सुरेन्द्रनाथ बनर्जी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

surendranath banarji
surendranath banarji
poora nam surendranath banarji
janm 10 navambar, 1848
janm bhoomi kalakatta (ab kolakata)
mrityu 6 agast, 1925
mrityu sthan bairakapur
abhibhavak daau. durga charan bainarji (pita)
karm bhoomi bharat
prasiddhi svadhinata senani aur kangres adhyaksh
vishesh yogadan bharat ki azadi men aham yogadan
nagarikata bharatiy
snbndhit lekh bngal vibhajan, bharatiy rashtriy kangres
pad bharatiy rashtriy kangres ke do bar adhyaksh rahe

surendranath banarji (angrezi: Surendranath Banerjee, janm- 10 navambar, 1848, kalakatta; mrityu- 6 agast, 1925, bairakapur) prasiddh svadhinata senani the, jo kangres ke do bar adhyaksh chune ge. unhen 1905 ka 'bngal ka nirmata' bhi jata hai. unhonne bharatiy rashtriy samiti ki sthapana ki, jo prarnbhik daur ke bharatiy rajanitik sngathanon men se ek tha aur bad men vah bharatiy rashtriy kangres ke ek varishth neta ban ge.

jivan parichay

janm aur parivar

surendr nath banarji ka janm 10 navambar 1848 ko bngal ke kolakata shahar men, ek bngali brahman parivar men hua tha. surendranath banarji ke pita ka nam daau. durga charan bainarji tha aur vah apane pita ki gahari udar aur pragatishil soch se bahut prabhavit the. surendranath bainarji ne pairental aikedemik instityooshan aur hindoo kaaulej men shiksha prapt ki thi. kalakatta vishvavidyalay se snatak hone ke bad, unhonne romesh chandr datt aur bihari lal gupta ke sath bharatiy sivil sarvis parikshaon ko poora karane ke lie 1868 men inglaind ki yatra ki. 1868 ee. men ve snatak bane, ve udaravadi vicharadhara ke mahattvapoorn neta the. 1868 men unhonne indiyan sivil sarvisej pariksha utirn ki. isake poorv 1867 ee. men satyendranath taigor aee.si.es. banane vale pahale bharatiy ban chuke the. 1877 men silahat ke sahayak dandadhikari ke pad par unaki niyukt huee parantu shighr hi sarakar ne unhe is pad se barkhast kar diya.

jatiy bhed-bhav

surendranath banarji ne snatak hone ke bad indiyan sivil sarvis (bharatiy prashasanik seva) men pravesh ke lie inglaind men avedan kiya. us samay is seva men sirf ek hindoo tha. banarji ko is adhar par shamil nahin kiya gaya ki unhonne apani ayu galat bataee thi. jatiy adhar par bhed-bhav kiye jane ka arop lagate hue banarji ne apani apil men yah tark prastut kiya ki hindoo riti ke anusar unhonne apani ayu garbhadharan ke samay se jodi thi, n ki janm ke samay se aur vah jit ge. banarji ko silahat (ab bangladesh) men niyukt kiya gaya, lekin kriyanvayan sambandhi aniyamitataon ke arop men unhen 1874 men bhari vivad tatha virodh ke bich hata diya gaya. unhonne tab bairistar ke roop men apana nam darz karane ka prayas kiya, kintu usake lie unhen anumati dene se inakar kar diya gaya, kyonki ve indiyan sivil sarvis (bharatiy prashasanik seva) se barkhast kiye gaye the. unake lie yah ek qarari chot thi aur unhonne mahasoos kiya ki ek bharatiy hone ke nate unhen yah sab bhugatana pad raha hai.

karyakshetr

indiyan esosiyeshan ki sthapana

bairistar banane men viphal rahane ke bad 1875 ee. men bharat lautane par ve profesar ho gaye; pahale metropalitan instityoot men (jo ki ab vidyasagar kaaulej kahalata hai) aur bad men ripan kaaulej (jo ki ab surendranath kaaulej kahalata hai) men, jisaki sthapana unhonne ki thi. adhyapak ke roop men unhonne apane chhatron ko deshabhakti aur sarvajanik seva ki bhavana se anupranit kiya. mejini ke jivan aur bharatiy ekata sadrish vishayon par unake bhashanon ne chhatron men bahut utsah paida kiya. rajaniti men bhi bhag lete rahe aur 1876 men indiyan esosieshan ki sthapana tatha 1883 men kalakatta men pratham akhil bharatiy rashtriy sammelan ayojit karane men pramukh yogadan diya.

rashtriy ekata ka prayas

akhil bharatiy rashtriy sammelan ek rashtriy sngathan ki sthapana ki disha men yah pahala prayas tha. 1885 ee. men bharatiy rashtriy kangres (indiyan neshanal kangres) ki sthapana ke bad unhonne akhil bharatiy rashtriy sammelan (al indiya neshanal kafrens) ka usamen vilay karane men pramukh bhag liya aur usake bad se unaki ginati kangres ke pramukh netaon men hone lagi. unhonne bharatiy rashtriy kangres ke 1895 men poona men hue gyarahaven adhiveshan aur 1902 men ahamadabad men hue atharahaven adhiveshan ki adhyakshata ki. unhonne deshavyapi bhraman kar badi-badi sabhaon men bhashan karate hue rashtriy ekata ki avashyakata aur desh ke prashasan men bharatiyon ko adhik janamat ko jagrat karane men bahumooly yogadan diya. unhonne 1878 ee. ke varnakyoolar pres ekt ke virodh ka netritv kiya aur ilbart bil ke samarthan men pramukh bhag liya. kangres ke soorat vibhajan ke samay banarji naram dal ke sadasy the. 1909 ee. ke marle-minton sudhar ke lie unhonne angrezi samrajy ke prati kritgyta prakat ki, kintu ve bng-bhng ki samapti chahate the. 1913 ee. men unhen bngal lejisletiv kaunsil or inpiriyal lejisletiv kaunsil ka sadasy chuna gaya. 1919-20 ee. ken gandhi pranit andolan ka unhonne samarthan nahin kiya. 1921 ee. men angrezi sarakar ne unhen ‘sar’ ki upadhi di. 1921-23 ee. men bngal sarakar men mntri rahe.

