नागार्जुन बौद्धाचार्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Disamb2.jpg nagarjun ek bahuvikalpi shabd hai any arthon ke lie dekhen:- nagarjun (bahuvikalpi)

nagarjun bauddhachary (janm -150 ee; mrityu -lagabhag 250 ee) bharatiy bauddh bhikshu-darshanik aur madhyamik (madhy marg) mat ke snsthapak, jinaki ‘shoonyata’ (khalipan) ki avadharana ke spashtikaran ko uchchakoti ki bauddhik evn adhyatmik upalabdhi mana jata hai. bad ke kee bauddh maton ne unhen pradhi-dharmadhyaksh mana. do maulik rachanaen, jo kafi had tak unaki hain aur snskrit men upalabdh rahi- moolamadhyamika karika (samanyat: madhyamika karika ke roop men jani jati) tatha vigrahavyavartini hain, jo astitv ki utpatti, gyan ke sadhan aur yatharth ke svaroop par vicharon ka vivechanatmak vishleshan hain.

jivan vritant

nagarjun ki jivan katha ka anrabhik vivaran chini bhasha men upalabdh hai, jise qarib 405 ee. men prasiddh bauddh anuvadak kumarajiv ne upalabdh karaya. yah any chini evn tibbati vrittant se sahamat hain ki nagarjun dakshin bharat men ek brahman parivar men janme the. aitihasik roop se bachapan ki unaki kathaen vivadasprad hain, lekin yah snket deti hain ki unake pas asadharan bauddhik kshamata thi tatha jab unhonne mahayan bauddh dharm ke siddhanton, jo is samay poorvi eshiya men prachalit hain, ke gahan arthon ko samajha, tab unamen adhyatmik parivartan hua. kumarajiv ke vrittant ke anusar, nagarjun dvara bauddh dharm ke kuchh mool vichar kuchh asntushti se sikhane ke bad ek 'mahanag bodhisatv' par gyan-prapti ke marg par agrasar ek pramukh nagaraj[1] ne daya dikhaee tatha unhen atynt goodh mahayan shlokon ke bare men bataya. nagarjun ne kuchh hi samay men inamen pravinata hasil ki tatha bharat men saphalatapoorvak saty (dharm) ka prachar kiya aur kee virodhiyon ko bauddhik-darshanik shastrarth men parast kiya. anushrut vritant yah bhi snket dete hain ki vah kafi lnbi umr tak jie tatha isake bad unhonne apane jivan ka ant karane ka nirnay liya. vibhinn vrittant nagarjun ke vibhinn dharmik gunon ka varnan karate hain tatha unake jivan ka kalankan 500 se adhik varshon ke dayare men karate hain. isase yah snket milata hai ki upalabdh sndarbh kee vyaktiyon ke bare men ho sakate hain tatha inamen kuchh kalpanik vrittant bhi shamil honge. phir bhi nagarjun ki jivani ke vibhinn tatvon ki pushti etihasik samragri se hoti hai. vartaman vidvanh snket dete hain ki nagarjun 50 ee. aur 280 ee. kisi avadhi men rahe honge. ek am ray ke mutabiq, unaka kalankan 150-250 ee. hai. kuchh puratatvik saboot : unake dvara satavahan vnsh ke ek raja, snbhavat: ygyshri (173-202) ko likha ek patr (suharillekh, ‘maitripoorn patr’) is dave ki pushti karata hai ki vah dakshin bharat men rahate the.

mukhy bauddhachary

nagarjun madhyamik darshan ke pratishthapak aur mahayan bauddh darshan ke pramukh achary the. bhagavan buddh ne shashvat aur uchchhed, sath aur asath, bhav aur abhav in do anton ke bich chalane ka upadesh diya tha. nagarjun ne tathagat dvara upadishth is madhyam marg ki darshanik vyakhya prastut ki aur bauddh parampara men pratityasamutpad ke siddhant ka darshanik vishleshan prastut kar jagath ko sapeksh, phalat: anutpann, ni:svabhav aur svabhav shoony batate hue shoonyata ke siddhant ko shastriy drishti se prastut kiya. nagarjun ne jivan evn unaki tithi ke vishay men kee prakar ke pravah aur mat prachalit hain. un matabhedon ka vishad vivaran to yahan sambhav nahin hai, kintu unake vishay men lnkavatarasootr, mahameghasootr, mahamerisootr aur majjushrimoolakalp men bhavishyavaniyan upalabdh hoti hain. sabhi praniyon aur paramparaon ki samiksha se gyat hota hai ki bharatiy parampara men madhyamik darshan, raseshvar darshan, tantr tatha ayurved se sambandh nagarjun namadhari char achary hue. inamen prachinatam bauddh nagarjun hi the, jinaki tithi pray: eesavi san doosari shatabdi ke as pas mani gayi (146 – 217 ee.) hai.

