राजस्थान की अर्थव्यवस्था  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

rajasthan ki arthavyavastha mukhy rup se krishi karyon ev pashupalan par hi nirbhar karati hai, tatha krishi ke uparant pashupalan ko hi jivika ka pramukh sadhan mana ja sakata hai. rajasthan mukhyat: ek krishi v pashupalan pradhan rajy hai aur anaj v sabjiyon ka niryat karata hai. alp v aniyamit varsha ke bavajood, yahan lagabhag sabhi prakar ki fasalen ugaee jati hain. registani kshetr men bajara, kota men jvar v udayapur men mukhyat: makka ugaee jati hain. rajy men gehoon v jau ka vistar achchha-khasa (registani kshetron ko chhodakar) hai. aisa hi dalahan (matar, sem v masoor jaisi khady phaliyan), ganna v tilahan ke sath bhi hai. chaval ki unnat kismon ko bhi yahan ugaya jane laga hai. 'chnbal ghati' aur 'indira gandhi nahar pariyojanaon' ke kshetron men is fasal ke kul kshetraphal men badhotari huee hai. kapas v tnbakoo mahattvapoorn naqadi fasalen hain. hanlaki yahan ka adhikansh kshetr shushk ya arddh shushk hai, phir bhi rajasthan men badi snkhya men palatoo pashoo hain v rajasthan sarvadhik oon ka utpadan karane vala rajy hai. oonton v shushk ilakon ke pashuon ki vibhinn naslon par rajasthan ka ekadhikar hai.

sinchaee ki vyavastha

atyadhik shushk bhoomi ke karan rajasthan ko bade paimane par sinchaee ki avashyakata hai. jal ki apoorti pnjab ki nadiyon, pashchimi yamuna (hariyana) aur agara nahar (uttar pradesh) tatha dakshin men sabaramati v 'narmada sagar pariyojana' se hoti hai. yahan hazaron ki snkhya men jalashay (gramin talab v jhil) hain, lekin ve sookhe v gad se prabhavit hain. 'rajasthan bhankhada pariyojana' men pnjab aur 'chnbal ghati pariyojana' men madhy pradesh ka sajhedar rajy hai. donon pariyojanaon se prapt jal ka upayog sinchaee v peyajal apoorti ke lie kiya jata hai. 1980 ke dashak ke madhy men svargiy pradhanamntri ki smriti men 'rajasthan nahar' ka nam badalakar 'indira gandhi nahar' rakha gaya, jo pnjab ki sataluj aur vyas nadiyon ke pani ko lagabhag 644 kilomitar ki doori tak le jati hai aur pashchimottar v pashchimi rajasthan ki marubhoomi ki sinchaee karati hai.

pashudhan

rajasthan men pashu-sampada ka vishesh rup se arthik mahatv mana gaya hai. rajy ke kul kshetraphal ka 61 pratishat marusthaliy pradesh hai, jahan jivikoparjan ka mukhy sadhan pashupalan hi hai. isase rajy ki shuddh ghareloo utpatti ka mahattvapoorn ansh prapt hota hai. rajasthan men desh ke pashudhan ka 7 pratishat tha, jisamen bhedon ka 25 pratishat ansh paya jata hai. bharatiy sndarbh men pashudhan ke mahattv ko darshane ke lie niche kuchh ankade die ge hai, jo is prakar hain-

  1. rajasthan men desh ke kul dugdh utpadan ka ansh lagabhag 10 pratishat hota hai.
  2. rajy ke pashuon dvara bhar-vahan shakti 35 pratishat hai.
  3. bhed ke mans me rajasthan ka bharat men ansh 30 pratishat hai.
  4. oon men rajasthan ka bharat men ansh 40% hai. rajy men bhendon ki snkhya samast bharat ki snkhya ka lagabhag 25 pratishat hai.

mahattv

rajasthan ki arthavyavastha ke bare men yah kaha jata hai ki yah poornat krishi par nirbhar karati hai tatha krishi manasoon ka jua mani jati hai. is sthiti men pashupalan ka mahatv aur bhi adhik badh jata hai. rajasthan men pashudhan ka mahatv nimnalikhit tathyon se dekha ja sakata hai-

