प्रथम स्वतन्त्रता संग्राम  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

pratham svatantrata sngram
pratham svadhinata sngram ke senaniyon ke samman men jari dak tikat
vivaran is kranti ki shuruat to ek sainy vidroh ke roop men huee, parantu kalantar men usaka svaroop badal kar british satta ke viruddh ek janavyapi vidroh ke roop men ho gaya, jise bharat ka pratham svatantrata sngram kaha gaya.
arambh tithi 10 mee 1857
pramukh sthan merath, kanapur, bareli, jhansi, dilli, avadh
pramukh vyakti mngal pande, rani lakshmibaee, tatya tope, nana sahab peshava, bahadur shah jafar, maharani viktoriya, laaurd viliyam baintik
parinam vidroh ka daman, eest indiya knpani ke shasan ka ant, niyntran british taj (maharani viktoriya) ke hath men
snbndhit lekh pratham svatantrata sngram ki mukhy ghatanaen
any janakari vidroh ke parinamasvaroop bharatiyon men rashtriy ekata ki bhavana ka vikas hua aur hindoo-muslim ekata ne zor pakadana shuroo kiya, jisaka kalantar men rashtriy andolan men mahattvapoorn yogadan raha.

laaurd kaining ke gavarnar-janaral ke roop men shasan karane ke dauran hi 1857 ee. ki mahanh kranti huee. is kranti ka arambh 10 mee, 1857 ee. ko merath se hua, jo dhire-dhire kanapur, bareli, jhansi, dilli, avadh adi sthanon par phail gaya. is kranti ki shuruat to ek sainy vidroh ke roop men huee, parantu kalantar men usaka svaroop badal kar british satta ke viruddh ek janavyapi vidroh ke roop men ho gaya, jise bharat ka pratham svatantrata sngram kaha gaya. 1857 ee. ki is mahanh kranti ke svaroop ko lekar viddhan ek mat nahin hai. is bare men vidvanon ne apane alag-alag mat pratipadit kiye hain, jo is prakar hain-'sipahi vidroh', 'svatantrata sngram', 'samantavadi pratikriya', 'janakranti', 'rashtriy vidroh', 'muslim shadayntr', 'eesaee dharm ke viruddh ek dharm yuddh' aur 'sabhyata evn barbarata ka sngharsh' adi.

kranti ke karan

raja ramamohan ray ne sati pratha jaisi amanaviy pratha ke viruddh nirantar andolan chalaya. unake poorn aur nirantar samarthan ka hi prabhav tha, jisake karan laaurd viliyam baintik 1829 men sati pratha ko band karane men samarth ho saka. angrezi ke madhyam se pashchim shiksha ke prasar ki disha men qadam uthaye gaye, angrezi desh ki rajabhasha bana di gayi, sare desh men saman zabta divani aur zabta faujadari qanoon lagoo kar diya gaya, parantu shasan svechchhachari bana raha aur vah poori tarah angrezon ke hathon men raha. 1833 ke chartar ekt ke viparit oonche padon par bharatiyon ko niyukt nahin kiya gaya. bhap se chalane vale jahazon aur relagadiyon ka prachalan, eesaee mishanariyon dvara akshepajanak riti se eesaee dharm ka prachar, laaurd dalahauzi dvara zabti ka siddhant lagoo karake athava kushasan ke adhar par kuchh purani deshi riyasaton ki zabti tatha british bharatiy sena ke bharatiy sipahiyon ki shikayaten; in sab karanon ne milakar sare bharat men ek gahare asntosh ki ag dhadhaka di, jo 1857-58 ee. men kranti ke roop men bhadak uthi. 1857 ee. ki kranti koee achanak bhadaka hua vidroh nahin tha, varanh isake sath anek adharabhoot karan the, jo nimnalikhit hain-

