श्यामा प्रसाद मुखर्जी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

shyama prasad mukharji
shyama prasad mukharji
poora nam shyama prasad mukharji
janm 6 julaee, 1901
janm bhoomi kolakata
mrityu 23 joon, 1953
mrityu sthan jammoo-kashmir
abhibhavak ashutosh mukharji (pita), jogamaya devi mukharji (mata)
nagarikata bharatiy
prasiddhi bharatiy janasngh ke snsthapak
parti 'bharatiy janasngh'
shiksha em.e. (1923), bi.el. (1924)
vidyalay kalakatta vishvavidyalay, 'linkans in' (inglaind)
bhasha hindi, angrezi
any janakari daau. mukharji 33 varsh ki ayu men 'kalakatta vishvavidyalay' men vishv ke sabase kam umr ke kulapati banaye ge the.

shyama prasad mukharji (angrezi: Syama Prasad Mookerjee, janm- 6 julaee, 1901, kolakata; mrityu- 23 joon, 1953) ek mahanh shikshavid aur chintak hone ke sath-sath bharatiy janasngh ke snsthapak bhi the. unhen aj bhi ek prakhar rashtravadi aur kattar deshabhakt ke roop men yad kiya jata hai. daau. shyama prasad mukharji sachche arthon men manavata ke upasak aur siddhanton ke pakke insan the. snsad men unhonne sadaiv rashtriy ekata ki sthapana ko hi apana pratham lakshy rakha tha. snsad men die apane bhashan men unhonne purajor shabdon men kaha tha ki "rashtriy ekata ke dharatal par hi sunahare bhavishy ki ninv rakhi ja sakati hai." bharatiy itihas men unaki chhavi ek karmath aur jujharoo vyaktitv vale aise insan ki hai, jo apani mrityu ke itane varshon bad bhi anek bharatavasiyon ke adarsh aur pathapradarshak hain.

janm tatha shiksha

daau. mukharji ka janm 6 julaee, 1901 ko ek prasiddh bngali parivar men hua tha. unaki mata ka nam jogamaya devi mukharji tha aur pita ashutosh mukharji bngal ke ek jane-mane vyakti aur kushal vakil the. daau. mukharji ne kalakatta vishvavidyalay se snatak ki digri pratham shreni men 1921 men prapt ki thi. isake bad unhonne 1923 men em.e. aur 1924 men bi.el. kiya. ve 1923 men hi sinet ke sadasy ban gaye the. unhonne apane pita ki mrityu ke bad kalakata uchch nyayalay men edavoket ke roop men apana nam darj karaya. bad men ve san 1926 men 'linkans in' men adhyayan karane ke lie inglaind chale ge aur 1927 men bairistar ban ge.

kulapati ka pad

daau. mukharji taintis varsh ki ayu men kalakatta vishvavidyalay men vishv ke sabase kam umr ke kulapati banaye ge the. is pad ko unake pita bhi sushobhit kar chuke the. 1938 tak daau. mukharji is pad ko gauravanvit karate rahe. unhonne apane karyakal ke dauran anek rachanatmak sudhar kary kie tatha 'kalakatta eshiyatik sosayati' men sakriy roop se hissa liya. ve 'indiyan institayoot aauf sains', bngalaur ki parishad evn kort ke sadasy aur intar-yoonivarsiti aauf bord ke cheyaramain bhi rahe.

rajaniti men pravesh

kalakatta vishvavidyalay ka pratinidhitv karate hue shyama prasad mukharji kangres ummidavar ke roop men bngal vidhan parishad ke sadasy chune ge the, kintu unhonne agale varsh is pad se us samay tyagapatr de diya, jab kangres ne vidhan mndal ka bahishkar kar diya. bad men unhonne svatntr roop se chunav lada aur nirvachit hue. varsh 1937-1941 men 'krishak praja parti' aur muslim lig ka gathabandhan satta men aya. is samay daau. mukharji virodhi paksh ke neta ban ge. ve phazalul haq ke netritv men pragatishil gathabandhan mntralay men vittamntri ke roop men shamil hue, lekin unhonne ek varsh se kam samay men hi is pad se tyagapatr de diya. ve hinduon ke pravakta ke roop men ubhare aur shighr hi 'hindoo mahasabha' men shamil ho ge. san 1944 men ve isake adhyaksh niyukt kiye ge the.

hindoo mahasabha ka netritv

rashtriy ekatmata evn akhandata ke prati agadh shraddha ne hi daau. mukharji ko rajaniti ke samar men jhonk diya. angrezon ki 'phoot dalo v raj karo' ki niti ne 'muslim lig' ko sthapit kiya tha. daau. mukharji ne 'hindoo mahasabha' ka netritv grahan kar is niti ko lalakara. rashtrapita mahatma gandhi ne unake hindoo mahasabha men shamil hone ka svagat kiya, kyonki unaka mat tha ki hindoo mahasabha men madan mohan malaviy ji ke bad kisi yogy vyakti ke margadarshan ki zaroorat thi. kangres yadi unaki salah ko manati to hindoo mahasabha kangres ki takat banati tatha muslim lig ki bharat vibhajan ki manokamana poorn nahin hoti.

bharatiy janasngh ki sthapana

mahatma gandhi ki hatya ke bad daau. mukharji chahate the ki hindoo mahasabha ko keval hinduon tak hi simit n rakha jae athava yah janata ki seva ke lie ek gair-rajanitik nikay ke roop men hi kary n kare. ve 23 navambar, 1948 ko is mudde par isase alag ho ge. pndit javaharalal neharoo ne unhen antarim sarakar men udyog evn apoorti mntri ke roop men sammilit kiya tha. daau. mukharji ne liyakat ali khan ke sath dilli samajhaute ke mudde par 6 aprail, 1950 ko mntrimndal se tyagapatr de diya. mukharji ji ne rashtriy svaynsevak sngh ke snghachalak guru golavalakar ji se paramarsh karane ke bad 21 aktoobar, 1951 ko dilli men 'bharatiy janasngh' ki ninv rakhi aur isake pahale adhyaksh bane. san 1952 ke chunavon men bharatiy janasngh ne snsad ki tin siton par vijay prapt ki, jinamen se ek sit par daau. mukharji jitakar ae. unhonne snsad ke bhitar 'rashtriy janatantrik parti' banayi, jisamen 32 sadasy lok sabha tatha 10 sadasy rajy sabha se the, halanki adhyaksh dvara ek vipakshi parti ke roop men ise manyata nahin mili.

bharat vibhajan ke virodhi

jis samay angrez adhikariyon aur kangres ke bich desh ki svatntrata ke prashn par vartaen chal rahi thin aur muslim lig desh ke vibhajan ki apani jid par adi huee thi, shyama prasad mukharji ne is vibhajan ka bada hi kada virodh kiya. kuchh logon ki manyata hai ki adhe pnjab aur adhe bngal ke bharat men bane rahane ke pichhe daau. mukharji ke prayatnon ka hi sabase bada hath hai.

snkalp

us samay jammoo-kashmir ka alag jhnda aur alag snvidhan tha. vahan ka mukhyamntri bhi pradhanamntri kaha jata tha. lekin daau. mukharji jammoo-kashmir ko bharat ka poorn aur abhinn ang banana chahate the. isake lie unhonne joradar nara bhi diya ki- ek desh men do nishan, ek desh men do pradhan, ek desh men do vidhan nahin chalenge, nahin chalenge. agast, 1952 men jammoo ki vishal raili men unhonne apana snkalp vyakt kiya tha ki "ya to main apako bharatiy snvidhan prapt karaoonga ya phir is uddeshy ki poorti ke lie apana jivan balidan kar doonga."

nidhan

jammoo-kashmir men pravesh karane par daau. mukharji ko 11 mee, 1953 men shekh abdulla ke netritv vali sarakar ne hirasat men le liya, kyonki un dinon kashmir men pravesh karane ke lie bharatiyon ko ek prakar se pasaport ke saman ek paramit lena padata tha aur daau. mukharji bina paramit lie jammoo-kashmir chale ge the, jahan unhen giraphtar kar najarabnd kar liya gaya. vahan giraphtar hone ke kuchh din bad hi 23 joon, 1953 ko rahasyamay paristhitiyon men unaki mrityu ho gee. unaki mrityu ka khulasa aj tak nahin ho saka hai. bharat ki akhandata ke lie azad bharat men yah pahala balidan tha. isaka parinam yah hua ki shekh abdulla hata diye ge aur alag snvidhan, alag pradhan evn alag jhande ka pravadhan nirast ho gaya. 'dhara 370' ke bavajood kashmir aj bharat ka abhinn ang bana hua hai. isaka sarvadhik shrey daau. mukharji ko hi diya jata hai.

netritv kshamata

daau. mukharji ko desh ke prakhar netaon men gina jata tha. snsad men 'bharatiy janasngh' ek chhota dal avashy tha, kintu unaki netritv kshamata men snsad men 'rashtriy lokatantrik dal' ka gathan hua tha, jisamen ganatntr parishad, akali dal, hindoo mahasabha evn anek nirdaliy sansad shamil the. jab snsad men javaharalal neharoo ne bharatiy janasngh ko kuchalane ki bat kahi, tab daau. mukharji ne kaha- "ham desh ki rajaniti se is kuchalane vali manovritti ko kuchal denge." daau. mukharji ki shahadat par shok vyakt karate hue tatkalin lok sabha ke adhyaksh shri ji.vi. mavalnkar ne kaha- "ve hamare mahanh deshabhakton men se ek the aur rashtr ke lie unaki sevaen bhi utani hi mahanh thin. jis sthiti men unaka nidhan hua, vah sthiti badi hi duahkhadayi hai. yahi eeshvar ki ichchha thi. isamen koee kya kar sakata tha? unaki yogyata, unaki nishpakshata, apane karyabhar ko kaushalyapoorn nibhane ki dakshata, unaki vakpatuta aur sabase adhik unaki deshabhakti evn apane deshavasiyon ke prati unake lagav ne unhen hamare samman ka patr bana diya."

vishleshan

daau. mukharji bharat ke lie shahid hue aur bharat ne ek aisa vyaktitv kho diya, jo rajaniti ko ek nee disha pradan kar sakata tha. daau mukharji is dharana ke prabal samarthak the ki sanskritik drishti se hi sab ek hain, isalie dharm ke adhar par kisi bhi tarah ke vibhajan ke ve khilaf the. unaka manana tha ki adharabhoot saty yah hai ki ham sab ek hain. hamamen koee antar nahin hai. hamari bhasha aur snskriti ek hai. yahi hamari amooly virasat hai. unake in vicharon aur unaki mnshaon ko any rajanitik dalon ke tatkalik netaon ne anyatha roop se pracharit-prasarit kiya. lekin isake bavajood logon ke dilon men unake prati athah pyar aur samarthan badhata gaya.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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