rajy ke sakal ghareloo utpad men yogadan - rajy ke sakal ghareloo utpad men pashudhan ka yogadan lagabhag 9 pratishat hai.
nirdhanata unmoolan - nirdhanata unmoolan karyakram men bhi pashu-palan ki mahatta svikar ki gee hai. samanvit gramin vikas karyakram men garib parivaron ko dudharu pashu dekar unaki amadani badhane ka prayas kiya gaya tha. lekin isake lie chare v pani ki uchit vyavastha karani hoti hai tatha labhanvit parivaron ko bikri ki suvidhaen bhi pradan karani hoti hain.
rozagar-srijan - pashupalan men oonchi amadani v rozagar ki snbhavanaen nihit hain. pashuon ki utpadakata ko badhakar amadani men vriddhi ki ja sakati hai. rajy ke shushk v arddh-shushk bhagon men kuchh parivar kafi snkhya men pashupalan karate hai aur inaka yah kary vnsh-paramparagat chalata aya hai. in kshetron men shuddh ghareloo utpatti ka ooncha ansh pashupalan se srijit hota hai. isalie maru arthavyavastha moolatah pashu-adharit hai.
deyari vikas - pashudhan ki sahayata se gramin dugdh utpadan ko shahari upabhoktaon ke sath jodakar shahari kshetr ki dugdh avashyakata ki apoorti tatha gramin kshetr ki ajivika ki vyavastha hoti hai. rajasthan desh ke kul dugdh utpadan ka 10 pratishat utpadan karata hai. rajy men 1989-1990 men 42 lakh tan doodh ka utpadan hua, jo badhakar 2003-2004 men 80.5 lakh tan ho gaya.
parivahan ka sadhan - rajasthan men pashudhan men bhar vahan karane ki apar kshamata hai. bail, bhainse, oont, gadhe, khachchar adi krishi v kee pariyojanaon men bojha dhone v bhar khinchane ka kam karate hain. desh ki kul bhar vahan kshamata ka 35 pratishat bhag rajasthan ke pashu vahan karate hai. desh men rel v trakon dvara kul 30 karod tan mal ki dhulaee hoti hai, jabaki bailagadiyon se aj bhi 70 karod tan mal dhoya jata hai.
khad ki prapti - pashupalan ke dvara krishi ke lie khad ki prapti bhi hoti hai. is samay janavaron ke gobar se nirmit "varmi kampost" khady atyadhik prachalan men hai.

pashudhan ki snrachana

rajasthan rajy men vibhinn prakar ke pashu pae jate hain, jinaki snkhya ko nimn talika men pradarshit kiya gaya hai-

2003 men vibhinn prakar ke pashuon ki snkhya-
  • gauvnsh athava gay-bail - 1.09 karod
  • bhains jati - 1.04 lakh
  • bhed jati - 1.00 karod
  • bakari jati - 1.68 karod
  • shesh oont, ghodai़, gadhe, sooar adi - 10 lakh

is prakar snkhya ki drishti se pashuon men gay-bail tatha bhed-bakari pramukh hain. rajasthan men upalabdh vibhinn janavaron, jaise- gay, bakari, bhend adi ka varnan nimnalikhit hai-

(1.) gay - rajasthan men gay pashupalan ke kshetr men mahattvapoorn sthan rakhati hai. kul pashu-sampada men gauvnsh ka 22.8 pratishat hai. isaki nimnalikhit naslen rajasthan me paee jati hain-

  1. nagauri
  2. kankarej
  3. tharaparakar
  4. rathi

(2.) bhend - desh ki kul bhendon ki lagabhag 25 pratishat rajasthan men paee jati hain. rajy ke lagabhag 2 lakh parivar pashupalan karyon men snlagn hain. yahan paee jane vali bhedon ki pramukh naslen is prakar hain-

  1. jaisalameri bhed
  2. nali bhed
  3. malapuri bhed
  4. magara bhed
  5. poogal bhed
  6. maravadi bhed
  7. shekhavati bhed ya chokala
  8. sonadi bhed

pashudhan vikas ki samasyaen

manasoon ki anishchita - rajasthan men pray: sookhe ki samasya rahati hai. isi vajah se pashuon ko paryapt matra men chara upalabdh nahin ho pata. yojana evn samanvay ka abhav - sarakar abhi tak is kshetr ke vikas ke lie ek sampoorn yojana ka khaka taiyar nahin kar payi hai, tatha samanvay ka abhav dekha gaya hai. pashu svasthy yojana - aksar dekha jata hai ki kisi ek bimari ke karan sabhi pashu usaki chapet men a jate hain. is sthiti ko samapt karane ke lie yojana evn suvidhaon ka abhav dekha gaya hai. pashu adharit udyogon ki kami - rajasthan men oon, doodh tatha chamada paryapt matra men upalabdh hai, parantu in par adharit udyogon ki rajasthan men kami hone se doodh, chamada doosare rajyon men niryat kar dene se rajy ko paryapt labh nahin mil pata hai.

