मई दिवस  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

mee divas
mee divas
vivaran 'mee divas' sampoorn vishv men '1 mee' ko manaya jata hai. bhale hi alag-alag rashtron men is din ko manane ka tarika bhinn hai, kintu isaka ekamatr uddeshy mazadooron ko mukhy dhara men banae rakhana hai.
any nam 'mazadoor divas' ya 'shramik divas'
tithi 1 mee
shuruat 18vin sadi
bharat men 15 joon, 1923 ko pahali bar 'mee divas' manaya gaya tha.
vishesh 'shramik divas' ka uday 'mee divas' ke roop men nahin hua tha. vastav men amarika men shramik divas manane ki purani parampara rahi hai, jo bahut pahale se hi chali a rahi thi.
any janakari 'pratham mazadoor rajanitik parti' san 1828 ee. men filadelfiya, amarika men bani thi. isake bad hi 6 varshon men 60 se adhik shaharon men mazadoor rajanitik partiyon ka gathan hua.

mee divas ya 'mazadoor divas' ya 'shramik divas' 1 mee ko sare vishv men manaya jata hai. 'mee divas' ke vishay men adhikansh tathy ujagar ho chuke hain, phir bhi kuchh aise pahaloo hain, jo abhi tak agyat hai. kuchh bhrantiyon ka spashtikaran aur is vishay par bharat tatha vishv ke bare men kam gyat tathyon ko ujagar karane ki avashyakata hai. yah ullekhaniy hai ki 'shramik divas' ka uday 'mee divas' ke roop men nahin hua tha. vastav men amarika men shramik divas manane ki purani parampara rahi hai, jo bahut pahale se hi chali a rahi thi. mee divas bharat men 15 joon, 1923 ee. men pahali bar manaya gaya tha.

itihas

amarika men 'mazadoor andolan' yoorop v amarika men ae audyogik sailab ka hi ek hissa tha. isake phalasvaroop jagah-jagah andolan ho rahe the. inaka snbndh 1770 ke dashak ki amarika ki azadi ki ladaee tatha 1860 ee. ka grihayuddh bhi tha. inglaind ke mazadoor sngathan vishv men sabase pahale astitv men ae the. yah samay 18vin sadi ka madhy kal tha. mazadoor evn trend yooniyan sngathan 19vin sadi ke ant tak bahut mazaboot ho ge the, kyonki yoorop ke doosare deshon men bhi is prakar ke sngathan astitv men ane shuroo ho ge the. amarika men bhi mazadoor sngathan ban rahe the. vahan mazadooron ke arambhik sngathan 18vin sadi ke ant men aur 19vin sadi ke arambh men banane shuroo hue. misal ke taur par fidelafiya ke shoomekars[1] ke sngathan, baltimor ke telars[2] ke sngathan tatha nyooyark ke printars ke sngathan 1792 men ban chuke the. farnichar banane valon men 1796 men aur 'shiparaits' men 1803 men sngathan bane. hadatal todane valon ke khilaf poore amarika men sngharsh chala, jo us desh men sngathit mazadooron ka apani tarah ek alag hi andolan tha. hadatal todana ghor aparadh mana jata tha aur hadatal todane valon ko tatkal yooniyan se nikal diya jata tha.[3]

kary samay ghatane ka mang

amarika men 18ven dashak men trend yooniyanon ka shighr hi vistar hota gaya. vishisht roop se 1833 aur 1837 ke samay. is dauran mazadooron ke jo sngathan bane, unamen shamil the- bunakar, buk vaindar, darji, joote banane vale log, faiktri adi men kam karane vale purush tatha mahila mazadooron ke sngathan. 1836 men '13 siti intar trend yooniyan aisasieshan' mojood thin, jisamen 'janaral trend yooniyan aauf nyooyark' (1833) bhi shamil thi, jo ati sakriy thi. isake pas sthaee straik fnd bhi tha, tatha ek dainik akhabar bhi nikala jata tha. rashtravyapi sngathan banane ki koshish bhi ki gayi yani 'neshanal trends yooniyan', jo 1834 men banayi gayi thi. dainik kam ke ghnte ghatane ke lie kiya gaya sngharsh ati arambhik tatha prabhavashali sngharshon men ek tha, jisamen amariki mazadoor 'taharik' ka yogadan tha. 'nyoo inglaind ke varking mens aisasieshan' ne san 1832 men kam ke ghnte ghatakar 10 ghnte pratidin ke sngharsh ki shuruat ki.

shramikon ki saphalata

1835 tak amariki mazadooron ne kam ke 10 ghnte pratidin ka adhikar desh ke kuchh hisson men prapt kar liya tha. us varsh mazadoor yooniyanon ki ek am hadatal filadelafiya men huee. shahar ke prashasakon ko majabooran is mang ko manana pada. 10 ghnte kam ka pahala qanoon 1847 men nyayapalika dvara pas karavakar hempashayar men lagoo kiya gaya. isi prakar ke qanoon men tatha pensilvaniya rajyon dvara 1848 men pas kie ge. 1860 ke dashak ke shuruat tak 10 ghnte kam ka din poore amarika men lagoo ho gaya.[3]

pratham parti ka gathan

thela khinchata mazadoor

pratham mazadoor rajanitik parti san 1828 ee. men filadelfiya, amarika men bani thi. isake bad hi 6 varshon men 60 se adhik shaharon men mazadoor rajanitik partiyon ka gathan hua. inaki mangon men rajanitik samajik mudde the, jaise-

  1. 10 ghnte ka kary divas
  2. bachchon ki shiksha
  3. sena men anivary seva ki samapti
  4. karjadaron ke lie saza ki samapti
  5. mazadoori ki adayagi mudra men
  6. ayakar ka pravadhan ityadi.

mazadoor partiyon ne nagar palikaon tatha vidhan sabhaon ityadi men chunav bhi lade. san 1829 men 20 mazadoor pratyashi fedareliston tatha demokrets ki madad se filadelafiya men chunav jit ge. 10 ghnte kary divas ke sngharsh ki badaulat nyooyark men 'varking mains parti' bani. 1829 ke vidhan sabha chunav men is parti ko 28 pratishat vot mile tatha isake pratyashiyon ko vijay hasil huee.

shramik utsav

18 mee, 1882 men 'sentral lebar yooniyan aauf nyooyark' ki ek baithak men pitar maigvar ne ek prastav rakha, jisamen ek din mazadoor utsav manane ki bat kahi gee thi. usane isake lie sitambar ke pahale somavar ka din sujhaya. yah varsh ka vah samay tha, jo julaee aur 'dhanyavad dene vala din' ke bich men padata tha. bhinn-bhinn vyavasayon ke 30,000 se bhi adhik mazadooron ne 5 disambar ko nyooyark ki sadakon par pared nikali aur yah nara diya ki "8 ghnte kam ke lie, 8 ghnte aram ke lie tatha 8 ghnte hamari marji par." ise 1883 men pun: doharaya gaya. 1884 men nyooyark sentral lebar yooniyan ne mazadoor divas pared ke lie sitambar mah ke pahale somavar ka din tay kiya. yah sitambar ki pahali tarikh ko pad raha tha. doosare shaharon men bhi is din ko antarrashtriy tyohar ke roop men manane ke lie kee shaharon men pared nikali gee. mazadooron ne lal jhnde, bainaron tatha bajoobndon ka pradarshan kiya. san 1884 men efotielayoo ne har varsh sitambar ke pahale somavar ko mazadooron ke rashtriy avakash manane ka nirnay liya. 7 sitambar, 1883 ko pahali bar rashtriy paimane par sitambar ke pahale somavar ko 'mazadoor avakash divas' ke roop men manaya gaya. isi din se adhik se adhik rajyon ne mazadoor divas ke din chhutti manana prarambh kiya.[3]

mazadoor divas manane ka nirnay

in yooniyanon tatha unake rashtron ki snsthaon ne apane varg ki ekata, visheshakar apane 8 ghnte pratidin kam ki mang ko pradarshit karane hetu 1 mee ko 'mazadoor divas' manane ka phaisala kiya. unhonne yah nirnay liya ki yah 1 mee, 1886 ko manaya jayega. kuchh rajyon men pahale se hi ath ghnte kam ka chalan tha, parantu ise qanooni manyata prapt nahin thi; is mang ko lekar poore amarika men 1 mee, 1886 ko hadatal huee. mee 1886 se kuchh varshon pahale deshavyapi hadatal tatha sngharsh ke din ke bare men socha gaya. vastav men mazadoor divas tatha kary divas snbndhi andolan rashtriy yooniyanon dvara 1885 aur 1886 men sitambar ke lie socha gaya tha, lekin bahut se karanon ki vajah se, jisamen vyaparik chakr bhi shamil tha, unhen mee ke lie parivartit kar diya. is samay tak kam ke ghnte 10 pratidin ka sngharsh badalakar 8 ghnte pratidin ka ban gaya.

eent banate mazadoor

bharat men 'mee divas'

kuchh tathyon ke adhar par jahan tak gyat hai, 'mee divas' bharat men 1923 ee. men pahali bar manaya gaya tha. 'singaravelu chettiyar' desh ke kamyuniston men se ek tatha prabhavashali trend yooniyan aur mazadoor taharik ke neta the. unhonne aprail 1923 men bharat men mee divas manane ka sujhav diya tha, kyonki duniya bhar ke mazadoor ise manate the. unhonne phir kaha ki sare desh men is mauke par mitinge honi chahie. madras men mee divas manane ki apil ki gayi. is avasar par vahan do janasabhaen bhi ayojit ki geen tatha do juloos nikale ge. pahala uttari madras ke mazadooron ka haeekort 'bich' par tatha doosara dakshin madras ke tripliken 'bich' par nikala gaya.[3]

singaraveloo ne is din 'mazadoor kisan parti' ki sthapana ki ghoshana ki tatha usake ghoshana patr par prakash dala. kangres ke kee netaon ne bhi mitingon men bhag liya. singaraveloo ne haeekart 'bich' ki baithak ki adhyakshata ki. unaki doosari baithak ki adhyakshata es. krishnasvami sharma ne ki tatha parti ka ghoshana patr pi.es. velayutham dvara padha gaya. in sabhi baithakon ki riport kee dainik samachar patron men chhapi. masko se chhapane vale vainagard ne ise bharat men pahala mee divas bataya.[4] phir dubara 1927 men singaravelu ki pahal par mee divas manaya gaya, lekin is bar yah unake ghar madras men manaya gaya tha. is avasar par unhonne mazadooron tatha any logon ko dopahar ki davat di. sham ko ek vishal joolus nikala gaya, jisane bad men ek janasabha ka roop le liya. is baithak ki adhyakshata da. pi. varadarajuloo ne ki. kaha jata hai ki tatkal lal jhnda upalabdh n hone ke karan singaravelu ne apani ladaki ki lal sadi ka jhnda banakar apane ghar par laharaya.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. joota banane valon
  2. darji
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 rajimavale, anil. vishv aur bharat men shramik divas (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el.). . abhigaman tithi: 23 march, 2012.
  4. 15 joon, 1923

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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