भारतीय स्थापत्य कला  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

sindhu ghati sabhyata men sthit ek kuan aur snanaghar

bharatiy sthapaty kala ki utpatti hadappa kal se mani jati hai. bharat ke sthapaty ki jaden yahan ke itihas, darshan evn snskriti men nihit hain. bharat ki vastukala yahan ki paramparagat evn bahari prabhavon ka mishran hai. sthapaty v vastukala ke drishtikon se hadappa snskriti tatkalin snskritiyon se kafi zyada age thi. bharatiy sthapaty evn vastukala ki sabase khas bat yah hai ki itane lnbe samay ke bavajood isamen ek nirntarata ke darshan milate hain. is mamale men bharatiy snskriti any snskritiyon se bhinn hai.

sindhu ghati sabhyata

sindhu ghati sabhyata ya hadappa sabhyata ka kal 3500-1500 ee.poo. tak mana jata hai. isaki ginati vishv ki char sabase purani sabhyataon men ki jati hai. hadappa ki nagar yojana isaka ek jivnt sakshy hai. nagar yojana is tarah ki thi ki sadakeen ek-doosare ko samakon men katati thin. hadappa v mohanajodado is sabhyata ke pramukh nagar the. yahan ki imaraten pakki eenton ki banaee jati thin. yah ek aisi visheshata hai jo tatkalin kisi any sabhyata men nahin paee jati thi. mohanajodado ki sabase badi imarat usaka snanagar tha. gharon ke nirman men patthar aur lakadi ka bhi prayog kiya jata tha. mohanajodado se mili matri devi, nachati huee ladaki ki dhatu ki moorti ityadi tatkalin utkrisht moortikala ke anupam udaharan hain.[1]

mauryakalin sthapaty kala

kala ki drishti se hadappa ki sabhyata aur maury kal ke bich lagabhag 1500 varsh ka antaral hai. is bich ki kala ke bhautik avashesh upalabdh nahin hai. mahakavyon aur bauddh grnthon men hathidant, mitti aur dhatuon ke kam ka ullekh hai. kintu mauryakal se poorv vastukala aur moortikala ke moort udaharan kam hi milate hain. mauryakal men hi pahale-pahal kalatmak gatividhiyon ka itihas nishchit roop se prarambh hota hai. rajy ki samriddhi aur maury shasakon ki prerana se kalakritiyon ko protsahan mila. is yug men kala ke do roop milate hain. ek to rajarakshakon ke dvara nirmit kala, jo ki maury prasad aur ashok stnbhon men paee jati hai. doosara vah roop jo parakham ke yaksh didaragnj ki chamar grahini aur vesanagar ki yakshini men dekhane ko milata hai. rajy sabha se sambandhit kala ki prerana ka srot svayn samrat tha. yaksh-yakshiniyon men hamen lokakala ka roop milata hai. lokakala ke roopon ki parampara poorv yugon se kashth aur mitti men chali aee hai. ab use pashan ke madhyam se abhivyakt kiya gaya.[2]

maury kal ke dauairan bharat men kee shaharon ka vikas hua. mauryakal bharatiy kalaon ke vikas ke drishtikon se ek yugantakari yug tha. is kal ke smarakon v stnbhon ko bharatiy kala ke kshetr men mil ka patthar mana jata hai. is kal ke sthapaty men lakadi ka kafi prayog kiya jata tha. ashok ke samay se bhavan nirman men pattharon ka prayog prarnbh ho gaya tha. aisa mana jata hai ki ashok ne hi shrinagar (kashmir) v lalitapatan (nepal) namak nagaron ki sthapana ki thi. bauddh grnthon ke anusar ashok ne apane rajy men kul 84,000 stoopon ka nirman karaya tha. halanki isako atishyokti mana ja sakata hai. sthapaty ke drishtikon se sanchi, bharahut, bodhagaya, amaravati aur nagarjunakonda ke stoop prasiddh hain. ashok ne 30 se 40 stambhon ka nirman karaya tha. ashok ke samay se hi bharat men bauddh sthapaty shaili ki shuruat huee. is kal ke dauran guphaon, stambhon, stoopon aur mahalon ka nirman karaya gaya. ashok ke stambhon se tatkalin bharat ke videshon se snbndhon ka khulasa hota hai. pattharon par paaulish karane ki kala is kal men is star par pahunch gee thi ki aj bhi ashok ki lat ki paaulish shishe ki bhanti chamakati hai. mauryakalin sthapaty v vastukala par grik, pharasi aur misr snskritiyon ka poori tarah se prabhav drishtigochar hota hai. parakham men mili yaksh ki moorti, besanagar ki moorti, ramapurava stambh par bani sand ki moorti tatha patana aur didaragnj ki moortiyan vishesh roop se kala ke drishtikon se advitiy hain.[1]