prabhav evn rachanaen

nagarjun ka prabhav bauddh dharm ke madhyamik mat ke anuyayiyon ke zariye jari raha. unaki darshanik sthitiyon ki vivechanatmak padatal tatha upadeshatmak vyakhya ka adhyayan ab bhi kee poorvi eshiyaee maton men chini bauddh dharmashastr (ta-tsang ching) ke ang ke roop men kiya jata hai. isi prakar tibbati bauddh dharmashastr ke ang ki tarah bastan-gyoor men 17 madhyamika shodh prabndh hain. inamen se sabhi prabndhon ka shrey nagarjun ko nahin diya aur parnparik taur par jinaka shrey unako diya jata hai, snbhavat: ve bhi unhonne nahin likhe hain.

do mool rachanaen, jo kafi had tak unaki hain, is samay snskrit men upalabdh hain; ve hain- moolamadhyamikakarika (madhyamika karika,’ madhyam marg ke mool siddhant’) aur vigrahavyavartani (vad-vivad ka nivaran), donno satta ki utpatti, gyan ke sadhan, tatha yatharth ke svaroop ke bare men asaty vicharon ka vivechanatmak vishleshan hai. jin tin mahattvapoorn, madhyamika rachanaon ka shrey nagarjun ko diya jata hai ve vartaman men keval chini bhasha men upalabdh hain, ta-chih-too-lun (mahaprgyparamita-shastr, 'prgya shodh prabndhon ki mahanh parakashatha'), shi-choo-pi-pa-sha-lun (dashamoomi-vibhash-shastr, ’10 stariy grnthon ki abha'), tatha shin-erh-men-luk (dvadash-dvar {nikay} -shastr, '12 pravesh marg grnth') nimnalikhit rachanaen keval tibbati dharmashastr men milati hain tatha kee vidvanh inhen nagarjun ki rachanaen manate hain : rigs pa drag ka pahi tsig lehur vyas pa shes bya ba (yukti-shashtika, 'snyojan par 60 chhnd'), ton pa nid dun ku pahi tsig lehoor byas pa shes bya ba (shunyata-saptati, 'shoonyata par 70 chhnd') aur shib bho nampar htag pa shes bya bahi mdo (vaidalaya-sootr, 'vaidalaya shreni ka pavitr grnth').

madhyamik vishleshan ke shlokon ke alava tibbati anushruti ne kee tantrik (jaduee) evn chikitsa rachanaon ka shrey kisi 'nagarjun' ko diya hai. bad ki bharatiy rachanaon men nagarjun nam ke ek mahanh siddh ya tantrik ka zikr hai, jinhonne tantrik acharan, yani chamatkari mntron evn mndalon ki madad se jaduee shaktiyan prapt ki tatha niyntrit ahar aur aushadhi se astitv ki abhautikiy agat tak pahunche. in kathaon ke sath ek shaktishali kimiyagar ki kahani bhi snbaddh hai, jinhonne any upalabdhiyon ke alava amarata ka amrit khoj nikala tha. thos aitihasik ankadon ke abhav tatha paraspar virodhi vrittanton doosari sadi ke is darshanik par lagoo nahin mana jata hai.

madhyamik darshanik ke jivan evn drishtikon ke bare men kuchh janakari nagarjun ki rachanaon se bhi mil sakati hai. unake vivechanatmak vishleshanatmak kavyon aur unake upadeshatmak prabndh, patr evn shlok logon ke sath viniyojan men ‘anasakti’ (yani sabhi chijon ki shoonyata ka bodh karana aur isalie unase nirlipt hona) ko vyavahar men lane ke prati anek gahare sarokar ka snket dete hain. durooh tark ke zariye, jaisa madhyamika karika men hai, unhonne astitv ke bare men hindoo evn bauddh drishtikonon ki alochana ki hain. lekin unake adhikatar shastrarth sthaviravad aur sarvastivad ke bauddh maton dvara prastativ astitv ki vyakhya ke prayas the. nagarjun ki sthiti prarnbhik mahayan sahity ke prgyaparamita-sootr (prgya shlokon ki parakashtha) se ghanishth roop se snbaddh aur snbhavat: nirbhar hai, jisamen 'shoony' ka vichar gyan ke marg par chalane valon se lie mahattvapoorn tha aur madhyamika mat men vishisht shabd ban gaya.

yah vichar batata hai ki astitv ka svaroop snbndhatmak hai : koee atma nahin hai, kuchh nahin hai tatha isake sndarbh men svatntr koee avadharana nahin hai; sabhi chize kisi se rikt hain tatha keval paristhiti ke sndarbh men vidyaman hain. parivartanashil svaroopon ke pichhe koee shashvat saty nahin hai; yahan tak ki bina kisi bndhan ke nirvan (gyan-prapti) bhi astitv ke badalate svaroop se svatntr nahin hai. jin vyaktiyon ne gyan men poornata prapt kar li hai, unhen nirvan evn astitv ke parivartanashil pravah ka ek sath bauddh hota hai. yah poornata un doosari 'poornataon' ko rupantarit karati hai, jo bodhisatv (bhavi buddh) ke marg ke ang hain, jaise naitikata, sahanashilata evn dhyan. vivek ki parakashtha poornata ke lie prayasarat utsahi vyakti ko poornata ki asakti tak se mukti dila deti hai, us 'poornata' se, jisamen use kshan ke snbndhatmak svaroop ka bodh nahin hota . at: vivek ko karuna se prithakh n karane vale nagarjun ke drishtikon se vidvatapoorn shastrarth men hissa lena, buddh ki shikshaon ki vyakhya likhana tatha shlokon men maya evn pida se mukti ki prashnsa karana param saty (dharm) anukool mane jate hain.

sattaees adhyayon men vibhakt aur 448 karikaon men nibaddh madhyamik karika ya madhyamak shastr nagarjun ki sarvadhik vidvattapoorn aur prasiddh rachana hai, jo sampoorn madhyamik prasthan ka adhar stambh hai. vigrahavyavartani men nagarjun ke darshan ka praman paksh sphut hua hai. chatu:stav men buddh ki stuti hai to ratnavali men raja ke achar marg ka nirdesh aur bauddh darshan ke vastavik svaroop ka vivechan hai. pratityasamutpadahriday, shoonyatasaptati, yuktishashtika, upayahriday, bhavasnkrantishastr, mahaprgyaparamitashastr aur vaidatyasootr nagarjun ki doosari asndigdh rachanayen hain, jinamen unake darshan ke vividh pakshon ki abhiram abhivyakti huee hai.