  1. rajanitik karan
  2. arthik karan
  3. dharmik karan
  4. samajik karan
  5. sainik asantosh

rajanitik karan

rajanitik karanon men sarvadhik mahattvapoorn karan ke roop men laaurd dalahauzi ki 'god nishedh pratha' ya 'hadap niti' ko mana jata hai. dalahauzi ne apani is niti ke antargat satara, nagapur, sambhalapur, jhansi tatha barar adi rajyon par adhikar kar liya tha, jisake parinamasvaroop in rajavnshon men angrez hukoomat ke khilaf asantosh vyapt ho gaya. kushasan ke adhar par dalahauzi ne haidarabad tatha avadh ko angrezi samrajy ke adhin kar liya, jabaki in sthanon par kushasan phailane ke zimmedar svayn angrez hi the. avadh ke adhigrahan ki zabaradast pratikriya huee. us samay eest indiya kampani men avadh ke 7500 sipahi the. avadh ko ek chif kamishnar ka kshetr bana diya gaya. henari laaurens pahala chif kamishnar niyukt hua tha. pnjab aur sindh ka vilay bhi angrezi hukoomat ne kootaniti ke dvara angrezi samrajy men kar liya, jo kalantar men vidroh ka ek karan bana. penshanon evn padon ki samapti se bhi anek rajaon men asantosh vyapt tha. udaharanarth- nana sahab ko milane vali penshan ko dalahauzi ne apani navin niti ke dvara band karava diya. mugal samrat ko 'raja' mana jaega tatha unhen lal qila chhodakar kutubaminar ke samip kisi any qile men sthantarit hona padega. isake alava sikkon se bahadur shah zafar ka nam hata diya gaya, jisase janata kshubdh ho gee.

kulinavargiy bharatiy tatha zamindaron ke sath angrezon ne bura vyavahar kiya aur unhen mile samast visheshadhikaron ko kampani ki satta ne chhin liya. aisi paristhiti men is varg ke logon ke asantosh ka samana bhi british satta ko karana pada. bharatiy sarakari karmachariyon ne angrezon dvara sarakari naukariyon men apanayi jane vali bhedabhavapoorn niti ka virodh karate hue vidroh men sirakat ki. kul milakar bharatiy janata angrezon ke barbar prashasan se tng akar unaki dasata se mukt hona chahati thi, isalie 1857 ki kranti huee.

arthik karan

1857 ee. ki kranti ke lie zimmedar arthik karan is prakar hain- bharatiyon ke dhan ka nishkasan tivr gati se inglaind ki or hua. mukt vyapar tatha angrezi vastron ke bharat ke bazaron men adhik matra men a jane ke karan usaka pratyaksh prabhav yahan ke kutir udyogon par pada, jis karan se yahan ke kutir evn laghu udyog nasht ho gaye. lakhon vyakti berozagar ho ge. 1834-1835 ee. men svayn gavarnar-janaral laaurd viliyam baintik ne likha tha ki, 'vyapar ke itihas men aisa koee doosara kashtaprad udaharan nahin. bharat ka maidan sooti kapada bunane valon ke asthi pnjaron se bhara hua hai'. laaurd viliyam baintik ne apane shasanakal men bahut-si 'maphi' (dan ki huee bhoomi) tatha 'inam ki bhoomi' ko chhin liya, jisaka prabhav yah hua ki, anek bharatiy zamindar daridr evn kngal ho ge aur is tarah in zamindaron men angrezi satta ke khilaf asantosh vyapt ho gaya. krishi ke kshetr men angrezon ki galat niti ke karan bharatiy kisanon ki sthiti atyant dayaniy ho gee. angrezon dvara sthapit sthaee bndobast, raiyyatavadi vyavastha ke lie pratikool sabit hua.

dharmik karan

kahane ke lie to british satta dharm ke mamale men tatasth thi, par usane eesaee dharm ke prachar men apana poorn sahayog diya. eesaee mishanariyon ka drishtikon bharat ke prati bada tiraskarapoorn tha. usaka ek matr uddeshy bharat men apani sarvochchata pradarshit karana tha. angrez apani niti ke anusar adhikansh bharatiyon ko eesaee banakar bharat men apane samrajy ko sudridh karana chahate the. yah tathy kampani ke adhyaksh 'maigalj' ke 'haus aauf kaaumans' men diye gaye ek bhashan se spasht hota hai. usane kaha tha ki, "devayog se bharat ka vistrit samrajy briten ko mila hai, taki eesaee dharm ki pataka ek chhor se doosare chhor tak phahara sake. pratyek vyakti ko shighr-atishighr samast bharatiyon ko eesaee banane ke mahanh kary ko poornataya sampann karane men apani samast shakti laga deni chahie." ve eesaee dharm svikar karane valon ko sarakari naukari, uchch pad evn anek suvidhaen pradan karate the. 1813 ee ke kampani ke adesh patr dvara eesaee padariyon ko agya prapt karake bharat ane ki suvidha prapt ho gayi. parinamatah badi snkhya men eesaee padari bharat ae, jinaka mukhy uddeshy eesaee dharm ka prachar karana tha. parinamatah 1850 ee. men pas kiye gaye 'dharmik niyogyata adhiniyam' dvara hindoo riti-rivajon men parivartan laya gaya, arthath dharmik parivartan se putr apane pita ki sampatti se vnchit nahin kiya ja sakata tha. is qanoon ka mukhy labh eesaee banane valon ka tha. angrezon ki is niti ne hindoo aur musalaman donon men kampani ke prati sndeh utpann kar diya.