shung, kushan aur satavahan vnsh

232 ee.poo. men ashok ki mrityu ke thode kal pashchath hi maury vnsh ka patan ho gaya. isake bad uttar bharat men shung aur kushan vnshon aur dakshin men satavahan vnsh ka shasanakal aya. is samay ke kala smarak stoop, gupha mndir (chaity), vihar, shailakrit guphaen adi hain. bharahut ka prasiddh stoop ka nirman shung kal ke dauran hi poora hua. is kal men udisa (ab odisha) men jainiyon ne gupha mndiron ka nirman karaya. unake nam hain- hathi gumfa, rani gumfa, mnchapuri gumfa, ganesh gumfa, jay vijay gumfa, alkapuri gumfa ityadi. ajnta ki kuchh guphaon ka nirman bhi isi kal ke dauran hua. is kal ke gupha mndir kafi vishal hain. isi kal ke dauran gandhar moortikala shaili ka bhi vikas hua. is shaili ko grik-bauddh shaili bhi kahate hain. is shaili ka vikas kushanon ke snrakshan men hua. gandhar shaili ke udaharan hadda v jailiyan se milate hain. gandhar shaili ki moortiyon men sharir ko yatharth v balishth dikhane ki koshish ki gee hai. isi kal ke dauran vikasit ek any shaili-mathura shaili gandhar se bhinn thi. is shaili men sharir ko poori tarah se yatharth dikhane ki to koshish nahin ki gee hai, lekin mukh ki akriti men adhyatmik sukh aur shanti poori tarah se jhalakati hai. satavahan vnsh ne goli, jaggihapeta, bhattiproloo, gntasala, nagarjunakonda aur amaravati men kee vishal stoopon ka nirman karaya.[1]

guptakalin sthapaty kala

gupt kal men kala ki vividh vidhaon jaise vastu, sthapaty, chitrakala, mridabhand, kala adi men abhootapoorn pragati dekhane ko milati hai. guptakalin sthapaty kala ke sarvochch udaharan tatkalin mndir the. mndir nirman kala ka janm yahin se hua. is samay ke mndir ek oonche chabootaren par nirmit kie jate the. chabootare par chadhane ke lie charon or se sidhiyon ka nirman kiya jata tha. devata ki moorti ko garbhagrih (Sanctuary) men sthapit kiya gaya tha aur garbhagrih ke charon or oopar se achchhadit pradakshina marg ka nirman kiya jata tha. guptakalin mndiron par parshvon par gnga, yamuna, shnkh v padm ki akritiyan bani hoti thi. guptakalin mndiron ki chhaten prayah sapat banaee jati thi par shikhar yukt mndiron ke nirman ke bhi avashesh mile hain. guptakalin mndir chhoti-chhoti eeton evn pattharon se banaye jate the. ‘bhitaraganv ka mndir‘ eeton se hi nirmit hai.[3]

cholakalin sthapaty kala

cholon ne dravid shaili ko vikasit kiya aur usako charamotkarsh par pahunchaya. rajaraj pratham dvara banaya gaya tnjaur ka shiv mndir, jise rajarajeshvar mndir bhi kaha jata hai, dravid shaili ka utkrisht namoona hai. is kal ke dauran mndir ke ahate men gopuram namak vishal pravesh dvar ka nirman hone laga. prastar moortiyon ka manavikaran chol moortikaron ki dakshin bharatiy kala ko mahanh den thi. chol kansy moortiyon men nataraj ki moorti sarvopari hai.[1]

saltanatakalin sthapaty evn vastukala

saltanat kal men bharatiy sthapaty kala ke kshetr men jis shaili ka vikas hua, vah bharatiy tatha islami shailiyon ka sammishran thi. isalie sthapaty kala ki is shaili ko ‘indo islamik’ shaili kaha gaya. kuchh vidvanon ne ise 'indo-sarasenik' shaili kaha hai. fargyoosan mahoday ne ise pathan shaili kaha hai, kintu yah vastav men bharatiy evn islami shailiyon ka mishran thi. sar jaaun marshal, eeshvari prasad jaise itihasavidon ne sthapaty kala ki is shaili ko 'indon-islamik' shaili v hindoo-muslim shaili kahana uchit samajha. indon-islamik sthapaty kala shaili ki visheshataen nimn prakar thin-

  1. saltanat kal men sthapaty kala ke antargat hue nirman karyon men bharatiy evn eerani shailiyon ke mishran ka snket milata hai.
  2. saltan kal ke nirman kary jaise- qila, maqabara, masjid, mahal evn minaron men nukile meharabon-gumbadon tatha snkari evn oonchi minaron ka prayog kiya gaya hai.
  3. is kal men mndiron ko todakar unake malabe par bani masjid men ek naye dhng se pooja ghar ka nirman kiya gaya.
  4. saltanat kal men sultanon, amiron evn soophi santon ke smaran men maqabaron ke nirman ki parampara ki shuruat huee.
  5. is kal men hi imaraton ki mazabooti hetu patthar, knkarit evn achchhe qism ke choone ka prayog kiya gaya.
  6. saltanat kal men imaraton men pahali bar vaigyanik dhng se meharab evn gumbad ka prayog kiya gaya. yah kala bharatiyon ne arabon se sikhi. turk sultanon ne gumbad aur meharab ke nirman men shila evn shahatir donon pranaliyon ka upayog kiya.
  7. saltanat kal men imaraton ki saj-sajja men jivit vastuon ka chitrin nishiddh hone ke karan unhen sajane men anek prakar ke phool-pattiyan, jyamitiy evn quran ki ayaten khudavayi jati thin. kalantar men turk sultanon dvara hindoo saj-sajja ki vastuon jaise- kamalabel ke namoone, svastik, ghntiyon ke namoone, kalash adi ka bhi prayog kiya jane laga. alnkaran ki snyukt vidhi ko saltanat kal men ‘arabask vidhi’ kaha gaya.

mugalakalin sthapaty kala

dilli saltanat kal men prachalit vastukala ki ‘bharatiy islami shaili’ ka vikas mugal kal men hua. mugalakalin vastukala men faras, turki, madhy eshiya, gujarat, bngal, jaunapur adi sthanon ki shailiyon ka anokha mishran hua tha. parsi braun ne ‘mugal kal’ ko bharatiy vastukala ka grishm kal mana hai, jo prakash aur urvara ka pratik mana jata hai. smith ne mugalakalin vastukala ko 'kala ki rani' kaha hai. mugalon ne bhavy mahalon, qilon, dvaron, masjidon, bavaliyon adi ka nirman kiya. unhonne bahate pani tatha favvaron se susajjit kee bag lagavaye. vastav men mahalon tatha any vilas-bhavanon men bahate pani ka upayog mugalon ki visheshata thi. mugalakalin sthapaty kala ke vikas aur pragati ki arambhik kramabaddh parinati ‘fatehapur sikari’ adi nagaron ke nirman men aur charam parinati shahajahan ke ‘shahajahannabad’ nagar ke nirman men dikhaee padati hai. mugal kal men vastukala ke kshetr men pahali bar ‘akar’ evn dijain ki vividhata ka prayog tatha nirman ki samragi ke roop men patthar ke alava palastar evn gachakari ka prayog kiya gaya. sajavat ke kshetr men sngamaramar par javaharat se ki gayi jadavat ka prayog bhi is kal ki ek visheshata thi. sajavat ke lie pattharon ko kat kar phool patte, belaboote ko safed sngamaramar men jada jata tha. is kal men banane vale gumbadon evn burjon ko ‘kalash’ se sajaya jata tha. inhen bhi dekhen: humayoon ka maqabara, lal qila, tajamahal, bibi ka maqabara, bulnd daravaza evn etamaduddaula ka maqabara


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tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 bharatiy sthapaty kala aur moortikala (hindi) jagaran josh. abhigaman tithi: 10 faravari, 2015.
  2. mauryakalin kala (hindi) bharatakosh. abhigaman tithi: 10 faravari, 2015.
  3. guptakalin kala aur sthapaty (hindi) bharatakosh. abhigaman tithi: 10 faravari, 2015.

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