nagarjun ka samay kal

  • hrenasang ke anusar ashvaghosh, nagarjun, aryadev aur kumaralabdh (kumaralat) samakalin the.
  • rajatnragini aur taranath ke matanusar nagarjun kanishk ke kal men paida hue the. nagarjun ke kal ke bare men itane mat-matantar hain ki koee nishchit samay siddh kar pana atyant kathin hai, phir bhi ee.poo. pratham shatabdi se eesviy pratham-dvitiy shatabdi ke bich kahin unaka samay hona chahie. kumarajiv ne 405 ee. ke lagabhag chini bhasha men nagarjun ki jivani ka anuvad kiya tha. ye dakshin bharat ke vidarbh pradesh men brahman kul men utpann hue the. ve jyotish, ayurved, darshan evn tantr adi vidyaon men atyant nipun the aur prasiddh siddh tantrik the.
  • prgyaparamitasootron ke adhar par unhonne madhyamik darshan ka pravartan kiya tha. kaha jata hai ki unake kal men prgyaparamitasootr jamboodvip men anupalabdh the. unhonne nagalok jakar unhen prapt kiya tatha un sootron ke darshan paksh ko madhyamik darshan ke roop men prastut kiya.
  • astitv ka vishleshan darshanon ka pramukh vishay raha hai. bharatavarsh men isi ke vishleshan men darshanon ka abhootapoorv vikas hua hai. upanishad-dhara men achary shnkar ka advait vedant tatha bauddh-dhara men achary nagarjun ka shoonyadvayavad shikharayaman hai. paraspar ke vad-vivad ne in donon dharaon ke darshanon ko utkarsh ki parakashtha tak pahunchaya hai. yadyapi achary shnkar ka kal nagarjun se bahut bad ka hai, phir bhi nagarjun ke samay aupanishadik dhara ke astitv ka apalap nahin kiya ja sakata, kintu usaki vyakhya achary shnkar ki vyakhya se nishchit hi bhinn rahi hogi. achary nagarjun ke avirbhav ke bad bharatiy darshanik chintan men naya mod aya. usamen nee gati evn prakharata ka pradurbhav hua. vastut: nagarjun ke bad hi bharatavarsh men yatharth darshanik chintan prarambh hua. nagarjun ne jo mat sthapit kiya, usaka pray: sabhi bauddh-bauddhetar darshanon par vyapak prabhav pada aur usi ke khandan-mandan men any darshanon ne apane ko charitarth kiya.
  • nagarjun ke matanusar vastu ki paramarthat: satta ka ek 'shashvat ant' hai tatha vyavaharat: asatta doosara 'uchchhed ant' hai. in donon anton ka parihas kar ve apana anootha madhyam marg prakashit karate hain. unake anusar paramarthat: 'bhav' nahin hai tatha vyavaharat: ya snvrittit: 'abhav' bhi nahin hai. yahi nagarjun ka madhyam marg ya madhyamik darshan hai. is madhyam marg ki vyavastha unhonne any bauddhon ki bhanti pratityasamutpad ki apani vishisht vyakhya ke adhar par ki hai. ve 'pratity' shabd dvara shashvat ant ka tatha 'samutpad' shabd dvara uchchhed ant ka parihas karate hain aur shoonyatadarshan ki sthapana karate hain.

pramukh grnth

nagarjun ke nam par anek granth upalabdh hote hain, kintu unamen

  1. moolamadhyamikakarika
  2. vigrahavyavartani
  3. yuktishashtika
  4. shoonyatasaptati
  5. ratnavali
  6. vaidalyasootr

inamen moolamadhyamikakarika sharir sthaniy hai tatha any granth usi ke avayav ya poorak ke roop men mane jate hain. kaha jata hai ki unhonne moolamadhyamikakarika par 'akutobhaya' nam ki vritti likhi thi, kintu any sakshyon ke prakash men ane par ab yah mat vidvanon men many nahin hai. isake atirikt suhrillekh evn sootrasamuchchay adi bhi unaki kritiyan hain.

  • bharatiy bauddh acharyon ka kritiyon ka tibbat ke 'tan-gyur' namak sngrah men snkalan kiya gaya hai.

darshanik vichar

nagarjun ka sampoorn madhyamik darshan prgyaparamitaon men pratipadit dharmanairatmy aur pudgal nairatmy padarthon ya dharmon ki ni:svabhavata, dharmata, dharm dhatu, bhootakoti ityadi padon se snketit shoonyata, hetu pratyay sapeksh karanata ke siddhant pratityasamutpad aur doosare sahayan siddhanton ki darshanik drishti se ki mahayan gayi vyakhya par adhrit hai. unhonne prgyaparamitaon men pratipadit in siddhanton ka shastriy drishti se, kramabaddh aur tarkik vidhi se vishleshan kar unhen ek abhinav riti se prastut kiya hai.

shoonyata ka siddhant

shoonyata nagarjun ke darshan ka adharabhoot siddhant hai. samanyat: shoony se asath ya abhav ka arth liya jata hai. is prakar lok vyavahar men shoonyavad ka prasiddh arth hai sakal satta ka nishedh ya abhav. usi sadharan arth ko grahan karane ke karan shoonyavad 'sarvavainashikavad' kaha gaya hai. parantu nagarjun shoony se ni:svabhav ya svabhavashoony ka arth lete hue shoony ke sasvabhav moolak abhav ke arth ka spasht pratishedh karate hain. (dr. madhyamakashastr, aryasatyapariksha). unaki spasht ukti hai :-

astiti shashvatagraho nastotyuchchhed darshanamh.
tasmadastitv nastitve nashriyet vichakshan:.. [2]

arthath asti se shashvatavad ka aur nasti se uchchhedavad ka parigrah hota hai. atev buddhiman asti aur nasti in ubhay anton ka ashrayan nahin karate. madhyamik nay men kisi bhi padarth ya dharm ka svaroop nirnay karane ke lie sath (bhav), asath (abhav), sadasath (bhavabhav, ubhay) aur n sath, n sadasath (anubhay, n bhav, n abhav) in char kotiyon ka prayog sambhav hai, kintu tatv in char kotiyon se pare, vani ke dvara avarny buddhi ka avishay aur pratyatmavedy hai aryadev ki in vishay men spasht ukti hai-

n sannasann sadasann chapyanubhayatmakamh.
chatushkotivinirmuktn tattvn madhyamika vidu:.. [3]

shoonyata ka arth vyavahar aur paramarth in do drishtiyon se bodhy hai. kyonki vyavahar ke bina paramarth ka bodh nahin hota aur paramarth ki prapti ke bina nirvan bhi samadhigamy nahin hota. vyavahar drishti se shoonyata ka arth hai svabhav shoonyata ya ni:svabhavata. snsar ke sabhi dharm hetu pratyay janit yani pratityasumatpann hain. jin hetu pratyayon se padarth utpann hote hain, unake n rahane par unaka nirodh hota hai. at: padarth sasvabhav svatntr roop se sthit nahin mane ja sakate. vyavahar ki drishti se shoonyata ka yahi ni:svabhavatamoolak arth gyy hai. is drishti se pratityasamutpad bhi shoonyata ka hi paryay hai. is drishti se nagarjun ki yah ukti bhi vicharaniy hai ki shoonyata sabhi drishtiyon ka ni:saran hai, kyonki tatv kisi bhi drishti, vad ya ant ka vishay nahin ban sakata.

vyavaharamanashrity paramarthi n deshyate.
paramarthamanagamy nirvann nadhigamyate.. [4]

hetut: sambhavo yasy sthitirn pratyayairvina.
vigam: pratyayatravath soastityavagat: kathamh.. [5]

shoonyata sarvadrishtinan prokta ni:sarann jinai:.
yeshan tu shoonyata drishtistanasadhyanh babhashire.. [6]

paramarth drishti se shoonyata ka arth prapavyashoonyata hai. snvritti ya vyavahar ki drishti se shoonyata pratinchasamutpad hai, kintu paramarth drishti se shoonyata ka arth hai nirvikalp tattv jo vani ke abhilapon ka avishay, paropadesh se agamy, advay (anana) tattv hai. yah anakshar, shant (svabhavarahit) aur prapnchon ka avishay hai, jahan buddhi ki samast kotiyan shant ho jaen, jo sarvavidh prapnch se shoony aur asprisht, advay, vishuddh, gyan roop ho, vahi tattv hai. nagarjun kahate hain :-

aparapratyayn shantn prapnchachair prapanchitamh.
nirvikalpam nanarth me tattattvasy lakshanamh.. [7]

is drishti se snsar (pratityasamutpann dharmadi) aur nirvan men kinchitamatr bhi bhed nahin hai. jo vyavahar drishti se shoony, pratityasamutpad ya snsar hai, vahi paramarth drishti se nirvan kaha jata hai. jo pratiti aur upadan ki drishti se avagaman roopi snsar hai, vahi apratiti aur anupadan ki drishti se nirvan hai. lsnsar aur nirvan donon ka svabhav niyat nahin kiya ja sakata. isilie donon ek kotik (yani ni:svabhav) hain. isi drishti se nirvan ko ashtasahasrika prgyaparamita men mayopam bhi kaha gaya hai. yah shnka ho sakati hai ki yadi sab kuchh shoony hai, n kisi vastu ka (svabhavat:) utpad hota hai aur n hi nirodh ya prahan, to kisake prahan ya nirodh se nirvan hota hai. is par nagarjun ka kathan hai ki nirvan n to prahan (nasht) hota hai aur n hi prapt (asnprapt) n usaka uchchhed hota hai, n vah shashvat hi hai, usaka nirodh hota hai aur vah n to utpann hota hai aur n niruddh.