samajik karan

angrezon ki anek nitiyan tatha kary aise the, jinase bharatiyon men asantosh ki bhavana janm lene lagi thi. angrezon ko apani 'shvet chamadi' par bada naj tha aur ve bharatiyon ko 'kali chamadi' kahakar unaka upahas kiya karate the. viliyam baintik ne apane shasanakal men sati pratha, bal hatya, nar hatya adi par pratibandh lagakar tatha dalahauzi ne vidhava vivah ko manyata dekar roodhivadi bharatiyon men asantosh bhar diya. angrezon dvara rel, dak evn tar kshetr men kiye gaye karyon ko bharatiyon men matr eesaee dharm ke prachar ka madhyam banane ke karan angrezon ke prati unake man men vidrohi bhavana bhadak uthi. shiksha ke kshetr men angrezon ne pashchaty sabhyata, snskriti, bhasha evn sahity ke vikas par adhik dhyan diya. aise samay men bharatiy sabhyata, snskriti, bhasha evn sahity ke vikas ke kshetr men kampani dvara koee vishesh parivartan n kiye jane ke karan bharatiy bauddhik varg angrezon ke viruddh ho gaya. angrezon dvara lagan vasooli evn vidroh ko kuchalane ke samay bharatiyon ko kathor sharirik dand evn yatanayen di geen, jisase unake andar british satta ke khilaf ghrina evn dvesh ki bhavana bhar gee.

sainik asantosh

Blockquote-open.gif jhansi par angrezi sena ne hyooroj ke netritv men 3 aprail, 1858 ee. ko adhikar kar liya. hyooroj ne rani lakshmibaee ki virata se prabhavit hokar kaha ki, 'bharatiy krantikariyon men yah akeli mard hai'. Blockquote-close.gif

1857 ee. ki kranti men sainy asantosh ki bhoomika ko nakara nahin ja sakata. sena men pratham dharmik virodh 1806 ee. men vellor men tab hua tha, jab laaurd viliyam baintik dvara mathe par tilak lagane aur pakadi pahanane par rok lagayi gee. laaurd dalahauzi ke samay sainik vidroh ho chuke the. 1849 ee. men 22ven en. aee ka vidroh, 1850 ee. men 66ven en.aee. ka vidroh aur 1852 ee. men 38 ven en.aee. ka vidroh pramukh the. maulana abul kalam azad ke anusar, "avadh ke vilay ne sena men sadharanatah aur bngal sena men visheshatah vidrohi bhavana ka snchar kiya". 1824 ee. men bairakapur men sainikon ne samudr par jane se inakar kar diya, jisake karan barma rejiment ko bhng kar diya gaya tha. 1857 ee. men laaurd kaining dvara parit 'samany seva bharti adhiniyam' ke antargat sainikon ko sarakar jahan chahe vahin kary karava sakati thi. 1854 ee. ke 'dakaghar adhiniyam' men sainikon ki niahshulk dak suvidha samapt ho gayi. sainy asntosh ke isi vatavaran men charbiyukt enafild raifalon ke prayog ke adesh ne ag men ghi ka kary kiya aur ye sainikon ke vidroh ke lie tatkalik karan siddh hua.

