शान्तिदेव बौद्धाचार्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

maghyamik acharyon men achary shantidev ka mahattvapoorn sthan hai. inaki rachanaen, atyant pranjal evn bhavapravan hain, jo pathak ke hriday ka sparsh karati hain aur use prabhavit karati hain. madhyamik darshan aur mahayan dharm ke prasar men inaka apoorv yogadan hai.

darshanik manyata

madhyamikon men saiddhantik drishti se svatantrik evn prasangik bhed atyant prasiddh hai. svatantrik madhyatikon men bhi sootrachar svatantrik aur yogachar svatantrik ye do bhed hain. achary shantidev prasangik mat ke prabal samarthak hain. vicharon aur tarkon men ye achary chandrakirti ka poornataya anugaman karate hain. unaki rachanaon men bodhicharyavatar pramukh hai. isamen das parichchhed hain. nauven prgyaparichchhed men inaki darshanik manyataen parisphutit huee hain. is parichchhed men snvriti aur paramarth in do satyon ka inhonne suspasht niroopan kiya hai. is niroopan men inaka chandrakirti se kuchh bhi antar pratit nahin hota.

mool saiddhantik adhar par hi madhyamikon k do varg hain. pratham varg men ve madhyamik darshanik ate hain, jo padarthon ki svalakshanasatta svikar karate hain aur paramarthat: unaki ni:svabhavata manate hain, jise ve 'shoonyata' kahate hain. doosare varg men ve darshanik pariganit hote hain, jo svalakshanasatta kathamapi svikar nahin karate aur us ni:svalakshana ko hi 'shoonyata' kahate hain. inamen pratham varg ke madhyamik darshanik svatantrik tatha doosare varg ke madhyamik prasangik kahalate hain. in donon ki manyataon men yah adharabhoot antar hai, jisaki or jigyasuon ka dhyan jana chahie, anyatha madhyamik darshan ki nigoodh arth parigyat nahin hoga. vyavahar men kisi dharm ka astitv ya usaki satta ko svikar karana ya n karana moolabhoot antar nahin hai, apitu us nishedhy ke svaroop men jo moolabhoot antar hai, vah mahattvapoorn hai, jis (nishedhy) ka nishedh shoonyata kahalati hai tatha jisake nishedh se sari vyavasthaen sampann hoti hain. vastut: svatantr anuman ya svatantr hetuon ka prayog ya aprayog bhi isi nishedhy par ashrit hai. shoonyata ke samyakh parigyan ke lie usake nishedhy ko sarvapratham janana paramavashyak hai, anyatha us (shoonyata) ka abhrantgyan asambhav hai. bina nishedhy ko thik se jane shoonyata ka vichar nirarthak hoga aur aisi sthiti men shoonyata ka arth atyant tuchchhata ya nitant alikata ke arth men grahan karane ki sambhavana ban jati hai. isalie achary nagarjun ne bhi agah kiya hai.
vinashayati rdudrishta shoonyata mandamedhasamh.
sarpo yatha durgahito vidya va dushprasadhita॥[1]


jab svabhavasatta ya svalakshanasatta ka nishedh kiya jata hai to usaka yah arth qatee nahin hota hai ki svalakshan satta kahin ho aur samane sthit kisi dharm men, yatha- ghat ya pat men usaka nishedh kiya jata ho. athava shash (kharagosh) kahin ho aur shrring (sing) bhi kahin ho, kintu un donon ki kisi ek sthan men vidyamanata ka nishedh kiya jata ho, apitu sabhi dharmon arthath vastumatr men svalakshanasatta ka nishedh kiya jata hai. kahane ka ashay yah hai ki ghat svayn (svat:) ya pat svayn svalakshanattavanh nahin hai. isi tarah koee bhi dharm svabhavat: sath ya svat: sath nahin hai. isaka yah bhi arth nahin hai ki vastu kisi bhi roop men nahin hai. svabhavat: sath nahin hone par bhi vastu ka apalap nahin kiya jata, apitu isaka sapeksh ya ni:svabhav astitv svikar kiya jata hai aur usi ke adhar par kary-karan, bandh-moksh adi sari vyavasthaen sucharutaya sampann hoti hain. yadyapi sabhi dharm svalakshanat: ya svabhavat: sath nahin hain, phir bhi ve avidya ke karan svabhavat: sath ke roop men drishtigochar hote hain aur svabhavat: sath ke roop men unake prati abhinivesh bhi hota hai. dharm jaise pratit hote hain, vastut: unaka vaisa astitv nahin hota. unake yathadarshan ya pratiti ke anuroop astitv men tarthik badhaen hain, at: avidya ke vishay ko badhit karana hi nishedh ka tatpary hai.

is tarah ni:svabhavata ke adhar par achary shantidev ne janm-maran, pap-puny, poorvapar janm adi ki vyavaharik satta ka pratipadan kiya hai. isi tarah atyant saral evn prasad gunayukt bhasha men unhonne svasnvedanapratyaksh ke bina smaran ki utpatti, vyavahritarth ka anveshan karane par usaki anupalabdhi tatha avicharit ramaniy lokaprasiddhi ke adhar par sari vyavasthaon ka sundar niroopan kiya hai. vyavaharik satta par unaka sarvadhik zor isalie bhi hai ki jagatik vyavasthaen sucharoo roop se sampann ho saken.

jivan parichay

achary shantidev satavin shatabdi ke mane jate hain. ye saurashtr ke nivasi the. buston ke anusar ye vahan ke raja kalyanavarma ke putr the. inake bachapan ka nam shanti varma tha. yadyapi ve yuvaraj the, kintu bhagavati tara ki prerana se unhonne rajy ka parityag kar diya. kaha jata hai ki svayn bodhisattv manjushri ne yogi ke roop men unhen diksha di thi aur ve bhikshu ban ge.

rachanaen

prasiddh itihasakar lama taranath ke anusar unaki tin rachanaen prasiddh hain, yatha- bodhicharyavatar, shikshasamuchchay evn sootrasamuchchay. bodhicharyavatar sambhavat: unaki antim rachana hai, kyonki any do granthon ka ullekh svayn unhonne bodhicharyavatar men kiya hai. sarvapratham bodhicharyavatar ka prakashan roosi vidvanh aee.pi. minayev ne kiya. tadanantar m.m. haraprasad shastri ne buddhist tekst sosaiti ke janaral men ise prakashit kiya. phrench anuvad ke sath prgyakar mati ki tika 'la vali poonse' ne bibliothika indika men sanh 1902 men prakashit ki. nanjiyon ke kaitalag men bodhicharyavatar ki ek bhinn vyakhya hai, usamen tin talapatr upalabdh hue, jinamen shantidev ka jivan charit diya hua hai. isake anusar shantidev kisi raja ke putr the. raja ka nam manjuvarma likha hua hai, kintu taranath ke anusar ve saurashtr ke raja ke putr the. bhot bhasha men bodhicharyavatar ka pranjal evn hridayavarjak anuvad hai.

achary shantidev paramitayan ke sath-sath mantranay ke bhi prakand pandit the. itana hi nahin, ve mahanh sadhak bhi the. chaurasi siddhon men inaki ganana ki jati hai. tantrashastr par inaki mahattvapoorn rachanaen hain. hamesha sote evn khate rahane ke karan inaka nam 'bhusuku' pad gaya tha. vastut: 'bhusuku' namak samadhi men sarvada samapann rahane ke karan ye 'bhusuku' kahalate the. snskrit men inake 'shri guhyasamajamahayogatantr-balividhi' namak tantragranth ki soochana hai. charyacharyavinishchay se gyat hota hai ki bhusuku ne vajrayan ke kee granth likhe. bngali ya apabhrnsh men inake kee gan bhi pae jate hain. ye git bauddh dharm ke sahajiya sampadray men prachalit hain.

shant, maun evn vinodi svabhav ke karan log unaki vidvata se kam parichit the. nalanda ki sthaniy parampara ke anusar jyeshth mas ke shukl paksh men prativarsh dharmacharya ka ayojan hota tha. nalanda ke adhyeta yuvakon ne ek bar unake gyan ki pariksha karane ka karyakram banaya. unaka khyal tha ki achary shantidev kuchh bhi bol nahin paenge aur achchha maja aega. ve achary ke pas ge aur dharmasan par baithakar dharmopadesh karane ka unase agrah kiya. achary ne nimantran svikar kar liya. nalanda mahavihar ke uttar poorv men ek dharmagar tha. usamen pandit ekatr hue aur shantidev ek oonche sinhasan par baithae ge. unhonne tatkal poochha- 'main arsh (bhagavanh buddh dvara upadisht) ka path karoon ya artharsh (acharyon dvara vyakhyayit) ka path karoon? pandit log ashcharyachakit hue aur unhonne artharsh ka path sunane ko kaha. unhonne (shantidev ne) socha ki svarachit tin granthon men se kisaka path karoon? ant men unhonne bodhicharyavatar ko pasand kiya aur padhane lage.
sugatanh sasutanh sadharmakayanh
pranipatyadaratoakhilanshch vandyanh[2]
yahan se lekar-
yada n bhavo nabhavo mate: santishthate pur:.
tadanyagatyabhaven niralamba prashamyati॥[3]
tak pahunche tab bhagavanh sammukh pradurbhoot hue aur shantidev ko apane lok men le ge. yah varnan uparyukt talapatron se prapt hota hai. pandit log ashcharyachakit hue tadanantar unaki padhu-kuti dhoonti gee, jisamen unhen unake tinon granth prapt hue.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. moolamadhyamikakarika 24:11
  2. bodhicharyavatar 1:1
  3. bodhichiryavatar 9:35

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  1. kram var soochi

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