bngal vibhajan

unhonne karjan dvara pas kiye gaye qanoon kalakatta adhiveshan ऍkt, vishvavidyalay ऍkt evn bngal vibhajan ke viruddh bngal evn poore bharat men tivr andolan chalae. kintu bng-vibhajan virodhi andolan men ve tod-phod tatha asnvaidhanik tarikon ke viruddh the. bngal vibhajan ke bare men unhonne kaha ‘bngal ka vibhajan hamare oopar bam ki tarah gira hai. hamane samajha ki hamara ghor apaman kiya gaya hai.’ svadeshi ke bare men unaka vichar tha ki ‘svadeshi hamen durbhiksh, andhakar aur bimari se bacha sakata hai. svadeshi ka vrat lijie. apane vichar, karm aur acharan men svadeshi ka upabhog karen.’ ukt qanoon pas ho jane par unhonne karporeshan men bhag lene se inakar kar diya. unhonne bngal ke vibhajan ka bhi ghor virodh kiya aur usake virodh men zabardast andolan chalaya, jisase ve bngal ke nirvivad roop se neta man liye gaye. ve bngal ke bina taz ke badashah kahalane lage. bngal ka vibhajan 1911 men radd kar diya gaya, jo surendranath ki ek bahut badi jit thi. lekin is samay tak deshavasiyon men ek naya varg paida ho gaya tha, jisaka vichar tha ki bharatiy rashtriy kangres ke vaidhanik andolan viphal siddh hue aur bharat men svarajy prapti ke lie aur prabhavapoorn niti apanaee jani chahie.

siddhantavadi vyakti

naya varg, jo garam dal kahalata tha, hintatmak tariqe apanane se nahin darata tha, usase chahe kranti hi kyon n ho jaye. lekin surendranath banarji ka, jinaki shiksha-diksha atharahavin shatabdi ke angrez sahity, visheshakar bark ke siddhanton par huee thi, kranti athava krantikari tariqon men koee vishvas nahin tha aur ve bharat tatha inglaind ke bich poorn alagav ki bat soch bhi nahin sakate the. is prakar surendranath banarji ko, jinhen kabhi angrez prashasak garam vicharon ka ugravadi vyakti manate the, ab svayn unake deshavasi naram dal ka vyaktitv manane lage the. soorat kangres (1907) ke bad ve kangres par garam dalavalon ka qabza hone se rokane men saphal rahe the. kintu isake bad shighr hi kangres garam dal valon ke niyntran men chali gee. isaka parinam yah hua ki mantegyoo chemsaford riport ke adhar par jab 1919 ka gavarnament aauf indiya ekt pas hua to surendranath banarji ne use is adhar par svikar kar liya ki kangres apane arambhik dinon men jo mang kar rahi thi, vah is ekt se bahut had tak poori ho gee hai, lekin svayn kangres ne use asvikar kar diya.

kangres se sambandh vichchhed

is prakar bharatiy rashtriy kangres se surendranath banarji ka sambandh vichchhed ho gaya. unhonne kangres ke any purane netaon ke sath libaral fedareshan ki sthapana ki jo adhik jan samarthan prapt nahin kar saka. phir bhi surendranath banarji nee bngal lejisletiv kaunsil ke sadasy nirvachit ho gaye. 1921 ee. men kalakatta myunisipal bil ko vidhanamndal se pas karaya, jisase laaurd karzan dvara banaya gaya poorvavarti qanoon nirast ho gaya aur kalakatta karporeshan par poorn roop se lokapriy niyntran sthapit ho gaya.

bharatiy rashtriyata ke nirmata

bharatiy rashtriy andolan jisaki 1876 ee. men surendranath banarji ne shuruat ki thi, is samay tak bahut vikasit ho gaya tha aur desh ke lie qanoon banane tatha desh ke prashasan men adhik hissa diye jane ki jin mangon ke lie surendranath banarji ne pachas varshon se bhi adhik samay tak sngharsh kiya tha, un mangon ki poorti se ab deshavasi sntusht nahin the. ve ab svadhinata ki mang kar rahe the, jo surendranath ki klapana se pare thi. unaki mrityu jis samay huee us samay unaki ginati desh ke lokapriy netaon men nahin hoti thi, kintu isamen sandeh nahin ki ve adhunik bharatiy rashtriyata ke nirmataon men se the, jisaki svadhin bharat ek den hai.

mrityu

surendranath banarji 1920 ee. men shuroo kiye gaye asahayog andolan se sahamat nahin the. phalat: sthaniy svashasan ke kshetr men unaki mahattvapoorn qanooni upalabdhiyon ke bavajood unhen pahale ki bhanti deshavasiyon ka samarthan nahin mil saka. ve 1923 ke chunav men har gaye aur taduparant 6 agast, 1925 men apani mrityu paryant sarvajanik jivan se pray: alag rahe.  

panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

bhattachary, sachchidanand bharatiy itihas kosh, dvitiy snskaran-1989 (hindi), bharat diskavari pustakalay: uttar pradesh hindi snsthan, 268.

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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