छापाख़ाने का आभार -आदित्य चौधरी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

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fesabuk par bharatakosh (nee shuruat) bharatakosh
fesabuk par adity chaudhari adity chaudhari

chhapakhane ka abhar -adity chaudhari


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        yah lekh mainne isi 23 faravari ko likha kyonki 23 faravari ko hi is lekh ka likha jana shayad sabase zyada zaroori tha. 23 faravari ka din un logon ke lie sambhavat: sabase mahattvapoorn hai jo kitabon men ruchi rakhate hain, adhyayan karate hain aur usake alava bhi shayad hi koee aisa ho jisake jivan men yah din sabase mahattvapoorn na ho. kya hua tha is din?
 
       1455 men is din gutinabarg ki pahali kitab chhapakar duniya ke samane ayi thi, jo sachamuch hi idhar udhar ja sakati thi. log use dekh sakate the, padh sakate the aur usake panne palat sakate the. is kitab ko 'gutinabarg baibil' kaha gaya. sab janate hain gutinabarg ne 'chhapaee ka avishkar' kiya tha. aisa nahin hai ki chhpaee pahale nahin hoti thi, hoti thi lekin kitab ke roop men shuruat sabase pahale gutinabarg ne ki aur gutinabarg ka nam is 'sahastrabdi ke mahanatam logon ki soochi men pahala' hai. is tarah ki koee sarvamany soochi to kabhi nahin bani lekin phir bhi pratishat ke hisab se adhikatam log isi soochi ko manate hain. is soochi men gutinabarg ko 'main aauf d mileniyam' ya 'sahastrabdi purush' mana gaya hai. ham sab bahut abhari hain gutinabarg ke ki usane yah vilakshan khoj ki... 'chhapakhana'. du:kh ki bat ye hai ki gutinabarg ka jivan abhavon men guzara usake sahayogi ne hi poora paisa kamaya.

        pahali printing pres shuroo huee aur gutinabarg ke karan duniya ke samane kitaben a paeen. kitaben ane se pahale lekhan ka kuchh na kuchh kam chalata rahata tha, jo hathon se likha jata tha, kabhi bhurjapatron par likha gaya, to kabhi patthar par mahin chhaini-hathaude se ukera gaya. duniya men lekhan sambndhi anek prayog hote rahe. 'boli' ko likhane ke lie lipi aur vartani ki avashyakata huee aur is tarah 'bhasha' ban gee. bhasha aur lipi alag-alag jagahon par alag-alag tarah ki banin. bharat men bhi vyakaran aur lipi ka kary chal raha tha jo sambhavat: 500 eesa poorv men panini dvara kiya gaya mana jata hai. yah samay gautam buddh ke asapas ka hi raha hoga aur sikndar ke pnjab par hamale se pahale ka.
        itihasakaron ke sath-sath ham bhi yah manate hain ki vishv ke ek hisse, desh, kul, jhund, ya qabile men kya ho raha tha, vah sahi roop se janane ke lie us samay prithvi ke doosare hisson men kya ghat raha tha? yah janana bahut zaroori hai. pn. javaharalal neharoo ne likha bhi hai ki agar ham kisi ek desh ka itihas janana chahen to yah janana bahut zaroori hai ki us kalakram men doosare deshon men kya ghat raha tha, agar ham yah nahin janenge to apane desh ka ya jis desh ka itihas ham janana chahate hain, sahi roop se nahin jan payenge. bhagavatasharan upadhyay ji aur damodar dharmannd kosnbi ji ke drishtikon se bhi vishv ki sabhi snskritiyan prarambh se hi ek doosare se bahut gahare men mili-juli hain aur koee ek alag prakar ka, ek alag kshetr men, koee vikas ho pana sambhav nahin hai.
 
        'ijipt' yani misr men bilkul hi doosare tariqe ka kary chal raha tha. misri faraun (raja), mntri, dharmadhikari ya pramukh vaidy ke pas ek vyakti baitha rahata tha aur vah mukhy baton ko bade saliqe se sahejata tha. misr men lekhan 'pepiras' par hone laga tha. pepiras paudhe se banaya gaya ek prakar ka kagaz hota tha jo misr ke daladali ilaqon men paya jata tha. yahan yah bhi dhyan dene yogy hai ki snskrit men kagaz ke lie koee shabd nahin hai, han pali men avashy 'kagad' shabd milata hai. kalantar men angrezi men prayukt hone vala shabd 'pepar' pepiras ya yoonani shabd 'pipyuras' se hi bana. misr ki bhasha ko 'hayaroglifik' kaha gaya hai jisaka arth 'pavitr' (hayaro) lekhan (glifik) hai.

        isamen bhi ek ajib rochak snyog hai ki jis samay misr men piramid jaisi ashcharyajanak imarat bani, vahan lipi ki varnamala ati daridr thi. 3 hazar varshon men 24 aksharon ki varnamala men keval 'vynjan' hi the 'svar' ek bhi nahin. bina svaron ke keval vynjan likh kar hi logon ke sambndh men likha jata tha. use vo kaise bad men padhate the aur kis tariqe se usaka uchcharan hota tha, yah bat rahasy hi bani rahi. sidhe snkshipt roop men kahen to 'vartani' lapata thi aur saral karen to 'matraen' nahin thin. svar n hone ke karan shabd ko kis tariqe se bola jaega yah jatil aur aspasht tha. [1] svaron ke lie alag se pravadhan the, jo behad avaigyanik the, jabaki bharat men panini rachit 'ashtadhyayi' ka vyakaran apana poorn parishkrit roop le chuka tha. vartani ki is kami ke chalate misri lipi ko padhana thik usi tarah mushkil hi nahin namumakin tha jaise ki amitabh bachchan ki 'daaun' film men 'daaun' ko pakadana lekin bad men ye lipi padh li gee. 'raauseta abhilekh' aur fransisi vidvanh 'shanpolyon' ke karan yah kary saphal ho gaya.

        misr men rajavnshon ki shuruat aj se 5 hazar varsh pahale hi ho gayi thi. mashahoor faraun ramasi ( ye vahi ramasi ya ramases hai jo moosa ke samay men tha) ka nam padhane men bhi yahi kathinaee samane ayi. kaauptik bhasha (misri eesaiyon ki bhasha) men isaka arth hai- re ya ra (soory) ka m-s (beta) arthath soory ka putr. sochane vali bat ye hai ki bhagavan 'ram' ka nam bhi isi prakar ka hai aur ve bhi soory vnshi hi hain. agar ye mahaz ek ittafaq hai to behad dilachasp ittafaq hai. nam koee bhi raha ho remasi, imahotep ya taaulemi; svaron ke bina unhen sahi padhana bahut kathin tha. mashahoor rani kliopatra ke nam[2] men bhi diqqat ayi use 'k l p t r' hi padha jata raha jab tak ki svaron ki gutthi nahin sulajhi. 'kliopatra' koee nam nahin balki rani ki upadhi thi jis kliopatra ko ham-ap janate hain vah satavin kliopatra thi. us samay misr ke rajaon ki upadhi 'taaulemi' hua karati thi. us samay bharat men bhi upadhiyan chal rahi thin jinhen vyakti samajh liya jata hai jaise vyas, narad, vashishth adi.

is saptah itana hi... agale saptah kuchh aur...

-adity chaudhari
snsthapak evn pradhan sampadak


tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. gunakar mule ji ne bhi apani pustak 'akshar katha' men isake bare men vistar se bataya hai.
  2. kliopatra ka nam hayaroglifik men
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