aprahinamasampraptamanuchchhinnamashashvatamh.
aniruddhamanutpannametannirvanamuchyate.. [8]

aisa nirvan bhav roop nahin kaha ja sakata, kyonki bhav roop manane par nirvan ko upadan yukt (sopadan, upaday) manana padega. yadi nirvan bhav roop nahin hai to use abhav roop bhi nahin mana ja sakata, kyonki abhav bhav sapeksh hota hai. vah ubhay roop (bhavabhav roop) bhi nahin mana ja sakata, kyonki ekatr bhav aur abhav ki sthiti svikar nahin ki ja sakati. nirvan anupaday hai. yadi use bhav ya abhav (ya ubhay ya anubhay) roop mana jayega to vah sansarik dharmon ki bhanti hi utpatti nirodh sapeksh ho jayega. utpatti, nirodh ka sapeksh kram hi snsar kaha jata hai. usi ki nirapeksh roopen apravritti nirvan hai. snsar aur nirvan men kisi prakar ka bhed nahin hai. paramarth ashabd, nirvikalp aur pratyatmavedy hai. nirvan bhi pray: usi prakar ka hai. vastut: bhagavan tathagat ne shabdash: kisi bhi dharm ka (paramarthat: shabdon ke dvara) upadesh nahin diya hai, kyonki paramarth sabhi prakar ke upalambhon aur prapnchon ka avishay hai :-

sarvopalambhopasham: prapnchopasham: shiv:.
n kvachith kasyachith kashchidarmo buddhen deshita.. [9]

nagarjun ne bauddh paramarth vichar ko praudh aur samunnat roop pradan kiya hai. isamen unhonne jis tark paddhati ka ashray liya hai, vah unaka poorvavarti vichar dharaon ke samikshan aur chatushkotik prasangapadan ki riti par ashrit hai. nagarjun ne vigrah vyavartani men ni:svabhavata ke siddhant ka parigrah kar pramanon ko bhi ni:svabhav manate hue parimarthat: unaki svabhavik satta asvikar ki hai. praman unake mat men agni ke saman hai. unaki svabhavat: satta n svat:, n parat:, n ubhayat aur n anubhavat: hi siddh hoti hai. vastut: madhyamik ka koee paksh nahin hai. doosare vadi ke paksh ka niras karana hi madhyamik ka lakshy hai. aisa karake vah sasvabhavavad aur drishtivad ka nirasan karata hai. doosari or nagarjun pratipadit madhyamik darshan men bhavaroop men kisi siddhant ka pratipadan nahin kiya gaya hai. keval nishedh pradhan tark paddhati se nagarjun paramat ka nirasan karate hain. madhyamik ka koee paksh nahin hai. isilie usake nirasan ka prashn bhi nahin upasthit hota. yadyapi nagarjun paramarthat: praman ko ni:svabhav manate hain, kintu madhyamik mat men vyavahar dasha men pratyaksh aur anuman in do pramanon ka astitv svikar kiya gaya hai.

isi prakar bauddh vad ke itihas men jahan nagarjun ek aur mahayan darshan ke pratishthapak, prgyaparamita granthon ke uddharakarta tatha tikakar aur madhyamik darshan ke pratishthapak hain, vahin doosari or ve ni:svabhavata ya shoonyata ke siddhant ke pratishthapak aur bauddh parampara men chatushkotik tark paddhati ko pusht svaroop pradan karane vale bhi hain. in sabhi drishtiyon se unaka bauddh darshan ke kshetr men yogadan parimey hai.

panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. aksharash: sarp, poorvottar bharat ki ek parvatiy jati ka nam bhi
  2. madhyamakashastr (5) 1211
  3. gyanasarasamuchchay, karika, 28
  4. madhyamik karika 24/8
  5. yuktishashtika
  6. madhyamik karika 13/18
  7. madhyamik karika 18 - 9
  8. madhyamik karika 25/311
  9. madhyik karika 24/30

snbndhit lekh