vikas hetu samadhan

rajasthan men pashudhan ka beharat prayog ho sake aur isase adhik se adhik labh liya ja sake, isake lie kee karyakram chalaye ja rahe hain. jinamen se kuchh nimnalikhit hain-

gopal karyakram

pashudhan ke vikas hetu yah karyakram 1990-1991 men chaloo kiya gaya tha. is gair-sarakari sngathan athava ganv ke shikshit yuvak (gopal) ko uchit prashikshan dekar usaki sevaon ka upayog kiya jata hai. isamen videshi nasl ka upayog badhane ke lie gopal ko kraaus prajanan ke lie kritrim garbhadhan ki vidhi ka prashikshan diya jata hai. ek kshetr ke bekar sadon ko poornatah badhiya diya jata hai. pashu-palakon ko is bat ka prashikshan diya jata hai ki ve apane pashuon ko staaul par kis prakar khilaven aur sadaiv bahar charane ki vidhi par ashrit n hon.

bhed prajanan karyakram

rajy men oon v mans ke utpadan men gunatmak v matratmak sudhar karane ke lie bhed prajanan kary men sudhar ke vyapak prayas kie ge hain. kraaus-prajanan karyakram nali, chokala, sonadi v malapuri naslon par lagoo kiya gaya hai. isamen kritrim garbhadhan ke jarie bhedon ki nasl sudhari jati hai. isake alava chayanit prajanan karyakram chalaya ja raha hai.

vipanan vyavastha

pashupalakon ko unake utpadan ka uchit mooly prapt ho, isake lie ek taraf pashuon ke kray-vikray hetu pashu mela lagaye jate hain. doosari taraf doodh ko bina madhyasthon ke sidha upabhokta tak pahunchane ke lie dugdh utpadak sahakari samitiyon ki sthapana ki gayi hai. rajy men pashu melon ka ayojan gram pnchayat, nagarapalika evn pnchayat samitiyon ke madhyam se kiye jata hai. rajy men vartaman men 50 pashu mele lagate hain, jinamen 10 mele rajy stariy prasiddh pashu mele, pashupalan vibhag dvara ayojit kiye jate hai.

pashu chikitsa

rajy men pashuon ki bimariyon se raksha evn rokatham ke liye naye chikitsalay khole gaye hain, jahan 1951 men 147 chikitsalay the. 2001-2002 men rajy men 12 pashu kliniks, 22 pratham gred ke pashu chikitsalay, 1386 pashu chikitsalay, 285 pashu aushadhalay tatha 1720 upakendr karyarat hain. isake alava 34 zila rog prayogashalaen rajy men karyarat hain. pashupalakon ko unake ghar par hi pashu chikitsa seva upalabdh karane hetu upakhand star par 8 chal pashu chikitsa ikaiyan gathit karane ki yojana banaee hai.

ekikrit pashu vikas karyakram

8vin yojana ke prarambh men yah jayapur evn bikaner snbhag men chaloo kiy gaya tha, parantu vartaman men yah karyakram pradesh ke kota, jayapur, bikaner, ajamer, udayapur snbhagon ke 21 zilon men lagoo hain, jahan 749 upakendr sthapit kiye gaye hain. is yojana men pashuon ke svasthy ke atirikt kritrim garbhadhan, bekar pashuon ka bandhyakaran tatha unnat kism ke chare ke bijon ka vitaran ka uddeshy shamil hai.

pashupalan v anusndhan

rajy men dvitiy pnchavarshiy yojana men do pashu chikitsa mahavidyalay bikaner tatha jayapur men sthapit kiye gaye hain. bharatiy krishi anusndhan parishad ne bikaner evn sooratagadh men bhed anusndhan kendr sthapit kiye hain. jodhapur men oon evn bhed prashikshan skool sthapit kiya gaya hai. vishv baink ki sahayata se jamadoli men pashu chikitsakon evn adhikariyon ko vishesh takaniki prashikshan hetu rajasthan pashu-dhan prabndh snsthan ka bhavan nirman kary karavaya hai.

udyog

bharat ke sandrit jasta, sisa, panna v garnet ka snpoorn utpadan rajasthan men hi hota hai. desh jipsam v chandi ayask utpadan ka lagabhag 90 pratishat bhag bhi rajasthan men hota hai. yahan ke pramukh udyog vastr, vanaspati tel, oon, khanij, v rasayan par adharit hain, jabaki chamade ka saman, sngamaramar ki karigari, abhooshan nirman, mitti ke bartan ka nirman aur pital ka jadaoo kam ityadi jaise hastashilpon se kafi videshi mudra prapt hoti hai. anek audyogik rajadhani kota men nayalaaun aur sookshm upakaran banane ki faiktri ke sath- sath kailshiyam karbaid, kastik soda v reyaaun tayar ke tar nirman ke snyntr bhi hain. udayapur men zink galane ka snyntr hai. rajy ko vidyut apoorti padosi rajyon v chabnl ghati pariyojana se hoti hai. kota ke nikat ravatabhata men nabhikiy oorja snyntr hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah