सुकरात  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

sukarat
sukarat
poora nam sukarat
janm 469 ee. poo.
janm bhoomi ethens
mrityu 399 ee. poo.
mrityu sthan ethens
pati/patni do patniyan- 'mayaratan' tatha 'jainthaip'
karm bhoomi yoonan
karm-kshetr pashchaty darshan
prasiddhi darshanik
nagarikata grik
mrityu karan sukarat par devataon ki upeksha karane aur yuvaon ka bhadakane ka arop lagakar muqadama chalaya gaya, jisake phalasvaroop use vish ka pyala pine ke lie vivash kiya gaya.
shishy 'afalatoon' aur 'arastoo'
any janakari sukarat ethens ke bahut hi garib ghar men paida hua tha. vah sena ki naukari men chala gaya tha aur paitidiya ke yuddh men viratapoorvak lada tha. gyan ka sngrah aur prasar, ye hi usake jivan ke mukhy lakshy the.

sukarat (angrezi: Socrates; janm- 469 ee. poo., ethens; mrityu- 399 ee. poo., ethens) ek vikhyat yoonani darshanik tha. usake bare men kaha jata hai ki vah ek kuroop vyakti tha aur bolata adhik tha. sukarat ko soofiyon ki bhanti maulik shiksha aur achar dvara udaharan dena hi pasnd tha. vastut: usake samasamayik bhi use soofi samajhate the. soofiyon ki bhanti sadharan shiksha tatha manav sadachar par vah jor deta tha aur unhin ki tarah purani roodhiyon par prahar karata tha. buddh ki bhanti sukarat ne kabhi koee grnth nahin likha. tarunon ko bigadane, devaninda aur nastik hone ka jhootha dosh sukarat par lagaya gaya aur isake lie use jahar dekar marane ka dnd mila.

parichay

sukarat ka janm 469 eesa poorv men ethens hua tha. usake pita ek sngatarash the aur usaki mata daee ka kam karati thin. sukarat ne apana jivan ethens men vyatit kiya tha. prarabh men to sukarat ne apane pita ke vyavasay men hath bntaya aur unaki sahayata ki. bad men vah sena ki naukari men chala gaya. vah paitidiya ke yuddh men viratapoorvak lada tha. apani vartaon ke karan hi sukarat apane samay ka sabase adhik gyanavan vyakti samajha jata tha. kuchh samay tak sukarat ethens ki kaunsil ka sadasy bhi raha tha. vahan usane poori imanadari aur sachchaee ke sath kam kiya, usane kabhi bhi galat ka sath nahin diya. chahe aparadhi ho ya nirdosh, usane kisi bhi vyakti ke sath galat nahin hone diya.[1]

vivah

sukarat ke do vivah hue the. usaki pahali patni ka nam 'mayaratan' tha. usase sukarat ko do putr prapt hue the. jabaki doosari patni ka nam tha 'jainthaip'. isane ek putr ko janm diya tha.

vyaktitv

sukarat dekhane men kuroop tha. usake vishay men yah bhi kaha jata hai ki vah bolata bahut tha. kuchh vidvanon ke anusar sukarat ethens men utpann mahanatam vyaktiyon se bhi mahanh mana jata hai. sukarat ek uchch koti ka manishi to tha hi, vah shat-pratishat eemanadar, sachcha evn dridh snkalp vala vyakti tha. vah dharm ke snsthagat roop ko n manakar dharm ke saiddhantik paksh ko manane vala tha. usaki manyataen eesaee dharm ki manyataon ke nikat thin. sukarat subah hi apane ghar se nikalakar logon ko upadesh dene ke lie nikal padata tha. vah logon ko sachcha tatha sahi gyan pradan karake unaka sudhar karana chahata tha.

manav sadachar par jor

sukarat ko soofiyon ki bhanti maulik shiksha aur achar dvara udaharan dena hi pasnd tha. vastut: usake samasamayik bhi use soofi samajhate the. soofiyon ki bhanti sadharan shiksha tatha manav sadachar par vah jor deta tha aur unhin ki tarah purani roodhiyon par prahar karata tha. vah kahata tha- "sachcha gyan snbhav hai, basharte usake lie thik taur par prayatn kiya jae; jo baten hamari samajh men ati hain ya hamare samane aee hain, unhen tatsnbndhi ghatanaon par ham parakhen, is tarah anek parakhon ke bad ham ek sachaee par pahunch sakate hain. gyan ke saman pavitratam koee vastu nahin hai."

