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व्यवस्थापन (वार्ता | योगदान) dvara parivartit 18:58, 1 agast 2017 ka avataran (Text replacement - "पृथक " to "पृथक् ")

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milind ya manendar ya minendar ya menandar

milind (minandar) ka sikka

milind pnjab par lagabhag 160 ee.poo. se 140 ee.poo. tak rajy karane vale yavan rajaon men sabase ullekhaniy raja tha. ise milind ke atirikt any namon jaise- 'manendar', 'minendar' ya 'minandar' adi se bhi jana jata hai. isake vividh prakar ke bahut se sikke uttar bharat ke vistrit kshetron men, yahan tak ki yamuna ke dakshin men bhi milate hain. sambhav hai ki 'gargi snhita' men jis duratma vir yavan raja dvara prayag par adhikar karake 'kusumapur' (arthat pataliputr) men bhay utpann karane ka ullekh hai, vah milind hi ho. bauddh anushrutiyon ke anusar usane bauddh dharm ki sharan le li thi. prasiddh bauddh granth 'milindapanhon' (milind ke prashn) men bauddh bhikshu nagasen ke sath usake snvadatmak prashnottar diye hue hain.

rajy sima

milind pratham pashchimi raja tha, jisane bauddh dharm ko apanaya aur mathura (uttar pradesh) par shasan kiya. usake rajy ki sima baiktriya, pnjab, himachal aur jammoo se mathura tak tha. demetriyas ke saman milind namak yavan raja ke bhi anek sikke uttar-pashchimi bharat men upalabdh hue hain. isaki rajadhani 'shakal' (siyalakot) thi. bharat men rajy karate hue vah bauddh shramanon ke sampark men aya aur achary nagasen se usane bauddh dharm ki diksha li. milind ka rajy yamuna se amoo (vakshu) dariya tak phaila hua tha. yadyapi usaki ek rajadhani balakh (vahalik) bhi thi, kintu hamari is parnpara ke anusar maloom hota hai, mukhy rajadhani sagal (syalakot) nagari thi.

bauddh anuyayi

plootark ne likha hai ki milind bada nyayi, vidvanh aur janapriy raja tha. usaki mrityu ke bad usaki haddiyon par bade-bade stoop banavaye gaye. milind ko shastr charcha aur bahas ki badi adat thi, aur sadharan pndit usake samane nahin tik sakate the. bauddh grnthon men usaka nam 'milind' aya hai. 'milind panho' nam ke pali grnth men usake bauddh dharm ko svikrit karane ka vivaran diya gaya hai. usake anek sikkon par bauddh dharm ke 'dharmachakr pravartan' ka chihn 'dharmachakr' bana hua hai, aur usane apane nam ke sath 'dhramik' (dharmik) visheshan diya hai.

milind (minandar) ka sikka

bharat par akraman

yoonani lekhak straibo ke lekhon se soochit hota hai, ki demetriyas ke bharat akraman men milind usaka sahayogi tha. straibo ke anusar in vijayon ka labh kuchh milind ne aur kuchh yuthidimas ke putr demetriyas ne prapt kiya tha. isase anek itihasakaron ne yah parinam nikala hai, ki milind aur demetriyas ne ek hi samay men sammilit roop se bharat par akraman kiya tha, aur milind demetriyas ka hi senapati tha. shri tarn is mat ke pramukh pratipadakon men hain. bad men milind ne bhi apana prithakh v svatntr rajy sthapit kiya. indo-yoonani shasakon men demetriyas kul milind niahsndeh sabase yogy shasak tha. bauddh sahity 'milindapanho' men ise milind ke nam se jana jata hai.

samrajy vistar

'milandapanho' men milind evn bauddh bhikshu nagasen ke madhy sampann vad-vivad evn jisake parinamasvaroop milind ne bauddh dharm svikar kiya, ki katha ka varnan hai. milind ne bharat men apani simaon ke vistar ke sath prashasan ko sthayitv pradan kiya. sambhavatah milind ka adhikar svataghati, hazar zila evn pnjab men ravi nadi tak tha. straibo ke varnan ke anusar yoonaniyon ne gnga ghati tatha patiliputr tak akraman kiya. mahabhashy ke varnan ke adhar par mana ja sakata hai ki, yoonaniyon ne avadh ke saket, rajasthan men chittaud ke samip sthit 'madhyamika' par adhikar karane ka prayatn kiya tha. milind ke sikke hamen uttar men kabul tak evn dilli se mathura tak mile hain.

sikkon ki prapti

periplas ke anusar milind ke sikke bhadauch ke bazaron men khoob prachalit the. usaki katipay kansy mudraon par dharmachakr pratik 'maharajat dhamikas' prachalit the. 'milindapanhon' ke ullekh ke anusar saket milind ki rajadhani thi. sakal tatkalin shiksha ka ek mahattvapoorn kendr tha, sath hi sampannata men yah pataliputr ke samakaksh tha. milind ki kansy mudraon par dharmachakr ka chihn milata hai. periplas ke anusar milind ke sikke bhadauch men chalate the. mathura se usake tatha usake putr steto ke sikke mile hain.

sithiyan akraman

kalantar men madhy eshiya ke khanabadosh kabilon ne, jinamen 'sithiyan' log bhi the, baiktriya par dhava bol diya. chin ke samrat shi-huang-ti dvara tisari shatabdi ee.poo. chin ki vishal divar bana dene ke karan kabilon ko pashchim men badhane ke lie badhy hona pada, jisake parinamasvaroop sithiyanon ko visthapit hokar bharat ke indo-grik bhagon par akraman karana pada. sithiyanon ko hi bharatiy grnthon men shak nam se jana jata hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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