mngal pande

29 march, 1857 ee. ko mngal pande namak ek sainik ne 'bairakapur chhavani' men apane afasaron ke viruddh vidroh kar diya, lekin british sainy adhikariyon ne is sainik vidroh ko saralata se niyntrit kar liya aur sath hi usaki bataliyam '34 en.aee.' ko bhng kar diya. 24 aprail ko 3 el.si. pared merath men 90 ghudasavaron men se 85 sainikon ne naye karatoos lene se inkar kar diya. agya ki avahelana ke karan in 85 ghudasavaron ko kort marshal dvara 5 varsh ka karavas diya gaya. 'khula vidroh' 10 mee, din ravivar ko sanyakal 5 v 6 baje ke madhy prarambh hua. sarvapratham paidal tukadi '20 en.aee.' men vidroh ki shuruat huee, tatpashchath '3 el.si.' men bhi vidroh phail gaya. in vidrohiyon ne apane adhikariyon ke oopar goliyan chalaee. mngal pande ne 'hiyarase' ko goli mari thi, jabaki 'afasar bag' ki hatya kar di gee thi.

vidroh ka prasar

11 mee ko merath ke krantikari sainikon ne dilli pahunchakar, 12 mee ko dilli par adhikar kar liya. in sainikon ne mugal samrat bahadurashah dvitiy ko dilli ka samrat ghoshit kar diya. shighr hi vidroh lakhanoo, ilahabad, kanapur, bareli, banaras, bihar tatha jhansi men bhi phail gaya. angrezon ne pnjab se sena bulakar sabase pahale dilli par adhikar kiya. 21 sitambar, 1857 ee. ko dilli par angrezon ne punah adhikar kar liya, parantu sngharsh men 'jaaun nikolasan' mara gaya aur lephtinent 'hadasan' ne dhokhe se bahadurashah dvitiy ke do putron 'mirza mugal' aur 'mirza khvaza sultan' evn ek pote 'mirza aboobakr' ko goli marava di. lakhanoo men vidroh ki shuruat 4 joon, 1857 ee. ko huee. yahan ke krantikari sainikon dvara british rejidensi ke gherav ke uparant british rejident 'henari laaurens' ki mrityu ho gee. haivalaauk aur autram ne lakhanoo ko dabane ka bharakas prayatn kiya, parantu ve asaphal rahe. antatah kaaulin kaimpavel' ne gorakha rejiment ke sahayog se march, 1858 ee. men shahar par adhikar kar liya. vaise yahan kranti ka prabhav sitambar tak raha.

lakshmibaee

5 joon, 1857 ee. ko krantikariyon ne kanapur ko angrezon se chhin liya. nana sahab ko peshava ghoshit kiya gaya, jinaka vastavik nam 'dhondoo pant' tha. tatya tope ne inaka sahayog kiya. yahan par vidroh ka prabhav 6 sitambar tak hi raha. kaaulin kaimpavel ke netritv men angrezi sena ne 6 sitambar, 1857 ee. ko kanapur ko punah apane qabze men kar liya. tatya tope kanapur se pharar hokar jhansi pahunch gaye. rani lakshmibaee, jo gngadhar rav ki vidhava thin, ve bhi apane dattak putr damodar rav ko jhansi ki gaddi n die jane ke karan angrezon se naraz thin. tatya tope ke sahayog se rani lakshmibaee ne angrezon ko nakon chane chabavaye. in donon ne gvaliyar par bhi kranti ka jhanda phaharaya aur vahan ke tatkalin shasak sindhiya dvara vidroh men bhag lene par rani ne nana sahab ko peshava ghoshit kiya, parantu shighr hi angrezon ne joon, 1858 ee. men gvaliyar par adhikar kar liya. jhansi par angrezi sena ne hyooroj ke netritv men 3 aprail, 1858 ee. ko adhikar kar liya. hyooroj ne rani lakshmibaee ki virata se prabhavit hokar kaha ki, bharatiy krantikariyon men yah akeli mard hai. bareli men 'khan bahadur khan' ne svayn ko navab ghoshit kiya. bihar men jagadishapur ke zamindar 'kunar sinh' ne bitish hukoomat ke khilaf vidroh ka jhanda phaharaya. banaras men hue vidroh ko karnal nil ne dabaya. jagadishapur ke vidroh ko angrez adhikari viliyam telar evn mejar vinset ayar ne dabaya.

bahadurashah zafar ki giraphtari

julaee, 1858 ee. tak kranti ke sabhi sthanon par vidroh ko daba diya gaya. rani lakshmibaee evn tatya tope ne vidroh men mahattvapoorn bhoomika ka nirvah kiya. ilahabad ki kaman 'maulavi liyakat ali' ne sambhali thi. karnal nil ne yahan ke vidroh ko samapt kar diya. 20 sitambar, 1857 ee. ko humayun ke maqabare men sharan lie hue bahadurashah dvitiy ko pakad liya gaya. un par mukadama chala tatha unhen barma (rngoon) nirvasit kar diya gaya.

kranti ki asaphalata ke karan

Blockquote-open.gif samantavadi vargon men ek varg ne vidroh men sahayog kiya, parantu patiyala, gvaliyar evn haidarabad ke rajaon ne vidroh ko kuchalane men angrezon ka poora sahayog kiya. snkat ke samay laaurd kaining ne kaha tha ki, "yadi sindhiya bhi vidroh men sammilit ho jaen, to mujhe kal hi bharat chhodana padega". vidroh daman ke pashchath bharatiy rajaon ko puraskrit kiya gaya. nizam ko barar ka prant lauta diya gaya aur usake rin maph kar diye gaye. sindhiya, gayakavad aur rajapoot rajaon ko bhi puraskar mile. Blockquote-close.gif

1857 ee. ki kranti ki asaphalata ke pramukh karan nimnalikhi hain-

  1. yah vidroh sthaniy star tak, asngathit evn simit tha. bambee evn madras ki senayen tatha narmada nadi ke dakshin ke rajyon ne kranti ke is vidroh men angrezon ka poora samarthan kiya. angrezon ko nepal ki sahayata bahut labhaprad siddh huee. afaganistan ka dost muhammad bhi mitravat bana raha. rajasthan men kota evn alavar ke atirikt shesh sthanon par vidroh ka koee prabhav nahin tha. sindh bhi poornataya shant tha. pnjab ke sikkh saradar, kashmir ke gulab sinh, gvaliyar ke sindhiya aur unake mntri dinakar rav, haidarabad ke salarajng, bhopal ki begam, nepal ka ek mntri sar jngabahadur, angrezon ke svami bhakt rahe. isi par laaurd kaining ne tippani ki thi ki, "in shasakon evn saradaron ne tarng rodhakon ka kary kiya, anyatha isane hamen ek jhonke men hi baha diya hota".
  2. achchhe sadhan evn dhanabhav ke karan bhi vidroh asaphal raha. angrezi astr-shastr ke samaksh bharatiy astr-shastr baune sabit hue. nana sahab ne to ek bar kaha tha ki, "yah nili topi vali raeefal to goli chalane se pahale mar deti hai".
  3. 1857 ee. ke is vidroh ke prati 'shikshit varg' poorn roop se udasin raha. vyapariyon evn shikshit varg ne kalakatta evn bambee men sabhaen kar angrezon ki saphalata ke lie prarthana bhi ki thi. yadi is varg ne apane lekhon evn bhashanon dvara logon men utsah ka snchar kiya hota, to niahsndeh hi kranti ke is vidroh ka parinam kuchh or hi hota.
  4. is vidroh men 'rashtriy bhavana' ka poonataya abhav tha, kyonki bharatiy samaj ke sabhi vargon ka sahayog is vidroh ko nahin mil saka. samantavadi vargon men ek varg ne vidroh men sahayog kiya, parantu patiyala, jind, gvaliyar evn haidarabad ke rajaon ne vidroh ko kuchalane men angrezon ka poora sahayog kiya. snkat ke samay laaurd kaining ne kaha tha ki, "yadi sindhiya bhi vidroh men sammilit ho jae to mujhe kal hi bharat chhodana padega". vidroh daman ke pashchath bharatiy rajaon ko puraskrit kiya gaya. nizam ko barar ka prant lauta diya gaya aur usake rin maph kar diye gaye. sindhiya, gayakavad aur rajapoot rajaon ko bhi puraskar mile.
  5. vidrohiyon men anubhav, sngathan kshamata v milakar kary karane ki shakti ki kami thi.
  6. sainik durbalata ka vidroh ki asaphalata men mahattvapoorn yogadan raha. bahadurashah zafar evn nana sahab ek kushal sngathanakarta avashy the, par unamen sainy netritv ki kshamata ki kami thi, jabaki angrezi sena ke pas laaurens bandhu, nikolasan, hevalaauk, autram evn edavard jaise kushal senanayak the.
  7. krantikariyon ke pas uchit netritv ka abhav tha. vriddh mugal samrat bahadurashah zafar krantikariyon ka us dhng se netritv nahin kar saka, jis tarah ke netritv ki tatkalin paristhitiyon men avashyakata thi.
  8. vidrohi krantikariyon ke pas thos lakshy evn spasht yojana ka abhav tha. unhen agale kshan kya karana hoga aur kya nahin, yah bhi nishchit nahin tha. ve matr bhavavesh evn paristhitivash age badhe ja rahe the.
  9. avagaman evn snchar ke sadhanon ke upayog se angrezon ko vidroh ko dabane me kafi sahayata mili. is prakar avagaman evn snchar ke sadhanon ne bhi is vidroh ko asaphal karane men sahayog diya.