jivan darshan

buddh ki bhanti sukarat ne koee grnth nahin likha. buddh ke shishyon ne unake jivan kal men hi upadeshon ko knthasth karana shuru kiya tha, jisase ham unake upadeshon ko bahut kuchh sidhe taur par jan sakate hain; kintu sukarat ke upadeshon ke bare men yah suvidha nahin hai. sukarat ka kya jivan darshan tha? yah usake acharan se hi maloom hota hai, lekin usaki vyakhya bhinn-bhinn lekhak bhinn-bhinn dhng se karate hain. kuchh lekhak sukarat ki prasannamukhata aur maryadit jivanayopabhog ko dikhalakar kahate hain ki vah bhogi tha. doosare lekhak sharirik kashton ki or se usaki beparvahi tatha avashyakata padane par jivanasukh ko bhi chhodane ke lie taiyar rahane ko dikhalakar use sada jivan ka pakshapati batalate hain.[1]

sukarat ko havaee bahas pasnd nahin thi. vah ethens ke bahut hi garib ghar men paida hua tha. gnbhir vidvan aur khyati prapt ho jane par bhi usane vaivahik jivan ki lalasa nahin rakhi. gyan ka sngrah aur prasar, ye hi usake jivan ke mukhy lakshy the. usake adhoore kary ko usake shishy 'aphalatoon' aur 'arastoo' ne poora kiya. isake darshan ko do bhagon men banta ja sakata hai-

  1. sukarat ka guru-shishy yatharthavad
  2. arastoo ka prayogavad

sukarat par muqadama

399 eesa poorv men sukarat ke dushmanon ko sukarat ko khatm karane men saphalata mil gayi. unhonne sukarat par muqadama chalava diya tha. sukarat par mukhy roop se tin arop lagaye ge the-

  1. pratham arop yah tha ki vah many devataon ki upeksha karata hai aur uname vishvas nahin karata.
  2. doosare arop men kaha gaya ki usane rashtriy devataon ke sthan par kalpit jivan devata ko sthapit kiya hai.
  3. tisara arop tha ki vah nagar ke yuva varg ko bhrasht bana raha hai.

jab sukarat par muqadama chal raha tha, tab usane apana vakil karane se mana kar diya aur kaha ki "ek vyavasayi vakil purushatv ko vyakt nahin kar sakata hai." sukarat ne adalat men kaha- "mere pas jo kuchh tha, vah mainne ethensavasiyon ki seva men laga diya. mera uddeshy keval apane sathi nagarikon ko sukhi banana hai. yah kary mainne paramatma ke adeshanusar apane kartavy ke roop men kiya hai. paramatma ke kary ko ap logon ke kary se adhik mahatv deta hoon. yadi ap mujhe is shart par chhod den ki main saty ki khoj chhod doon, to main apako dhanyavad kahakar yah kahoonga ki main paramatma ki agya ka palan karate hue apane vartaman kary ko antim shvas tak nahin chhod sakoonga. tum log saty ki khoj tatha apani atma ko shreshthatar banane ki koshish karane ke bajay sampatti evn samman ki or adhik dhyan dete ho. kya tum logon ko is par lajja nahin ati." sukarat ne yah bhi kaha ki "main samaj ka kalyan karata hoon, isalie mujhe khel men vijayi hone vale khiladi ki tarah sammanit kiya jana chahie."

vish ka sevan

sukarat ka yah bhashan sunakar nyayadhish naraj ho ge. kyonki sukarat ne nyayalay ke prati avgya dikhaee thi. nyayadhishon ka antim phaisala tha ki sukarat ko mrityu dnd diya jae aur usako vish ka pyala pina hoga. nirdharit samay par sukarat ko vish ka pyala diya gaya. usane vish ka pyala pi liya. vish pite samay usake chehare par halki-si mukurahat thi. vish ne sukarat ke sharir ko nishkriy kar diya aur vah svarg ko sidhar gaya.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 sukarat (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 01 mee, 2014.

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