उत्तरी अमेरिका महाद्वीप  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

uttari amerika mahadvip, ka manachitr

uttari amerika mahadvip, snyukt rajy amarika ka uttari mahadvip hai, jo prithvi ke uttari golardh men sthit hai. yah poorn roop se pashchimi golardh men ata hai. uttari amerika mahadvip uttar men arkatik mahasagar, poorv men uttari andh mahasagar, dakshin poorv men kairibiyaee sagar, aur pashchim men uttari prashant mahasagar se ghira hua hai.

uttari amerika mahadvip ka kul bhoo bhag 2,47,09,000 varg kilomitar hai. yah prithvi ki kul satah ka 4.8% ya kul bhoo bhag ka 16.5% hai. kshetraphal ki drishti se yah eshiya aur afrika ke bad vishv ka tisara sabase bada aur janasnkhya ki drishti se yah eshiya, afrika, aur yoorop ke bad chautha sabase bada mahadvip hai.

is mahadvip ko, poorv se pashchim, char pramukh prakritik vibhagon men vibhajit kiya ja sakata hai :-

atalantik tatiy pradesh

yah tat uttar men arkatik sagar se prarnbh hokar dakshin men phlorida tak poorvi parvatiy pradesh ke poorv, atalantik mahasagar ke kinare phaila hua hai. isaka lnba tatha snkara tatiy maidan nyooyark ke dakshin men phlorida tak apekshakrit adhik chauda hai par uttar ki or snkirn hota gaya hai. snrachana tatha bhootatv ke adhar par isake do vibhag hain, poorvi aur pashchimi, jo prapat rekha dvara prithakh‌ hote hain. poorvi bhag ki unchaee 65-100 mitar tak hai par pashchimi bhag lagabhag 300 mitar ooncha hai. poorvi parvatiy pradesh se nikalakar andh mahasagar men giranevali nadiyon men-saskehana, potomaik, dilaver, jems adi sabamen prapat hain. in prapaton men se unako, jo apani nadi par samudr se nikatatam hain, ek kalpit rekha se milaya ja sakata hai jise prapatarekha kahate hain. in nadiyon men prapatarekha tak samudrik jahaj ate hain, at: yahan filadelphiya, baltimor, vashingatan, richamand adi nagar evn bndaragah vikasit ho ge hain. poorvi bhag nadiyon dvara laee gee naram mitti se bana hai, at: isaki shilaen tritiyak (tarshiyari) yugin hain. pashchimi bhag prachin yug men poorvi parvatiy pradesh ka hi ansh tha, jo kalantarik avaranakshay (denyudeshan) hone ke karan visham maidan men parinat ho gaya hai. isaki chattanen karbanaprad yugin athava isase bhi purani hain. kahin-kahin, visheshataya maisachoosets ke uttar men, tatarekha vikat evn atynt snkari hai jisake pas anek nimajjit ghatiyan khadiyon ke roop men tatha pahadiyan bhoonasikaon (promatoriz) evn dvipon ke roop men sthit hain.

poorvi parvatiy pradesh

atalantik ke tatiy maidan tatha madhyavarti brihath‌ maidan ke madhy men uttari amarika ka prachin bhoobhag sthit hai. ise sent larens nadi ki ghati do bhagon men vibhajit karati hai-uttari tatha dakshini. is ghati se lekar uttar tatha uttar-poorv men hadasan ki khadi tatha uttar sagar tak phaila hua atynt visham snrachana ka kshetr hai jise larenshiya ka pathar kahate hain. yah bhag uttari amarika ka prachinatam bhoobhag hai jisake dakshin tatha pashchim men kalantar men kee sthalakhnd paraspar jud ge. is prakar adhunik mahadvip ka nirman hua. any siddhanton ke anusar vartaman larenshiya pathar us brihattar sthalakhnd ka ek ansh matr hai jo purakalp (pailiozoik era) men dakshin men teksas rajy tatha pashchim men raauki parvaton tak phaila hua tha aur jisake madhyakalpayugin (mesozoik) mahasagar men nimajjit hone se mahasagariy nikshep hua. pratinootanakalik (plaistosin) himayug ka sootrapatr bhi isi sthalakhnd se hua. aisa hote hue bhi, vicharadhin bhag amarika ke any bhag ki apeksha kalantarik avaranakshay se bacha raha. himayugin apaksharan ke tatha nikshep ke karan yahan ki bhoomi oobad khabad, mitti vihin tath anupajaoo hai. kuchh achchhi mitti vale bhagon evn khanij sthanon par abadi hai.

sent larens nadi ke dakshin vala bhag aipalaichiyan parvatiy pradesh kahalata hai jo prachinatam aipalaichia namak sthalakhnd ka bhag hai. yah uttar poorv men nyoofaundalaind se lekar dakshin pashchim men ailabaima tatha ek shakha dvara arakaizais tak phaila hua hai. is bhag ko apekshakrit shant pade larenshiyan kshetr ki apeksha tod-phod, utthan patan, atinikshep evn ati avaranakshay ke kee yug dekhane pade. kaibriyanapoorv yug men oonche parvaton ka nirman hua jo lagatar avaranakshay ke karan madhyakalp (mesozoik era) men avashisht matr rah ge. tritiyak kalp (tarshiyari era) men pun: inaka utthan hua aur pathar ke oonche bhag parvat ban ge. in parvatiy bhagon ki oonchaee kahin bhi 2,100 mitar se adhik nahin hai aur n to ye kramabaddh parvatashreni ke roop men hain. inake bich men nadiyon ne gahari tatha chaudi ghatiyan bana li hain. isaka uttari bhag, jo nyoo inglaind rajy men padata hai, apekshakrit samudr se adhik nikat, kata chhnta aur bihad hai. dakshin men aileghani pathar hai jisaka nirman samataliy shilaon, balua pattharon, shelon evn choona pattharon se hua hai. tatsnbndhi knbaralaind ka pathar usake dakshin men hai aur ailabaima tak phaila hua hai. missauri ka ojark ka pathar tatha arakainzais ka anchita parvat inhin ke bhag hain jo ek doosare se snbndhit hain. dakshin poorv men parvatapadiy pathar hai jo samudratat tak chala gaya hai.

madhyasthit brihat maidan

poorvi evn pashchimi parvatiy bhagon (2 tatha 4) ke madhy, uttar men uttari mahasagar tatha dakshin men maiksiko ki khadi ke tat tak 32,37,500 varg ki.mi. men phaila hua yah samatal maidan hai, jisamen anek nadiyon ki chaudi ghatiyan sthit hain. lagabhag snpoorn maidan samataliy shilaon se snrachit hai aur apekshakrit sadiyon ki vikriti evn vikhndan adi bhootatvik halachalon se bacha raha hai jisake karan kee pravahapranaliyon ne apane vishal maidan nirmit kie hain. poorvi maidani bhag purakalpayugin shilaon se nirmit hai, parntu pashchimi bhag madhyakalp tatha tritiyak kalp men nirmit hue hain. poorv evn pashchimi parvatiy bhagon ke tritiyak kalpayugin utthan ke sath inamen bhi utthan hua, parntu kuchh bhagon ko chhodakar adhikansh samatal maidani bhag hain. poorvi maidan gndamridiy nikshep ke karan adhik samatal ho gaya hai. madhy pashchimi bhagon men giripad nikshep hua hai. uttar poorv men himayugin apaksharan tatha nikshep ka atyadhik prabhav pada hai, jisase adhik jhilen adi ban gee hain.

pashchimi parvatiy kshetr

madhyavarti maidan ke pashchim raauki parvaton se lekar pashchim men prashant mahasagariy tat tak uttar se dakshin anek parvat pranaliyon tatha patharon ka atynt visham kshetr hai, jise uttari amarika ka kardilera bhoo-bhag kahate hain. yadyapi in vibhinn pranaliyon men utpatti, snrachana evn ayu men parasparik antar hai, tathapi poorvi parvatiy pradesh ki apeksha ye ne hain aur navakalpayug men bhnjit hue hain. at: ye adhik unche aur visham hain. inake vibhinn bhagon men jvalamukhi parvat tatha unake udgar tatv bhi prapy hain. orijova aur popakatapetl (maiksiko), maunt sain phrainsisko (erizona), shasta (kailiforniya) reniyar (vashingatan), rainjel (alaska) adi mukhy jvalamukhi parvat hain. kolnbiya pathar bharatiy lava pathar ki bhanti jvalamukhi se nikali huee lavachattanon se nirmit hain. isake atirikt is bhag men vishal antarparvatiy evn giripad (pidamaunt) pathar tatha nadiyon ki atynt gahari ghatiyan (kainiyan) vartaman hain.

  • poorv se pashchim, vicharadhin bhoo-bhag ke panch bhaugolik vibhag hain-
  1. poorv men raauki parvat pranali ka kshetr ausat roop men 1,900 ki.mi. se adhik lnba tatha 300 ki.mi. se adhik chauda hai. isaki uttari tatha dashkshini pranaliyon ke bich gret divaid ya vayoming besin hai, jisake dvara avagaman ki suvidha prapt hoti hai. in parvaton men kee samantar shreniyan hain jinake madhy nadiyon ki ghatiyan sthit hain.
  2. raauki kshetr ke pashchim men visham dharataliy antarparvatiy tatha giripad patharon ka vishal kshetr hai, jinamen uttar se dakshin alaska pathar, kolnbiya pathar, gret besin, koloraido pathar tatha maiksiko pathar hain. koloraido tatha usaki sahayak nadiyon ne lagabhag 2,000 mitar tak gahari ghatiyan (kainiyan) bana li hain.
  3. in patharon ke pashchim (alaska pathar ke dakshin tatha dakshin poorv) pun: parvatiy shreniyan hain jo uttar tatha uttar-pashchim men sthit alaska se dakshin men sthit meksiko tak chali gee hain. uttar men tatha uttar pashchim men inaka nam alaska parvatashreni, pashchimi kanada men kasked, pashchimi snyukt rajy men siyara nevada, tatha dakshin aur maiksikon men siyara madari hai. alaska parvatashreniyon men uttari amarika ke sarvochch 11 shikhar vartaman hain jinamen maunt maikinale (6,100 mitar sarvochch hai.
  4. in parvatashreniyon ke pashchim,tatha samudratatiy parvaton ke madhy, kee snkari upajaoo ghatiyan hain, jinamen paget saund tatha kailiforniya ki ghatiyan kramash: 240 tatha 800 ki.mi. lnbi hain. in ghatiyon ke pashchim (kostal renjez) phaili huee hain.
  5. inake pashchim prashant mahasagar ka atynt snkara tatiy kshetr sthit hai jahan, visheshakar, british kolnbiya ke pas, chhote-chhote dvip tatha khadiyan aur phiyordh‌s hain. jin sthanon par maidan kuchh adhik chauda hai, vahan mallahon adi ke avas milate hain.

maiksiko men madhyavarti pathar ke poorv aur pashchim, siyara madari ki poorvi tatha pashchimi shreniyan phaili hain jo tehuantepek men jakar bharat ko nilagiri shreniyon ki tarah ek baddh ho jati hain. phalat: pathar dakshin men snkara tatha uttar men chauda ho gaya hai. poorvi kshetr samudr se door hai; at: tatiy maidan chauda hai par pashchimi tat parvaton ke samudr se sate hone ke karan snkara hai. pathar ki dhal meksiko ki khadi ki or hai.

jalapranali

bhootal ki snrachana tatha vikas ki antarvishamata ke karan kee pravahapranaliyan vikasit huee hain. snsar ki sabase lnbi nadi misisipi-missauri (6,640 ki.mi.) ka vikas kee bhoobhagon ke vikas ke sath snbaddh hai. poorvi parvatiy bhagon se nikalanevali isaki sahayak nadi ohayo (2,080 ki.mi.) adhyakalpayugin hai jab ki pashchimi sahayak nadiyan missauri (4,320 ki.mi.), arakaizas tatha red nadi tritiyakayugin hain. dakshini tatiy bhagon ke vikasit hone par misisipi ki lnbaee lagabhag dooni ho gee. uttar men pratinootan himayugin nikshep ke karan kee nadiyan misisipi men atmasath‌ ho geen aur ab ve shirsh nadiyon ke roop men hi vartaman hain. misisipi maiksiko ki khadi men atynt vishal delta banati hai. ukt khadi giranevali doosari prasiddh nadi raauyo grande hai jo raauki se nikalati hai aur apane nichale pravah men maiksiko ki simarekha banati hai. kaaurdilera ki vibhinn shreniyon se nikalakar prashant mahasagar men giranevali nadiyon men yookan, kolnbiya evn koloraido pramukh hain. yookan pashchimottar kainada tatha alaska men pravahit hokar bering jaladamaroomadhy ke dakshin naaurtan saund men girati hai. kolnbiya nadi, kanada ke british kolnbiya ke raauki parvat se nikalakar 5,69,800 varg ki.mi. ke besin se bahati huee, prashant mahasagar men girati hai. snek tatha spoken isaki pramukh sahayak nadiyan hain. koloraido nadi raauki se nikalakar uttari amarika ke sabase adhik sookhe rajyon oota, erizona, dakshini kailiforniya evn maiksiko ke kuchh bhagon se bahati huee kailiforniya ki khadi men girati hai. isaka khadd (kainiyan) kahin-kahin 2,000 mitar tak gahara hai. uttari sagar men giranevali sarvapramukh nadi maikenji (3,680 ki.mi.) hai jo anek jhilon se hokar ati hai. isaka muhana kee mahinon tak barph se dhaka rahata hai. nelsan, albani, phort jarj adi kee chhoti nadiyan uttar men hadasan ki khadi men girati hain. sent larens nadi badi jhilon se pravahit hoti huee uttar poorv men sent larens ki khadi men girati hai. isake muhane par bhi mahinon tak barph jami rahati hai. poorvi parvatiy pradesh se nikalakar poorv men andh mahasagar men giranevali nadiyan-saskehana, potomak, dilavar, jems adi-atynt chhoti hain. uparyukt samudragami jalapranaliyon ke atirikt uttari amarika men ek vishal antarmukhi jalapranali hai jo shushk gret besin men milati hai. isake atirikt uttari amarika men anek jhilen hain, jinamen supiriyan (82,414 varg ki.mi.), hyooran (59,570 varg. ki.mi.), mishigan (58,000 varg ki.mi.), eero (25,770 varg ki.mi.), aur ontairiyo (19,528 varg ki.mi.) adi panch brihat jhilon ke atirikt, salt lek, vinipeg, gret slev, gret beyar adi jhilen pramukh hain. sent larens nadi tatha panch badi jhilen deshabhyntar jalapathon ke lie suprasiddh hain.

jalavayu

uttari amarika ki jalavayu par char baton ka vishesh prabhav padata hai:-

  1. akshanshiy sthiti,
  2. parvaton ka uttar dakshin phailav,
  3. niyatavahi havaen aur samudr ki dharaen tatha
  4. uttari prashant evn uttari aitalantik ki hava ke kam dabav ke kendr.

uchch akshanshon men sthit hone ke karan kainada ka do tihaee bhag varsh ke adhikansh mahinon men barph se dhaka rahata hai. parvaton ke uttar dakshin phaile rahane ke karan uttari dakshini havaen madhy bhag men berok bahati hain jisase mahadvip ka adhikansh bhag jade men adhik thnda ho jata hai, parntu grishm men isaka prabhav achchha hota hai, kyonki maiksiko ki khadi se chalanevali havaen kanada ke uttari bhag tak pahunch jati hain. par poorv pashchim akar varsha karanevali havaon ya samudrik dharaon ka prabhav in tatiy parvaton ke karan antarprat men nahin padane pata. jade men snpoorn kanada, alaska, nyoofaundalaind tatha madhyavarti maidan men ardhottari bhag ka tap 32° pha. se kam rahata hai. maiksiko khadi ke tatiy bhagon tatha maiksiko men 48°-64° pha. ka tap rahata hai. at: jade men mahadvip ka koee bhag adhik garam nahin rahata. grishm ritu men keval uttarasagariy tat tatha usake nikatavarti bhagon ko chhodakar snpoorn mahadvip men 32° pha. se adhik tap rahata hai. at: mahadvip ke adhikansh men janavari julaee ke madhyamik tapon ka antar 40° pha. se adhik tatha uttar men 70° pha. se bhi adhik pad jata hai. 40° u.a. ke uttaravale pashchimi tat ke bhagon men garam jaladharaon ka prabhav padata hai, lekin samakaksh poorvi tat ka jal laibrador ki thndi jaladhara ke karan jam jata hai. dakshin men pashchimi taton par kailiphorniya ki thndi dhara chalati hai aur samakaksh poorvi taton par meksiko ki garam dharaen.

isi prakar parvatiy sthiti, chakravatiy path, samudr sane nikatata, havaon ki disha adi ka prabhav varsha par padata hai. 40° u.an.se uttari bhagon men pashchimi tat par vashyukt pashchimi havaon ke karan prachur varsho ho jati hai par samakaksh poorvi tat varshavihin rahata hai. 30°-40° u.a. men pashchimi tat par jade men pachhuvan havaon dvara varsha hoti hai, pnratu garmi me yah bhag uttar poorvi vyaparik havaon men padane ke karan shushk rah jata hai. 300 u.a. ke dakshin ka pashchim tatiy bhag sal bhar in havaon ke prabhav men rahane ke karan marusthal hai, par ye hi havaen samakaksh poorvi kshetron-phlaurida aur meksiko-men prachur varsha karati hain. meksiko ki khadi se havaen misisipi ki ghati men grishmakal men pravesh karati hain. unake khadi ke nikatavarti sthanon men adhik varsha hoti hai aur bhitari sthanon men varsha ki matra doori ke anusar kam hone lagati hai. uttari amarika men adhik varshavale (100 se 200 sen. varshik) kshetr dakshin-poorvi meksiko, snyukt, suynkt rajy ke aitalantik tatiy rajy, maiksiko ki khadi ke tatavarti poorvi rajy, british kolnbiya, yookan ke pashchimatatiy bhag tatha alaska ke dakshini tat hain. 50 se 100 sen. tak varsha maiksiko ke any shesh bhag, teksas, misisipi ghati ke rajyon tatha vinipeg jhil se poorv sthit kanada ke rajyon men hoti hai. 50 sen. se kam varsha ke kshetr ke antargat raauki parvat ki poorvi dhal par sthit pathari paidan, pashchimi parvatiy pradesh ke madhyavarti pathar, gret besin, kailiforniya ka registani bhag, kanada ke saskechavan, alabarti, mekenji, poorvi british kolnbiya, yookan pathar ke pashchimi tatha uttari prant aur alaska ka uttari bhag snmilit hain.

vanaspati, jivajntu-mahadvip men tundra se lekar ushn katibndh tak sabhi prakar ki jalavayu milane ke karan sabhi prakar ki vanaspatiyan milati hain. uttari sagar ke tatiy bhagon men tundra vanaspati tatha dakkhin men bhojapatr, chinar evn namra (vilo) adi ugate hain. isake dakshin men lagabhag 4,800 ki.mi. lnba aur lagabhag 100 ki.mi. chauda bhag konadhari vanon (saron, devadaru, popalar ityadi ke vrikshon) se achchhadit hai. poorvi parvatiy kshetr ke uttari bhagon men konadhari tatha dakshin men patajhadavale vriksh (ok, chestanat, elm, mepul adi) hain. pashchimi parvatiy pradesh ke uttari bhagon men saro, devadaru adi tatha dakshini bhagon men dagalas far, red sidar (rakt devadaru) adi mukhy hain. maiksiko kshetr men ushn katibndhiy (mahogani adi ke) van milate hain. parvatiy bhagon men parvatiy vanaspatiyan prapy hain. in parvatiy bhagon ko chhodakar adhikansh shushk pathari bhagon men maru tatha ardhamaru vanaspatiyan (senhud, nagaphani ityadi) milati hain. madhyavarti maidan ke poorvi bhagon men lnbi ghasen tatha pashchimi bhagon men chhoti ghasen pramukh vanaspati hain. krishi tatha charagahon ki vriddhi ke sath manushy ke vinashakari karyo dvara prakritik vanaspati ka atyadhik hhras hua hai.

uttari amarika ke pashupakshi yooreshiya ke pashu pakshiyon se adhik milate julate hain. chhachhoondar, shalyak (armadilo), sahi, preari, kutta, raauki parvatiy bakari adi pashu tatha baltimor kanchan (oriol), kaubard, ralabhash (phlaee kaichar), kailiforniya bater (kvel) adi pakshi uttari amarika ki visheshataen hain. kuchh pakshi dakshin amariki pakshiyon se bhi milate julate hain.

janasnkhya

uttari amarika ki kul jannsakhya 1970 ki janaganana tatha anumanon ke anusar 26,98,92,549 hai jisamen snyukt rajy men 20,02,55,151 (arthath‌ bis karod se adhik), kainada men 2,13,24,000 (do karod se adhik) aur maiksiko men 4,83,13,438 (lagabhag panch karod) log rahate hain. at: prati varg ki.mi. snyukt rajy men 21, kanada men 2 (2.3) tatha maiksiko men 25 hai. vishv ke pariprekshy men uttari amarika astreliya ki tarah alp abad hai n keval rashtriy star par balki pradeshik evn kshetriy staron par to isase bhi adhik vishamata paee jati hai. alaska men 5 varg. ki.mi. se bhi adhik kshetr men keval ek manushy rahata hai. vastut: alaska men 15 lakh varg ki.mi. kshetr men tin lakh se bhi kam log rahate hain jab ki keval 17 varg ki.mi. se bhi kam kshetraphalavale havaee dvip men lagabhag sadhe sat lakh log rahate hain. snyukt rajy ke satat mahadvipiy bhag ko 1000 p.de. par vibhajit karake janasnkhya ke vitaran ko dekhane par spasht hai ki usase pashchim sthit rajyon men prati varg ki.mi. ghanatv ataynt kam hai aur yah unake parvatiy, kam upajaoo, maru ya himachchhadit athava kam tap man hone ke karan khetibadi men kam pragati ke karan hai, doosari or isake poorv rashtr ke dhuri rajy hain jo khetibadi tatha khanijon aur udyogadhndhon tatha vyapar ki drishti se n keval desh men balki vishv men samunnat hain. uttarapoorvi audyogik kshetr, jisamen bostan se lekar varshitan rajadhani nagar tak ke kshetr bhi sammilit hain, atynt saghan abad aur arthik-audyogik-vyaparik dhuri hain. kul janasnkhya ki drishti se pashchim men prashant-mahasagar-tatiy rajy kailiforniya (1,97,15,490), poorv men atalantik-mahasagar-tatiy nyooyark (1,79,79,712) evn pensilavaniya (1,16,69,575) aur dakshin men meksiko khadi tatiy teksas (1,09,89,123), tatha madhy men bade jhilatatiy ilinay (1,09,77,908) aur ohayo (1,05,42,30) ityadi chhah rajy hain jinamen ek karod se adhik janasnkhya rahati hai aur ye sabhi khetibadi evn udyogadhndhon tatha vyapar ki drishti se mahatvapoorn hain. 50 lakh se adhik abadivale rajyon men mishigan (87,78,187), nyoojarsi (70,84,992), florida (66,71,162), maisachusets (56,30,224) aur indiyana (51,43,422) ke panch rajy hain. at: uparyukt das rajyon men snyukt rajy ki 55 pratishat se adhik abadi basi hai. kainada ki bhi 90 pratishat janasnkhya dakshini bhag (atalantik tat), sent larens ki ghati, badi jhilon ke bhoobhag tatha preari pradeshon men sthit hai. ye hi bhag khetibadi, udyogadhndhon, vyapar, yatayat ke sadhanon tatha any prakritik sanskritik snsadhanon ki drishti se pramukh hain. vastut: otairiyo (76,11,000) evn kvebek (60,05,000) do hi pranton men, jahan kainada ka kul chauthaee kshetraphal hain, 60 pratishat se adhik abadi paee jati hain jabaki doosari or yookan kshetr ke 5 lakh se adhik varg ki.mi. kshetr men keval 16,000 log rahate hain aur uttar pashchim kshetr men 33 lakh varg ki.mi. men keval 33,000 log rahate hain. vastut: kainada ki 75 pratishat janata nagaron men rahati hai jo adhikanshat : snyukt rajy ki sima se 150 ki.mi. ke andar sthit hain. snyukt rajy evn kainada ke donon satat ghane abad kshetron ke mil jane se uttari amarika ka madhy-uttar-poorvi bhag snsar ke char sarvadhik ghane abad bade pradeshon men se ek hai. maiksiko poornataya pathari ooncha pradesh hai aur yahan janasnkhya vitaran men apekshakrit kam vishamata paee jati hai. adhikatar abadi yahan kark rekha ke dakshin sthit snkare bhag tatha anavak namak pathar par paee jati hai. krishi, udyog evn yatayat ke vikas aur pradeshik sntulan evn suraksha adi ke chalate ab sarvatr vishamata kam hoti jane ki pravritti dikh rahi hai.

avrajan

uttari amarika men astreliya ki tarah hi janasnkhya ki vriddhi men snsar ke any bhagon ki apeksha bahar se vyaktiyon ke ane ka mahatvapoorn hath raha hai. 1941-50 ke dashak men bhi akele snyukt rajy men das lakh se adhik (10,35,000) avrajak, jinamen 7,22,000 mahadvipiy yoorop se, 1,32,000 briten se tatha shesh vishv ke any bhagon se ae.

nagar

janasnkhya tatha audyogik vyaparik vriddhi ke sath sath mahadvip men nagarikaran badh raha hai. das lakh ya usase adhik janasnkhyavale (dasalakshiy) mahanagar ab mahadvip men 31 ho ge hain jinamen 29 snyukt rajy men, ek kainada men aur ek maiksiko men hain. snyukt rajy men janasnkhyanusar nyooyark (11,529 h.), laaus ainjels (7,032 h., kailiforniya), shikago (6,979 h. ili.), filadelfiya (4,818 h.pensi.nyoojarsi), ditrayat (4,200 h. mishigan), sain phrainsisko (3,110 h. kailiforniya), varshigatan (2,861 h. distrikt kolnbiya), bostan (2,754 h. maichachusets), pitsabarg (2,401h.,pensi.), klovalaind (2,064 h., klivalaind), sent luee (2,363 h., missauri), baltimir (2,071 h., merilaind), miniyapolis (1,814 h.,menisota), milavauki (1,404 h.), hyoostan (1,485 h., teksas), bafaili (1,349 h., nyooyark) evn dalas (teksas), sinasinati (ohayo-kentaki), kainsas siti, sietal, aitalanta mayami, nyooarliyans, san diego, denabar, indiyanapolis, san jos, san barnadino ribarasaid evn sent pitarsabarg hain. inake atirikt tis nagaron ki janasnkhya panch lakh se 9,99,999 tak hai. ye sabhi bade nagar nigamit kshetr hai jinamen pramukh nagar par ashrit nagaron ki janasnkhya bhi snmilit rahati hai. vaiyaktik yatayat aur sndeshavahan ke sadhanon men vriddhi hone se pramukh nagaron aur ashrit nagaron men karyatmak snbaddhata teji se badh rahi hai. inamen se adhikansh nagar udyogapradhan, vyaparik tatha sevakendr hain. snyukt rajy ke dasalakshiy nagaron men se pahale adhikansh uttarapoorvi audyogik kshetr men sthit the lekin ab unaki snkhya keval 40 pratishat rah gee hai. at : any pradeshon--pashchim tatiy kshetr (kailiforniya, vashingatan), dakshin tatiy kshetr (teksas-looiziyana-florida), tatha shesh adhikansh madhy evn madhyapashchimi krishi kshetr men vikasit hain. at: ab suyakt rajy men bhi kshetriy pradeshik vikas ke sntulan ki or, visheshat: suraksha ki drishti se, dhyan diya ja raha hai. vashintan (distrikt kolnbiya) snyukt rajy ki rajadhani hai jahan sabhi pramukh snghiy (phedaral) karyalay tatha videshi dootavas adi sthit hain. mahaganaron men se poorvi tat par uttar se dakshin bostan, nyooyark, ki ladelfiya (delaveyar nadi) tatha baltimor atalantik mahasagaratatiy bndaragah hain. pashchimi (prashant mahasagariy tat) par sain.phraisisko tatha laaus ainjels evn dakshini tat (meksiko ki khadi) par hyastan adi bade bndaragah evn audyogik vyaparik nagar hain. antarik brihath‌ audyogik tatha sngrahak, vitarak nagaron men shikagon (mishigan jhil par sthit), pitsabarg, sent luee, ditrayat, klivalaind, bafailo, kainsas siti adi pramukh kendr hain. hyoostan antariksh yan chhodane aur antariksh shodhakary (spes risarch) kendr ho gaya hai. kainada men mantriyal (kvebek prant, 12,22,255) brihattam nagar hai aur sent larens nadi par sthit bndaragah evn pramukh vyaparik evn audyogik kendr hain. isake atirikt vahan tanrnto (6,64,584), vainkavar (4,10,375), edamantan (3,76,925) bade nagar hain. meksiko men meksiko siti (70,05,855) uttari amarika ka tisara brihattam nagar hai.

nivasi tatha bhashaen

snyukt rajy men 1970 ke janagananusar kul janasnkhya men se 1,77,612 h. (87%) shvetavarn, 22,672 h. (11%) habshi, 523 h. (1960 men) redaya amariki indiyan evn 2,880 h. any prajati aur varno ke log the. 1900 ee men kul 76,014 h. janasnkhya men lagabhag 88% shvetavarn, 10.2% habshi evn shesh indiyan env any log the. lagabhag 55 lakh yahoodi hain lekin arthik, vyaparik roop men unaka mahatv apekshakrit kaphi adhik hai. kainada ki janasnkhya men 40% se adhik log british mool tatha 30% ke lagabhag phrench mool ke hain. idhar kainada men vishv ke vibhinn bhagon se anevale ahvrajakon ke lie adhik udar niti apanaee gee hai. kvebek ke briten dvara vijit hone ke bavajood vahan ke nivasiyon ne phrench bhasha, rahan sahan aur snskriti ko akshunn rakha hai. jarman, yookren, itali adi ki bhi snkhya adhik hai. kul milakar vahan 98% log shvetavarn ke hain. kainada ke purane adivasiyon (red indiyan tatha eskimon) ki snkhya vahan kul abadi ka keval 1.2% (kul 2,37,000 red indiyan) hai. red indiyanon men se 74% vahan lagabhag 60 lakh ekad bhoomi par phaile snrakshit kshetron (rijarveshan) men rahate hain. eskimon log uttarapashchimi kshetr, uttari kvebek tatha laibredor men rahate hain. maiksiko ki prajatiy snrachana snyukt rajy aur kainada se bilkul bhinn hai-vahan kul janasnkhya men 70% mestijo arthath‌ red indiyan tatha shvet jatiyon ke varnasnkar vnshaj hain aur 28% red indiyan hain. bhasha ki drishti se bhi snyukt rajy aur kainada ainglo-amariki arthath‌ angreji bhashabhashi hain aur keval kainada ke kvebek prant men tatha kuchh kuchh nyoobrnzavik, ontairiyo aur menitoba men phrench bhasha evn snskriti (lagabhag 2% logon men ) paee jati hai, jab ki meksiko laitin amariki desh hai aur vahan speni bhasha ka bolabala hai, yadyapi kuchh log vibhinn indiyan bhashaen bolate hain.

krishi

uttari amarika ki krishi jalavayu, mitti, dharatal aur bajar, ne avishkaron adi tatha yatayat ke sadhanon dvara prabhavit huee hai. is mahadvip men krishikshetr vibhinn prakritik evn manaviy suvidhaon ke karan usi prakar bhoo-bhag-vishesh men kendrit hai jis prakar audyogik kshetr. yahan ki kheti vyaparik dhag par bade paimane par hoti hai; at: adhikadhik labh uthane evn pratidvndvitapoorn bajaron men suvidha prapt karane ke lie jahan vishesh prakar ki kheti un vishesh kshetron men hoti hai jahan sabhi suvidhaen sarvadhik upalabdh hain. udaharanat: kainada ke preariz aur snyukt rajy ke misisipi maidan ke uttar-pashchimi bhag men gehoon, madhyavarti bhag men makka tatha dakshini bhagon men kapas adi phasalon ke lie shreshthatam jalavayu evn dharatal tatha mitti paee jati hai, bajar bhi samip hai, mashinon se kary ho sakata hai, at: ye kshetr in phasalon ke lie snsaraprasiddh hain. yadyapi in kshetron men any phasalon ki bhi kheti hoti hai, tathapi snbndhit kshetr ki mukhy phasal ke nam par hi unhen snbodhit kiya jata hai.

is mahadvip ne snsar ko tin mukhy phasalen pradan ki hai-makka, tnbakoo aur aloo. pratham upaniveshiyon ko jngal katane, mitti ko upajaoo banane, pani ki suvidha prapt karane, kidon tatha any prakritik apattiyon ka samana karane men badi kathinaee jhelani padi thi. majadooron ki kami ke karan krishi ke ne ne aujaron ka avishkar hua. phalat: aj jahan lagabhag 10% log hi krishi men lage hain. snyukt rajy men to yah pratishat 5 se bhi kam ho gaya hai jabaki kul niryat ka 20% se adhik us desh men krishi-dhndhon se prapt hota hai. mahadvip ke madhyavarti bade maidan ke uttari bhag men gleshiyar dvara bichhaee huee naram evn upajaoo mitti, dakshini bhag men nadiyon dvara laee huee jalodh mitti tatha preariz ke ghas ke maidan ki kali mitti atynt upajaoo hain. isake atirikt yahan khad ka adhikadhik prayog hota hai. kheton ke chak bahut bade bade (kainada men lagabhag 100 he se 400-500 he. tak aur snyukt rajy men 80 he. se 250 he. tak) hain, at : mashinen asani se prayukt hoti hain. deshi tatha videshi bajar nishchitapray evn bade hain, pratyut adhik dam dekar bhi vah phasal kharidati hai. phalat: krishak ko hani ko ashnka nahin rahati. utpadan aur bajar ke tadatmy tatha sntulan ko drishti men rakhate hue snyukt rajy men sarakar kee darjan phasalon ke boe ge kshetraphal ko bhi niyntrit karati hai lekin niyntran dvara pradatt kshetraphal par jitani bhi phasal krishak uga le, use pahale se hi nishchit dar par sarakar poora ka poora kharidane ko badhy rahati hai. krishak pray: isilie adhunikatam snsadhanon evn takanikon ka upayog karake apane kheton men adhik se adhik utpadan badhane ko utsuk rahata hai. use mausam ki anishchitata (badh, sookha, tiddi, rog, vyadhi adi) ke viruddh phasalon ke bimen ka surakshatmak kavach bhi prapt hai. isalie is mahadvip men gehoon, makka, jee, kapas, mans aur doodh ki bani vastuon ka utpadan snsar men sarvadhik hota hai pani ki asuvidhavale pashchimi kshetron men sinchaee tatha any karyo ke lie vishal bahumukhi yojanaen karyanvit ki gee hain, jisase kailiforniya jaisa marusadrish bhoobhag snyukt rajy ka udyan ho gaya hai. kailiforniya ke in sinchit kshetron, mishigan jhil ke pas ke kshetr evn dakshini tatiy bhag men snyukt rajy ke mukhy phal ugae jate hain.

khanij sadhan

yah mahadvip khanij snpatti men bahut samriddh hai. shakti ke pramukh khanij-koyala evn khanij tel tatha prakritik gais-ki n keval matra vishal hai, koti bhi uchch hai; sath hi audyogik vikas ke lie inaka vitaran bhi atynt suvidhapoorn hai. vishv men 1968 men koyala tulyankon men kul 614 karod mitrik tan oorja ka utpadan hua tha jisamen 205 karod tan akele uttari amarika men hua tha. vastut: 1968 men vishv men kul koyala tatha lignait utpadan (227 k. mitrik tan) men uttari amarika ne 51, khanij tel (254 k. mitrik tan) men 69, prakritik gais (119 k. mitrik tan) men se 5 k.mi. tan (sabhi koyala tulyankon men) utpadan kiya. utpadan ki tulana men oorja ka sarvadhik prayog uttari amarika men hi hota hai. 1968 men vishv ka ausat prati oorja upabhog 1,733 kilo. tha kintu uttari amarika men usaki matra 10,155 kilo. (yoorop, eshiya men keval 170 kilo.) thi. vastut: audyogik, yatayat evn ghareloo upayogon men oorja ki adhik khapat hai. at: vishv oorja ka kul 33% se adhik utpadan (1968) karane par bhi uttari amarika men sthit vishv ki kul 8% janata ko (?) oorja ke lie any deshon par ashrit rahana pad raha hai. 1968 men vishv ke kul vidyuth‌ utpadan (4,192 arab kilovat prati ghnta) men se 1,653 arab kilovat prati ghnta ka utpadan uttari amarika men hua. itane par bhi utpadan ko aur adhik badhana avashyak hota ja raha hai. chin ke bad koyale ka bhandar yahin sarvadhik hai. yah snsar ke 80% se bhi adhik ainthrasait koyale ka utpadan karata hai. yahan bitoominas evn lignait koyale ke bhi vishal bhandar pae jate hain. kainada ke vibhinn kshetron-nova skoshiya, nyoo, brnzavik evn pashchimi raauki kshetron men, aur snyukt rajy ke poorvi parvatiy pradesh men (jahan adhikansh udyog dhndhe vikasit hain) adhikansh koyala milata hai. shesh koyala maidani dakshini tatiy bhag, pashchimi parvatiy pradesh, alaska tatha maiksiko men milata hai. snsar ka 30% tel bhandar yahan hai. tel kainada ke ontairiyo prant, meksiko ke poorvi tat tatha snyukt rajy men dakshini aur madhyavarti bhag evn kailiforniya tatha alaska men prapy hai. prakritik gais men bhi snyukt rajy tatha kainada dhani hain. in khanij shaktiyon ke atirikt uttari amarika jalavidyuth‌ shakti men bhi samriddhishali hai aur snsar ke kul vikasit jalavidyuth‌ ka 40 pratishat isi mahadvip men hain. yooreniyam ka bhi yahan samuchit bhandar hai.

inake atirikt uttari amarika snsar ke loha, chandi, nikel, gndhak, faausfet, aisbestas, tanba, sisa evn jasta ka sabase bada utpadak evn upabhokta hai. kainada ke kee kshetron ke atirikt badi jhilon ke pradesh men, jahan jhilon dvara sarvadhik sasta yatayat sadhan prapy hai, lauh-bhandar hain jahan se mahadvip ka 80% loha nikalata hai. kainediyan shild men snsar ka 33% sona, 85% nikel evn 50% kobalt ke atirikt pichablend (jisase snsar ka 40% rediyam milata hai), chandi, plaitinam, tanba, tatha any kee dhatuen nikalati hain. mahadvip men sona kainada ke ontairiyo evn kvebek prant aur suynkt rajy ke kailiforniya, koloraido, nevada evn alaska kshetron men milata hai; tanba maikenji ki ghati, kvabek prant, snyukt rajy ke pashchimi rajyon evn supiriyar jhil ke dakshin men milata hai; sisa, jasta evn chandi snyukt rajy ke pashchimi tatha madhyadakshini rajyon aur meksiko men upalabdh hai. snsar ka 75% gndhak keval looiziana evn teksas men nikala jata hai. ailyuminiyam (snyukt rajy men snsar ka keval 3%), mainganiz tatha maaulibdenam ko chhodakar any dhatu tatha khanij, jaise hira evn any maniyan, plaitinam, aintimani, para adi ki is mahadvip men keval simit poorti ho pati hai aur kuchh ko poornataya ayat karana padata hai. prapy khanij sadhanon ka mahadvip ne sarvadhik vikas evn upayog kiya hai.

udyog dhndhe tatha audyogik kshetr

uttari amarika krishi, jngal katane evn lakadi paida karane, machhali marane, khanij khodane ke atirikt udyog dhndhon ke lie bhi suprasiddh hai. upaniveshiyon ne yahan poorvi tat par akar chhote chhote vyavasay karana arnbh kiya aur shanai: shanai: sent larens ki ghati, badi jhilon, ke pradesh, evn madhyavarti bade maidanon men vyavasayon ki unnati huee. snyukt rajy evn kainada ke audyogik kshetr ek doosare se mile hue hain. inamen badi jhilon, relon, sadakon evn samudron dvara saste yatayat ka sadhan, pas hi men prapy loha evn koyala, ghani abadi, krishi snbndhi evn vanaspatik kachche malon ki suvidha, bade sthaniy bajar tatha bade bndaragahon dvara juda hua antararashtriy bajar, sthayi sarakari suraksha, pralaynkar mahayuddhon se suraksha shramik evn adhikadhik poonji ki suvidha aur udyogon ke poorvarnbhan ke snveg adi ke karan snsar ke bade se bade utpadak tatha audyogik kshetr vikasit ho ge hain. kainada ke (1) samudraprantiy kshetr, (2) kvebek-ontairiyon-mantriyal kshetr, snyukt rajy ke (3) eeriklivalaind-bafailo kshetr, (4) pitsabarg-yngstaun kshetr, (5) nyoo inglaind stets kshetr tatha nyooyark-pensilaveniya ke vibhinn audyogik kshetr jo vishesh udyogon men snlagn hain, (6) madhyavarti atalantik tatiy kshetr, (7) dakshin ka varjiniya-ailabaima kshetr, (8) mishigan kshetr (shikagogairi) tatha (9) sinasinati-indiyanapolis kshetr uttar amarika ke pramukh audyogik kshetr hain. inamen lohe evn ispat, dhatu evn mashin, injiniyaring, motar tatha saikil, jahaj, sooti, ooni tatha any kapade, khady padarth, kagaj, pharnichar adi ke tatha vibhinn any sainkadon udyog vikasit hain. ye audyogik kshetr vishesh udyogon ke lie labdhapratishth hain; udaharanat: ditrayat motarakaron ke lie, pitsabarg ispat ke lie, nyoo inglaind rajy vishesh prakar ke kapadon ke lie, dakshini ailabaima kshetr loha, ispat evn mote tatha madhyam shreni ke kapadon ke lie tatha sent larens nadi ki ghati kagaj ke vyavasay ke lie. inake atirikt oonche maidani kshetron men se denavar audyogik kshetr, pashchimi tat par laaus ainjilh‌s kshetr, evn sainaphraisisko-sietal-portalaind kshetr men udyog vikasit ho rahe hain aur ye pashchim ki mangon ki poorti kar rahe hain. denavar men lohe, ispat evn any dhatuon ke kary, pashchimatatiy kshetron men pharnichar, kagaj, machhali ke vyavasay tatha laaus ainjils men vayuyan taiyar karane, philm banane evn phalon snbndhi vyavasay panap rahe hain. kainada ke vainkavar kshetr men bhi isi prakar ke udyog vikasit ho rahe hain. meksiko men tainpiko evn verakrooz nagaron ke nikat sooti kapadon evn durengo, toren aur montare men lohe evn ispat ke udyog vikasit hain.

yatayat ke sadhan

uttari amarika men yatayat ke adhunik sadhan bahut suvikasit aur samriddh hain. mahadvip ke yatayat evn usake sadhan tin pramukh baton dvara prabhavit hue hain. pratham, is mahadvip men yooropiy janasnkhya atalantik mahasagar ke tat par dhire-dhire badhati gee aur jaise jaise sthanabhav hua, mahadvip ke bhitar pashchim ki or vikasit hoti gee. dvitiy, logon ko prakritik adachanon ka samana karana pada, parntu poorvi parvatiy pradesh men kuchh nadiyon ki ghatiyan aisi thin jinamen hokar mahadvip ke bhitari bhagon men pravesh karana saral tha. at: atalantik samudratat se sent larens nadi ki ghati, hadasan-mohak nadi ki ghati saskavehana evn potomaik nadiyon ki ghatiyan-tatha maiksiko ki khadi ki disha se misisipi-misauri ki ghatiyon se hokar janasnkhya ka pravesh prarnbh hua vartaman tat se arnbh honevali relen tatha pakki sadaken desh ke bhitari bhagon men inhin margo se hokar jati hain aur pun: pashchimi parvatiy pradesh ke niche darron ko par karati huee atalantik tat tatha prashant mahasagariy tat ko ek doosare se milati hain. tritiy, jahan jahan janasnkhya ka ghanatv adhik hai, vahan vahan avagaman ke sadhan adhik vikasit hain. kainada ke uttari kshetr, alaska ke chhote-chhote ekaki nagar evn pashchimi snyukt rajy men basi bastiyan adhunik vayuyan sevaon se labh uthati hain. krishi, khanij evn audyogik unnativale kshetron men relon, sadakon tatha havaee jahajon ke margon ka ghana jal bichha hua hai. kainada ka dakshin poorvi ghana basa kshetr tatha snyukt rajy ka udyogapradhan uttar poorvi kshetr snsar ke sarvadhik vikasit kshetr hain jahan yatayat ke sadhan sarvadhik vikasit hain.

uttari amarika men n keval samudri margon dvara, pratyut sent larens tatha panch badi jhilon evn misisipi-misauri dvara yatayat hota hai. badi jhilen naharon dvara jod di gee hain jinamen hajaron jahaj chala karate hain. snsar ki 29% relen, 35% samudri jahaj, 48% havaee jahaj tatha 70% motaren keval snyukt rajy (amarika) men hain. painama nahar (1907) ne amarika ke snbndh sudoor poorv evn dakshini amarika se badha die hain.

kainada ka trains kantinental relave, kainediyan paisiphik relave, kainediyan naishanal relave tatha snyukt rajy ki uttari paisiphik relave, yooniyan paisiphik relave, sentral paisiphik relave tatha dakshini paisiphik relave snsar ki sarvadhik lnbi relon men se hain jo ek chhor se doosare chhor ko milati hain. isi prakar sadakon ka bhi jal sa bichha hua hai. uttari amarika ka koee bhi kshetr, jahan manushy ke lie kuchh bhi arthik sadhan prapy hain, havaee margon se achhoota nahin hain. alaska tatha kainada ke uttari bhag men, jo bahut hi thndhe hain, vayuyan ki anivary sevaen hain. aj rajanitik paristhitivash dhruv pradeshon men bhi havaee marg sthapit ho ge hain.

vyapar

poorvokt sadhanon ke vikasit hone ke karan mahadvip men bade bade sngrahan tatha vitaran kendr sthapit ho ge hain jo samudratat par sthit bndaragahon dvara suvidhapoorvak ayat niryat karate hain. poorvi tat par bostan, nyooyark, filadelfiya evn baltimor, maiksiko ki khadi ke tat par nyoo auraliyns evn gailavestan, pashchimi tat par laaus ainjils, sain, phrainsisko, vainkavar adi badi jhilon par phort viliyam, port arthar, shikago, kvilalaind, eeri, bafailon tatha badi jhilon evn sent larens ki naharen jud jane se kvebek, otairiyo adi bade bndaragah ban ge hain.

uttari amarika apane apar khanij tatha krishi snbndhi evn audyogik sadhanon ke vikasit hone ke karan vyapar men bahut badha badha chadha hai. yah mahadvip ushn, shitoshn tatha shit, tinon katibndhon men phaila hua hai. yahan vibhinn prakar ki mitti aur jalavayu upalabdh hain. at: yahan anek prakar ki upajen hoti hain. inake atirikt yahan ke log sthaniy, deshi tatha videshi bajaron ke lie vyaparik phasalen ugate hain. vibhinn krishi evn vanaspatik kshetron men log vastu vishesh ke utpadan men vishesh yogyata prapt kar lete hain--jaise, preariz maidan men gehoon men, makka kshetr men makka men, gavyashala kshetr (deyari belt) men doodh ke bane saman men, kapas kshetr men kapas men tatha kainada ke uttari konadhari banon men lakadi tatha usase bane samanon men. apani keval ek prakar ki vastuon ko bikri karane ke karan unhen apani avashyakata ko hajaron vastuen kharidani padati hain. at: vyapar ki matra is mahadvip men sarvadhik hai. is mahadvip ke logon ne n keval vanaspatik evn krishiy sadhanon ka, pratyut samudrik (machhali adi), khanij tatha audyogik sabhi sadhanon ka, adhikadhik vikas kiya hai. phalat: yahan ka nivasi snsar ka sabase bada vikreta, sabase bada upabhokta evn sabase dhani kharidar hai.

snyukt rajy ke nivasiyon ki jivanastar snsar men uchchatam hai; yahan ka antardeshiy vyapar is desh ke antararashtriy vyapar se das guna aur samagr snsar ke antararashtriy vyapar se tin guna bada hai. 1890 ee. tak yah desh adhikanshat: kachche mal videshon ko bhejata tha, parntu ab dinanudin pakke mal ka niryat badhata ja raha hai. is desh ne do mahayuddhon men apani mahaddhipiy shanti ka labh uthakar bahut se bajaron par apana adhikar jama liya hai. 1900 ee. men videshi vyapar 2,00,00,00,000 dalar ka hua aur 1950 men yah vyapar badhakar 10,27,50,00,000 dalar ka hua. niryat ki vastuon men mahatv ke kramanusar mashinne, kapas, sooti, kapade, gehoon, ata, motar kar adi, loha, ispat, ispat ke saman, petreliyam tatha usase snbndhit any saman, tnbakoo, mans adi hain. ayat men kaauphi, oon tatha ooni kapade, dhatuen, kagaj, rabar, chini, chay, petroliyam, oornajin (far), phal, khanij, kachcha loha, ratn adi pramukh hain. kainada isaka mukhy srot hai.

kam abadi rahate hue bhi kainada snsar ke deshon men prasiddh vyaparik desh hai. niryat men vanaspatik vastuon-kee prakar ke kagaj, lakadi ki lugdi adi-men pratham tatha krishiy upaj-gehoon tatha ate-men isaka dvitiy sthan hai. ailyuminiyam, nikel, machhali tatha tatsnbndhi vastuon, oornajin (far), tanba evn any dhatuon tatha kuchh pakke mal, motarakar, bijali ke saman adi ka niryat hota hai. ayat vastuon men pakke malon, mashinon, adi ka pramukh sthan hai tatha petroliyam, koyala, kachcha loha, ispat, sooti kapade, pey vastuen (kaauphi,chay), chini, rabar adi ka bhi ayat hota hai. snyukt rajy tatha briten desh isake sabase bade vikreta evn kharidar hain.

maiksiko chhota sa ushn katibndhiy aur apekshakrit avikasit desh hai; at: yahan vyapar bhi adhik nahin hai. isake niryat men kachche mal-chandi, tanba, mitti ka tel adi-hain tatha ayat men khadyann evn dakshin amarika ke deshon se uttari amarika ka vyapar badh raha hai.

uttari amarika men snyukt rajy tatha kainada apekshakrit ne base bhoobhag hain, parntu menksiko ki sabhyata misr desh ki tarah prachin hai. lagabhag 3,000 varsh pahale meksiko ghati men uchch sabhyata ke log rahate the. jo patthar, haddi, mitti adi ki nirmit vastuon ka prayog karate the. usake bad ki 'may' sabhyata atynt uchch mani jati hai. may jati ke logon ko krishi tatha sinchaee ke atirikt jyotish, ganit, shilp, sthapaty adi kalaon ka bhi prachur gyan tha. tadanntar madhyakalin nahua, taaultek, aijtek adi logon ki sabhyata vahan prachalit thi. 1925 ee men meksiko ke pholsam nagar ke pas puratatvik 'pholsam knpleks' ki upalabdhi se prachinatam manav ka pata chalata hai. dakshin pashchimi snyukt rajy men sat staronvali pyooblo snskriti ke avashesh bhi upalabdh hain.

khojon se pata chalata hai ki alaska-saiberiya ke madhy sthit bering jaladamaroomadhy ke dvara saiberiya se manav ka amarika men agaman hua. barphila tatha bihad marg hone par bhi sarvadhik sugam rasta yahi tha. bering jaladamaroomadhy ke donon or ke nivasi sharirarachana, rng, roop, bhasha tatha riti rivajon men bhi paryapt milate julate hain. amarika ke indiyan jati ke log eshiya ki mngol jatiyon se , visheshakar uttar-poorvi saiberiya ke nivasiyon se, sarvatha milate julate hain. chaunda, chehara, ubhari huee gal ko haddiyan tatha bhoora rng unaki visheshata hai. eskimo log bhi inhin ki ek upajati hain. lnba sir, chauda chehara, patali nak, tatha mngol ankhen, inaki visheshataen hai. indiyan log jaise jaise dakshin ki or badhate ge, unaka rng kala tatha lnbaee kam hoti gee.

yadyapi 8vin evn 12vin sadiyon ke bich yoorop ke kuchh nivasi uttari amarika men pahunch ge the, tathapi aupaniveshik kal 1492 ee. ke bad hi prarnbh hua. meksiko, dakshin pashchimi snyukt rajy tatha madhy amarika men spenavalon ne sent larens ki ghati tatha misisipi ke muhane par phrench logon ne aur madhyavarti atalantik taton par angrejon ne adhikar jamaya. italiyan, jarman, dach adi yooropiyanon ne bhi apani apani bastiyan sthapit kin. mahadvip men inake pravesh ke sath-sath adhik mare jane ke karan red indiyanon ka hhras hota gaya. yooropiyanon ne isi aupaniveshik kal men das ke roop men habshiyon ko lakar basaya. eshiya nivasi sabase bad men is mahadvip men pahunche hain.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 2 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 75 |

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