parinam

1857 ee. ki is mahanh kranti ke vidroh ke dooragami parinam rahe, jo nimnalikhit hain-

  1. vidroh ke samapt hone ke bad 1858 ee. men british snsad ne ek qanoon parit kar eest indiya kampani ke astitv ko samapt kar diya, aur ab bharat par shasan ka poora adhikar maharani viktoriya ke hathon men a gaya. inglaind men 1858 ee. ke adhiniyam ke tahat ek 'bharatiy rajy sachiv' ki vyavastha ki gayi, jisaki sahayata ke lie 15 sadasyon ki ek 'mntrana parishadh' banaee gayi. in 15 sadasyon men 8 ki niyukti sarakar dvara karane tatha 7 ki 'kort aauf hairektars' dvara chunane ki vyavastha ki gee.
  2. sthaniy logon ko unake gaurav evn adhikaron ko punah vapas karane ki bat kahi gee. bharatiy nareshon ko maharani viktoriya ne apani or se samast sndhiyon ke palan karane ka ashvasan diya, lekin sath hi nareshon se bhi usi prakar ke palan ki asha ki. apane rajy kshetr ke vistar ki anichchha ki abhivyakti ke sath-sath unhonne apane rajy kshetr athava adhikaron ka atikraman sahan n karane tatha doosaron par atikraman n karane ki bat kahi, aur sath hi dharmik shoshan khatm karane evn sevaon men bina bhedabhav ke niyukti ki bat ki gayi.
  3. sainy punargathan ke adhar par yooropiy sainikon ki snkhya ko badhaya gaya. uchch sainik padon par bharatiyon ki niyukti ko bnd kar diya gaya. topakhane par poornaroop se angrezi sena ka adhikar ho gaya. ab bngal presidensi ke lie sena men bharatiy aur angrez sainikon ka anupat 2:1 ka ho gaya, jabaki madras aur bambee prasidensiyon men yah anupat 3:1 ka ho gaya. uchch jati ke logon men se sainikon ki bharti band kar di gayi.
  4. 1858 ee. ke adhiniyam ke antargat hi bharat men gavarnar-janaral ke padanam men parivartatan kar use 'vayasaray' ka padanam diya gaya.
  5. kranti ke vidroh ke phalasvaroop samantavadi dhancha charamara gaya. am bharatiyon men samantavadiyon ki chhavi gaddaron ki ho gee, kyonki is varg ne vidroh ko dabane men angrezon ko sahayog diya tha.
  6. vidroh ke parinamasvaroop bharatiyon men rashtriy ekata ki bhavana ka vikas hua aur hindoo-muslim ekata ne zor pakadana shuroo kiya, jisaka kalantar men rashtriy andolan men mahattvapoorn yogadan raha.
  7. 1857 ee. ki kranti ke bad samrajy vistar ki niti ka to khatma ho gaya, parantu isake sthan par ab arthik shoshan ke yug ka arambh hua.
  8. bharatiyon ke prashasan men pratinidhitv ke kshetr men alp prayas ke antargat 1861 ee. men 'bharatiy parishadh adhiniyam' ko parit kiya gaya.
  9. isake atirikt eesaee dharm ke prachar-prasar men kami, shvet jati ki uchchata ke siddhant ka pratipadan aur mugal samrajy ke astitv ka khatm hona adi 1857 ee. ke vidroh ke any parinam the.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh