हिन्दू काल गणना  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

hindoo dharm men samay ki bahut hi vyapak dharana hai. kshan ke hajaraven hisse se bhi kam se shuroo hone vali kal ganana brahma ke 100 varsh par bhi samapt nahin hoti. hindoo manate hain ki samay sidha hi chalata hai. sidhe chalane vale samay men jivan aur ghatanaon ka chakr chalata rahata hai. samay ke sath ghatanaon men doharav hota hai phir bhi ghatanaen nee hoti hain.

bharatiy kal ganana

vigyan ke anusar vishv ka sabase chhota tatv paramanu hai. hamare prachin vidvanon ne bhi kalachakr ka varnan karate samay kal ki sabase chhoti ikaee ke roop men paramanu ko hi svikara hai. vayu puran men die ge vibhinn kal khndon ke vivaran ke anusar, do paramanu milakar ek anu ka nirman karate hain aur tin anuon ke milane se ek trasarenu banata hai. tin trasarenuon se ek truti, 100 trutiyon se ek vedh, tin vedh se ek lav tatha tin lav se ek nimesh (kshan) banata hai. isi prakar tin nimesh se ek kashtha, 15 kashtha se ek laghu, 15 laghu se ek nadika, do nadika se ek muhoort, chhah nadika se ek prahar tatha ath prahar ka ek din aur ek rat banate hain. din aur ratri ki ganana sath ghadi men bhi ki jati hai. tadanusar prachalit ek ghnte ko dhaee ghadi ke barabar kaha ja sakata hai. ek mas men 15-15 din ke do paksh hote hain. shukl paksh aur krishn paksh. soory ki disha ki drishti se varsh men bhi chhah-chhah mah ke do ayan mane ge hain- uttarayan tatha dakshinayan. vaidik kal men varsh ke 12 mahinon ke nam rituon ke adhar par rakhe ge the. bad men un namon ko nakshatron ke adhar par parivartit kar diya gaya, jo ab tak yathavat hain. chaitr, vaishakh, jyeshth, ashadh, shravan, bhadrapad, ashvin, kartik, margashirsh, paush, magh aur phalgun. isi prakar dinon ke nam grahon ke nam par rakhe ge- ravi, som (chndrama), mngal, budh, guru, shukr aur shani. is prakar kal khndon ko nishchit adhar par nishchit nam die ge aur pal-pal ki ganana spasht ki gee.

manav varsh aur divy varsh

kal ganana se snbndhit prachin sahity men manav varsh aur divy varsh men bhi antar kiya gaya. manav varsh, manushyon ka varsh hai, jo samanyat: 360 din ka hota hai. avashyakata ke anusar usamen ghatat-badhat hoti rahati hai. divy varsh devataon ka varsh hai. vahan chhah mas ka din aur chhah mas ki ratri hoti hai. manushyon ke 360 varsh milakar devataon ka ek divy varsh hota hai. manav ki samany ayu 100 varsh mani gee hai aur devataon ki 1000 divy varsh. kuchh logon ko devataon ke astitv par sndeh hota hai, magar bharatiy kal ganana ka svaroop unako ya unake jaisi kisi any shakti ko svikarane ke lie prerit karata hai.

snvatsar, kalp, manvantar

bharat men sabase purana snvatsar, srishti-snvatsar mana gaya hai. isaka prarnbh srishti ke nirman se hua aur srishti ke ant ke sath hi is snvatsar ka bhi ant hoga. yahi srishti-snvatsar, ek kalp ka brahma ka ek din mana gaya hai. srishti snvatsar ki poori ganana prachin grnthon men di huee hai. usake anusar 2005 men srishti aur usake sath soory ko bane 1,96,08,53,105 manav varsh vyatit ho chuke hain. srishti ki kul ayu 4320000000 varsh mani gee hai. isamen se vartaman ayu nikalakar srishti ki shesh ayu 2,35,91,46,895 varsh hai. taduparant mahapralay nishchit hai. isake bad brahma ki ratri prarnbh hogi. yah ratri 4320000000 manav varshon ki hi hogi, jise pralay kaha gaya hai. isake uparant srishti ke punarnirman ke sath brahma ka naya din shuroo hoga. is prakar brahma ka ek ahoratr 8640000000 manav varshon ka hota hai. brahma ko parameshthi mndal ki sngya di gee hai, jisake charon aur soory chakkar lagata hai. brahma ke ahoratr ko 360 se guna karane par ek brahm varsh banata hai tatha use 100 se guna karane par brahm yug hota hai. isi prakar kal ganana ka kram age chalata hai. yahan yah drishtavy hai ki adhunik vigyan ke anusar bhi ek aisa kendr bindu hai, jisake charon or sabhi akashagngaen chakkar lagati hain. snbhavat: is kendr bindu ko hi parameshthi mndal ya brahma ki sngya di gee hai. isi prakar devataon ki ayu ka snbndh vibhinn nakshatron ya akashagngaon ki ayu se ho sakata hai. srishti ke poorvokt snpoorn jivan ko bhi anek khndon men banta gaya hai. isake anusar kul 15 manvantar hote hain, jinamen se pratyek manvantar ka adhipati ek manu hota hai. 14 manvantaron men se pratyek men 71 chaturyugi (krit yug ya satayug, treta yug, dvapar yug tatha kaliyug) hoti hain. 15ven manvantar men keval chhah chaturyugi hongi. chaturyugi ko mahayug bhi kaha gaya hai.[1]

brahm kal

  1. brahm kal : (srishti utpatti se prajapati brahma ki utpatti tak)
  2. brahma kal : (prajapati brahma, vishnu aur shiv ka kal)
  3. svayambhuv manu kal : (pratham manav ka kal 9057 eesa poorv se prarnbh)
  4. vaivasvat manu kal : (6673 eesa poorv se)
  5. ram ka kal : (5114 eesvi poorv se 3000 eesvi poorv ke bich)
  6. krishn ka kal : (3112 eesvi poorv se 2000 eesvi poorv ke bich)
  7. sindhu ghati sabhyata ka kal : (3300-1700 eesvi poorv ke bich)
  8. hadappa kal : (1700-1300 eesvi poorv ke bich)
  9. ary sabhyata ka kal : (1500-500 eesvi poorv ke bich)
  10. bauddh kal : (563-320 eesvi poorv ke bich)
  11. maury kal : (321 se 184 eesvi poorv ke bich)
  12. guptakal : (240 eesvi se 800 eesvi tak ke bich)
  13. madhyakal : (600 eesvi se 1800 eesvi tak)
  14. aupaniveshik kal : (1760-1947 eesvi pashchat)
  15. azad bharat ka kal : (1947 se prarnbh)[2]

sabase chhota ansh paramanu

bharatiy kal ganana men sabase chhota ansh paramanu hota hai.

  • 1. ek trisarenu = 6 brahmandiy anu.
  • 2. ek truti = 3 trisarenu ya seknd ka 1/1687.5 bhag.
  • 3. ek vedh = 100 truti.
  • 4. ek lava = 3 vedh.
  • 5. ek nimesh = 3 lava ya palak jhapakana.
  • 6. ek kshan = 3 nimesh.
  • 7. ek kashtha = 5 kshan arthat 8 seknd.
  • 8. ek laghu = 15 kashtha arthat 2 minat. adha laghu arthat 1 minat.
  • 9. pndrah laghu = ek nadi, jise dnd bhi kahate hain arthat lagabhag 30 minat.
  • 10. do dnd = ek muhoort arthat lagabhag 1 ghnte se jyada.
  • 11. sat muhoort = ek yam ya ek chauthaee din ya ratri.
  • 12. char yam ya prahar = ek din ya ratri.
  • 13. pndrah divas = ek paksh. ek paksh men pndrah tithiyan hoti hain.
  • 14. do paksh = ek mah. (poornima se amavasya tak krishn paksh aur amavasya se poornima tak shukl paksh)
  • 15. do mah = ek ritu.
  • 16. tin ritu = ek ayan
  • 17. do ayan = ek varsh.
  • 18. ek varsh = devataon ka ek din jise divy varsh kahate hain.
  • 19. 12,000 divy varsh = ek mahayug (charon yugon ko milakar ek mahayug)
  • 20. 71 mahayug = 1 manvntar (lagabhag 30,84,48,000 manav varsh bad pralay kal)
  • 21. chaudah manvntar = ek kalp.
  • 22. ek kalp = brahma ka ek din. (brahma ka ek din bitane ke bad mahapralay hoti hai aur phir itani hi lnbi ratri hoti hai). is din aur ratri ke akalan se unaki ayu 100 varsh hoti hai. unaki adhi ayu nikal chuki hai aur shesh men se yah pratham kalp hai.
  • manvntar ki avadhi : vishnu puran ke anusar manvntar ki avadhi 71 chaturyugi ke barabar hoti hai. isake alava kuchh atirikt varsh bhi jode jate hain. ek manvntar = 71 chaturyugi = 8,52,000 divy varsh = 30,67,20,000 manav varsh.[3]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. sharma, pro. yogesh chndr. kal ganana ki bharatiy paddhati (hindi) navabharat taims. abhigaman tithi: 28 janavari, 2018.
  2. hindoo itihas kal ka snkshipt parichay (hindi) veb duniya. abhigaman tithi: 28 janavari, 2018.
  3. brahm kal : hindoo kalaganana ko janie (hindi) veb duniya. abhigaman tithi: 28 janavari, 2018.

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