isalie is kal ko ham 'vaidik kal' athava vaidik sabhyata ke nam se janate hain. choonki is snskriti ke pravartak ary log the isalie kabhi-kabhi ary sabhyata ka nam bhi diya jata hai. yahan ary shabd ka arth- shreshth, udatt, abhijaty, kulin, utkrisht, svatntr adi hain. yah kal 1500 ee.poo. se 600 ee.poo. tak astitv men raha.

rigvaidik kal 1500-1000 ee.poo.

srot- rigvaidik kal ke adhyayan ke lie do prakar ke sakshy upalabdh hain-

  1. puratatvik sakshy
  2. sahityik sakshy

puratatvik sakshy

isake antargat nimnalikhit sakshy upalabdh prapt hue hain-

  • chitrit dhoosar mridabhand
  • khudaee men hariyana ke pas bhagavan pura men mile 13 kamaron vala makan tatha pnjab men bhi prapt tin aise sthal jinaka sambandh rigvaidik kal se joda jata hai.
  • bogaj-koee abhilekh / mitalpi abhilekh (1400 ee.poo- is lekh men hitti raja shubviluliyum aur mittanni raja mattiuaja ke madhy huee sndhi ke sakshi ke roop men vaidik devata indr, mitr, varun aur nasaty ka ullekh hai.

sahityik sakshy

rigved men 10 mandal evn 1028 mandal sookt hai. pahala evn dasavan mandal bad men joda gaya hai jabaki doosara se 7van mandal purana hai.

aryo ka agaman kal

aryo ke agaman ke vishay men viddhanon men matabhed hai. viktaranitj ne aryo ke agaman ki tithi ke 2500 ee. nirdharit ki hai jabaki balagngadhar tilak ne isaki tithi 6000 ee.poo. nirdharit ki hai. maiksamoolar ke anusar inake agaman ki tithi 1500 ee.poo. hai. aryo ke mool nivas ke sandarbh men sarvadhik pramanik mat alpas parv ke poorvi bhag men sthit yooreshiya ka hai. vartaman samay men maiksoomoolan ne mat svikary hain.

aryo ke qabile

daau. jaikobi ke anusar aryo ne bharat men kee bar akraman kiya aur unaki ek se adhik shakhaen bharat men ayi. sabase mahattvapoorn kabila bharat tha. isake shasak varg ka nam tritsu tha. snbhavatah srijan aur krivi kabile bhi unase sambaddh the. rigved men aryo ke jin panch kabilon ka ullekh hai unamen- puru, yadu, turvash, anu, druhm pramukh the. ye pnchayan ke nam se jane jate the. chadu aur turvas ko das kaha jata tha. yadu aur turvash ke vishay men aisa mana jata tha ki indr unhe bad men lae the. yah gyat hota hai ki sarasvati drishadvati evn apaya nadi ke kinare bharat kabile ne agni ki pooja ki.

aryo ka bhaugolik kshetr

bharat men aryo ka agaman 1500 ee.poo. se kuchh pahale hua. bharat men unhonne sarvapratham sapt saindhav pradesh men basana prarambh kiya. is pradesh men bahane vali sat nadiyon ka zikr hamen rigved se milata hai. ye hain sindhu, sarasvati, shatudri (sataluj) vipasha (vyas), parushni (ravi), vitasta (jhelam), askini (chinab) adi.

kuchh afaganistan ki nadiyon ka zikr bhi hamen rigved se milata hai. ye hain- kubha (kabul nadi), krubhu (kurram), gomati (gomal) evn suvastu (svat) adi. isase yah pata chalata hai ki afaganistan bhi us samay bharat ka hi ek ang tha. himalay parvat ka spasht ullekh hua hai. himalay ki ek choti ko moojadant kaha gaya hai jo som ke lie prasidv thi. is prakar ary himalay se parichat the. aryon ne agale padav ke roop men kurookshetr ke nikat ke pradeshon par qabza kar us kshetr ka nam 'brahmavart' (aryavart) rakha. brahmavart se age badhakar aryo ne gnga-yamuna ke doab kshetr evn usake najadik ke kshetron par qabza kar us kshetr ka nam brahmarshi desh rakha. isake bad himalay evn vindhyanchal parvaton ke bich ke kshetr par qabza kar us kshetr ka nam 'madhy pradesh' rakha. ant men bngal evn bihar ke dakshin evn poorvi bhagon par qabza kar samooche uttar bharat par adhikar kar liya, kalantar men is kshetr ka nam 'aryavat' rakha gaya. manusmriti men sarasvati aur drishadvati nadiyon ke bich ke pradesh ko brahmavart pukara gaya.


samudr- rigved men samudr ki charcha huee hai aur bhujy ki nauka durghatana vali kahani men jalayatra par prakash padata hai. vaidik taul ki eekaee man evn vebilon ki ikaee man men samanata se bhi samudr yatra par padata hai. rigved ke do mantron (9ven or 10ven mandal ke) men char samudron ka ullekh hai.

parvat - rigvaidik ary himalay pahad se parichit the. parantu vindhy ya satapuda se parichit nahin then. kuchh mahattvapoorn chotiyon ki charcha hai, yatha jaise himavnt, mnjadnt, sharpanavanh, arjik tatha sushom.

marusthal- rigved men marusthal ke lie dhanv shabd aya hai. aryo ko sambhavatah marusthal ka gyat tha, kyonki is bat ki charcha ki jati hai ki parjany ne marusthal ko par karane yogy banaya.

kshetr- prarambhik vaidik sahity men keval ek kshetr 'gandhari' ki charcha hai. isaki pahachan adhunik peshavar evn ravalapindi zilon se ki gee hai.

rigved men nadiyon ka ullekh

rigved men 25 nadiyon ka ullekh hai, jisamen sabase mahattvapoorn nadi sindhu nadi hai, jisaka varnan kee bar aya hai. yah sapt saindhav kshetr ki pashchimi sima thi. krumu (kurum),gomati (gomal), kubha (kabul) aur suvastu (svat) namak nadiyan pashchim kinare men sindhu ki sahayak nadi thin. poorvi kinare par sindhu ki sahayak nadiyon men vitasta (jhelam) askini (chenab), parushni (ravi), shatudr (satalaj), vipasa (vyas) pramukh thi. vipas (vyas) nadi ke tat par hi indr ne usha ko parajit kiya aur usake rath ko tukade-tukade kar diya. sindhu nadi ko usake arthik mahatv ke karan hiranyani kaha gaya hai. sindhu nadi dvar ooni vastron ke vyavasay hone ka karan ise suvasa aur oorpavarti bhi kaha gaya hai. rigved men sindhu nadi ki charcha sarvadhik bar huee hai.

aryo ka sngharsh

aryo ka sngharsh gairik mridabhannd evn lal aur kale mridabhand vale logon se hua.

aryo ke vijayi hone ke karan

ary nimnalikhit karanon se vijayi hote rahe.

  1. ghode chalit rath
  2. kanse ke achchhe upakaran
  3. kavach (varm)
  • ary sambhavatah vishisht prakar ke durg ka prayog karate the. ise pur kaha jata tha. ve dhanush-van ka prayog karate the. prayah do prakar ke banon men ek vishakt evn sing ke sira (mukh) vala tatha doosara tanba ke mukh vala hota tha. isake atirikt barachhi, bhala, pharasa aur talavar ka prayog bhi karate the. purachashni shabd ka arth tha- durgon ko girane vala.
  • das evn dasyu aryo ke shastru the. dasyu ko anasa (chapati nak vala), akarman (vaidik karmo men vishvas n karane vala) evn shishnadeva (lingapoojak) kaha jata tha. puru namak kabila tras dasyu ke nam se jana jata tha.
  • bharat jan ko vishvamitr ka sahayog prapt tha. isi sahayog ke bal par usane vyas evn shutudri ko jita. kintu shighr hi bharaton ne vashishth ko apana guru man liya. atah krudh hokar vishvamitr ne bharat jan ke virodhiyon ko samarthan diya. parushni nadi ke kinare 10 rajaon ka yuddh hua. isamen bharat ke virodh men panch ary evn panch anary kabile milakar sngharsh kar rahe the. aryo ke panch kabile the - puru, yadu, turvash, druhm, aur anu. panch anary kabile the- alin, pakth, bhalanas, visanin aur shiv. isamen bharat raja sudas ki vijay huee. dash rajaon ka yuddh pashchimottar pradesh men base hue poorvakalin jal tatha brahmavart ke uttar kalin aryo ke bich uttaradhikar ke prashn par lada gaya tha.
  • rigved men qarib 25 nadiyon ka ullekh milata hai jiname mahattvapoorn nadi sindhu ka varnan kee bar aya hai. unake dvara ullikhit doosari nadi hai sarasvati jo ab rajasthan ke registan men tirohit ho gayi hai. isaki jagah ab ghagghar nadi bahati hai. rigved men sarasvati nadi ko 'naditama' (nadiyon men pramukh) kaha gaya hai. isake atirikt gnga ka rigved men ek bar evn yamuna ka tin bar zikr aya hai. rigved men keval himalay parvat evn isaki choti mojavnt ka ullekh milata hai.

rajanitik vyavastha

sarvapratham jab ary bharat men aye to unaka yahan ke das athava dasyu kahe jane vale panch logon se sngharsh, antatah aryo ko vijay mili. rigved men aryo ke panch kabile ke hone ki vajah se pnchajany kaha gaya. ye the puru, yadu, turvash, druhm aur anu. bharat, kriv evn tritsu ary shasak vnsh ke the. bharat kul ke nam se hi is desh ka nam bharatavarsh pada. inake purohit the vashishth. kalantar men bharat vnsh ke raja sudas tatha any das janon, puru, yadu, turvash, anu, drahm akin, pakth, bhalanas, vishanin aur shiv ke madhy dasharagy yu़ddh parushni (ravi) nadi ke kinare lada gaya jisamen sudas ko vijay mili. kuchh samay pashchath parajit raja puru aur bharat ke bich maitri sambandh sthapit hone se ek navin kuru vnsh ki sthapana ki gayi.

prashasanik ikaee

rigvaidik kal men prashasan ki sabase chhoti ikaee kul ya grih tha. usake oopar gram tha. usake oopar vish tha. sabase oopar jan hota tha. rigved men jan shabd ka ullekh 275 bar hua hai, jabaki janapath shabd ka ullekh ek bar bhi nahin hua hai. vish shabd ka ullekh 170 bar hua hai.

rigvaidik bharat ka rajanitik dhancha arohi kram men- kul > gram > vishas > jan > rashtr

isamen kul sabase chhoti ikaee thi . kul ka mukhiya kulap tha. gram ka shasan gramani dekhata tha. vish gram se badi prashasanik eekaee thi. isaka shasak vishpati kaha jata tha. jan kabilaee sngathan tha. inaka shasan pramukh purohit hua karata tha. inhin ke nam par age janapad bane. rashtr shasan ki sabase badi eekaee thi. isaka shasak raja hota tha.

nyay vyavastha

nyay vyavastha dharm par adharit hoti thi. raja qanooni salahakaron tatha purohit ki sahayata se nyay karata tha. chori, dakaiti, rahajani, adi anek aparadhon ka ullekh milata hai. isamen pashuon ki chori sabase adhik hoti thi jise pani log karate the. inake adhikansh yuddh gay ko lekar hue hain. rigved men yuddh ka paryay gavishth (gay ka anveshan) hai. mutyu dnd ki pratha nahin thi. aparadhiyon ko shariradand tatha jurmane ki saza di jati thi. veradey (badala chukane ki pratha) ka prachalan tha. ek vyakti ko shataday kaha jata tha kyonki usake jan ki kimat 100 gay thi. hatya ka dand dravy ke roop men diya jata tha. sood ka bhugatan vastu ke oopar men kiya jata tha. divalie ko rinadata ka das banaya jata tha. putr sampatti ka adhikari hota tha.

samajik jivan

rigvaidik samaj ki sabase chhoti ikaee parivar ya kul hoti thi. rigved men 'kul' shabd ka ullekh nahin hai. parivar ke lie 'grih' shabd ka prayukt hua hai. kee parivar milakar gram ya gotr tatha kee gram milakar vish ka nirman evn kee vish milakar jan ka nirman karate the. rigved men jan shabd lagabhag 275 tatha vish shabd 170 bar prayukt hua hai. rigvaidik samaj pitrisattatmak samaj tha. pita hi parivar ka mukhiya hota tha. rigved ke kuchh ullekhon se pita ke asimit adhikaron ki pushti hoti hai. rijashv ke ullekh se pata chalata hai ki usake pita ne ek mada bhed ke lie sau bhedon ka vadh kar dene ke karan use andha bana diya tha. varoonasookt ke shunah shesh ke akhyan se gyat hota hai ki pita apani santan ko bech sakata tha. kintu uddharanon se yah tatpary kadapi nahin nikala jana chahie ki pita-putr ke snbndh katutapoorn the. ise apavadasvaroop hi samajha jana chahie. putr prapti hetu devataon se kamana ki jati thi aur parivar snyukt hota tha.

arthik jivan

rigved men aryo ke mukhy vyavasay ke roop men pashupalan evn krishi ka vivaran milata hai jabaki poorv vaidik aryo ne pashupalan ko hi apana mukhy vyavasay banaya tha. rigvaidik sabhyata gramin sabhyata thi. is ved men ‘gavy evn gavyati shabd charagah ke lie prayukt hai. is kal men gay ka prayog mudra ke roop me bhi hota tha. avi (bhed), aja (bakari) ka rigved men anek bar zikr hua hai. hathi, bagh, batakh,giddh se ary log aparichit the. dhani vyakti ko gopat kaha gaya tha. raja ko gopati kaha jata tha yuddh ke lie gavisht, gesoo, gavy or gamy shabd prachalit the. samay ki map ke lie godhul shabd ka prayog kiya jata tha. doori ka man ke lie gavayatu.

krishi

rigvaidik kal men raja bhoomi ka svami nahin hota tha. vah vishesh roop se yuddhakalin svami hota tha. rigved men do prakar ke sinchaee ka ullekh hai-

  1. khanitrima (khodakar prapt kiya gaya jal)
  2. svaynja (prakritik jal)

dharm

vaidik dharm poornatah pratimargi hain vaidik devataon men purush bhav ki pradhanata hai. adhikansh devataon ki aradhana manav ke roop men ki jati thi kintu kuchh devataon ki aradhana pashu ke rup men ki jati thi. aj ekapad aur ahitarbudhny donon devataon parikalpana pashu ke roop men ki gee hai. maruton ki mata ki parikalpana chitakabari gay ke roop men ki gee hai. indr ki gay khojane vala sarama (kuttiya) svan ke roop men hai. isake atirikt indr k kalpana vrishabh (bail) ke roop men evn soory ko ashv ke roop men ki gee hai. rigved men pashuon ke pooja prachalan nahin tha. rigvaidik devataon men kisi prakar ka unch-nich ka bhedabhav nahin tha. vaidik rishiyon ne sabhi devataon ki mahima gaee hai. rigvaidik logon ne prakritik shaktiyon ka manavikaran kiya hai. is samay 'bahudevavad' ka prachalan tha. rigvaidik aryo ki devamandali tin bhagon men vibhajit thi.

  1. akash ke devata - soory, dyaus, varun, mitr, pooshanh, vishnu, usha, apannapat, savita, trip, vinvasvath, adintyagag, ashvinadvay adi.
  2. antariksh ke devata- indr, marut, rudr, vayu, parjany, matarishvanh, triprapty, aj ekapad, ap, ahirbughny.
  3. prithvi ke devata- agni, som, prithvi, brihaspati, tatha nadiyan.

is dev samooh men sarvapradhan devata kaun tha, yah nirdharit karana kathin hai rigvaidik rishiyon ne jis samay jis devata ki stuti ki use hi sarvochch manakar usamen sampoorn gunon ka aropan kar diya. maiks moolar ne is pravritti ki 'hinathijm' kaha hai. sookton ki snkhya ki drishti yah manana nyayasngat hoga ki inaka sarvapradhan devata indr tha.

rigved men antariksh sthaniy 'indr' ka varnan sarvadhik pratapi devata ke roop men kiya gaya hai, rigved ke qarib 250 sookton men inaka varnan hai. inhe varsha ka devata mana jata tha. unhonne vriksh rakshas ko mara tha isilie unhe vritrahan kaha jata hai. anek kilon ko nasht kar diya tha, is roop men ve purandar kahe jate hain. indr ne vritr ki hatya karake jal ka mukt karate hain isalie unhe purmid kaha gaya. indr ke lie ek visheshan ansujit (pani ko jitane vala) bhi ata hai. indr ke pita dyons hain agni usaka yamaj bhaee hai aur marut usaka sahayogi hai. vishnu ke vritr ke vadh men indr ki sahayata ki thi. rigved men indr ko samast snsar ka svami bataya gaya hai. usaka priy ayuddh bajr hai isalie unhe brajabahoo bhi kaha gaya hai. indr kushal rath-yoddha (ratheshth), mahanh vijeta (vijendr) aur som ka palan karane vala (somapa) hai. indr toofan aur medh ke bhi devata hai . ek shaktishali devata hone ke karan indr ka shatakratu (ek sau shakti dharan karane vala) kaha gaya hai vritr ka vadh karane ka karan vritrahan aur madhavan (danashil) ke roop men jana jata hai. unaki patni indrani athava shachi (oorja) hain prachin bharatiy granthon men indr ke sath krishn ke virodh ka ullekh milata hai.

rigved men doosara mahattvapoorn devata 'agni' tha, jisaka kam tha manushy aur devata ke madhy madhyasth ki bhoomika nibhana. agni ke dvara hi devataon ahutiyan di jati thin. rigved men qarib 200 sookton men agni ka zikr kiya gaya hai. ve purohiton ke bhi devata the. unaka mool nivas svarg hai. kintu matarishvan (devata) n use prithvi par laya. prithvi par ygy vedi men agni ki sthapana bhriguon evn angirason ne ki. is kary ke karan unhen 'atharvan' kaha gaya hai. vah pratyek ghar men prajvalit hoti thi is karan use pratyek ghar ka atithi mana gaya hai. isaki any upadhiyan jatadevash (char-achar ka gyat hone ke karan), bhuvanachakshu (sarvadrashta hone ke karan), hiranyadnt (surahare danv vala) atharvaved men ise pratah kal uchit hone vala mitr aur sanyakal ko varun kaha gaya hai. tisara sthan varun ka mana jata hai, jise samudr ka devata, vishv ke niyamak aur shasak saty ka pratik, ritu parivartan evn din-rat ka karta-dharta, akash, prithvi evn soory ka nirmata ke roop men jana jata hai. eeran men inhe 'ahuramajd' tatha yoonan men 'yoorenas' ke nam se jana jata hai. ye ritu ke snrakshak the isalie inhe ritasyagop bhi kaha jata tha. varun ke sath mitr ka bhi ullekh hai in donon ko milakar mitr varoon kahate hain. rigved ke mitr aur varun ke sath ap ka bhi ullekh kiya gaya hai. ap ka arth jal hota hai. rigved ke mitr aur varun ka sahasr stambhon vale bhavan men nivas karane ka ullekh milata hai. mitr ke atirikt varun ke sath ap ka bhi ullekh milata hai. rigved me varun ko vayu ka sans kaha gaya hai. varun dev lok men sabhi sitaron ka marg nirdharit karate hain. inhe asur bhi kaha jata hain. inaki stuti lagabhag 30 sooktiyon men ki gayi hai. devataon ke tin vargo (prithvi sthan, vayu sthan aur akash sthan) men varun ka sarvochch sthan hai. ve devataon ke devata hai. rigved ka 7 van mandal varun devata ko samarpit hai. dand ke roop men logon ko 'jalodar rog' se pidit karate the.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh