सिक्ख धर्म  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(सिख se punarnirdeshit)
sikkh dharm
sikkh dharm ka pratik
vivaran bharatiy dharmon men sikkh dharm ka apana ek pavitr evn anupam sthan hai. sikkhon ke pratham guru, guru nanak dev sikkh dharm ke pravartak hain.
sthapana 5vin shatabdi
snsthapak guru nanak
pratik chihn sikkh pnth ke pratik chihn men do or vakrakar talavaron ke bich ek vritt tatha vritt ke bich ek sidha khanda hota hai. talavaren dharmaraksha ke lie samarpan ka, vritta 'ek onkar' ka tatha khanda pavitrata ka pratik hai.
pavitr grnth guru grnth sahib
sikkhon ke das guru guru nanakadev, guru angad, guru amaradas, guru ramadas, guru arjan dev, guru haragovind sinh, guru hararay, guru har kishan sinh, guru tegabahadur sinh, guru govind sinh
snbndhit lekh akal takht, haramndir sahab, anandapur sahib
any janakari 'sikkh' shabd 'shishy' se utpann hua hai, jisaka tatpary hai- "guru nanak ke shishy", arthath unaki shikshaon ka anusaran karane vale. sikkh dharm men bahu-devatavad ki manyata nahin hai. yah dharm keval ek 'akal purush' ko manata hai aur usamen vishvas karata hai.

sikkh dharm ka bharatiy dharmon men apana ek pavitr evn anupam sthan hai. sikkhon ke pratham guru, guru nanak dev sikkh dharm ke pravartak hain. 'sikkh dharm' ki sthapana 15vin shatabdi men bharat ke uttar-pashchimi bhag ke pnjab men guru nanak dev dvara ki gee thi. 'sikkh' shabd 'shishy' se utpann hua hai, jisaka tatpary hai- "guru nanak ke shishy", arthath unaki shikshaon ka anusaran karane vale. sikkh dharm men bahu-devatavad ki manyata nahin hai. yah dharm keval ek 'akal purush' ko manata hai aur usamen vishvas karata hai. yah ek eeshvar tatha gurudvaron par adharit dharm hai. sikkh dharm men guru ki mahima mukhy roop se poojyaniy v darshaniy mani gee hai. isake anusar guru ke madhyam se hi 'akal purush' tak pahuncha ja sakata hai.

guru nanak dev

nanak dev ka janm 1469 ee. men lahaur (vartaman pakistan) ke samip 'talavandi' namak sthan men hua tha. inake pita ka nam kaloochnd aur mata ka tripta tha. bachapan se hi pratibha ke dhani nanak ko ekantavas, chintan evn satsng men vishesh ruchi thi. sulakkhini devi se vivah ke pashchath shrichnd aur lakhamichnd namak inake do putr hue. parantu sansarik gatividhiyon men vishesh ruchi n utpann hone par ve apane parivar ko sasural men chhodakar svayn bhraman, satsng aur upadesh adi men lag gaye. is dauran ve pnjab, makka, madina, kabul, sinhal, kamaroop, puri, dilli, kashmir, kashi, haridvar adi ki yatra par gaye. in yatraon men unake do shishy sadaiv unake sath rahe- ek tha- 'mardana', jo bhajan gate samay rabab bajata tha aur doosara 'balabndhun'.

any mahanh snton ke saman hi guru nanak ke sath bhi anek chamatkarik evn divy ghatanaen judi huee hain. vastav men ye ghatanaen nanak ke roodhiyon v andhavishvason ke prati virodhi drishtikon ko darshati hain. nanak apani yatraon ke dauran din-dukhiyon ki pidaon evn samasyaon ko door karane ka prayas karate the. ve sabhi dharmon tatha jatiyon ke logon ke sath saman roop se prem, namrata aur sadbhav ka vyavahar karate the. hindoo-musalaman ekata ke ve pakke samarthak the. apane priy shishy lahana ki kshamataon ko pahachan kar unhonne use apana uttaradhikari niyukt kiya aur use 'angad' nam diya. guru angad ne nanak dev ki vaniyon ko sngrahit karake gurumukhi lipi men baddh karaya. isi ke pashchath 1539 men guru nanak dev ki mrityu ho gee.

akal purush

guru nanak dev ne 'akal purush' ka jaisa svaroop prastut kiya hai, usake anusar akal purush ek hai. us jaisa koee nahin hai. vah sabamen ek saman roop se basa hua hai. us akal purush ka nam atal hai. srishti nirmata vah akal purush hi snsar ki har chhoti-badi vastu ko banane vala hai. vah akal purush hi sab kuchh banata hai tatha banaee huee har ek chiz men usaka vas bhi rahata hai. arthath vah kan-kan men adrishy roop se nivas karata hai. vah sarvashaktiman hai tatha use kisi ka dar nahin hai. usaka kisi ke sath virodh, manamutav evn shatruta nahin hai. akal purush ka astitv samay ke bndhan se mukt hai. bhootakal, vartaman kal evn bhavishy kal jaisa kal vibhajan usake lie koee mayane nahin rakhata. bachapan, yauvan, budhapa aur mrityu ka us par koee prabhav nahin padata hai. us akal purush ko vibhinn yoniyon men bhatakane ki avashyakata nahin hai, arthath vah ajanma hai. use kisi ne nahin banaya aur n hi use kisi ne janm diya hai. vah svayn prakashit hai.[1]

upadesh

guru nanakadev ne am bol-chal ki bhasha men rache padon tatha bhajanon ke madhyam se apane upadesh diye. unhonne kaha ki sabaka nirmata, karta, palanahara 'ek onkar' ek eeshvar hai, jo 'satanam' (usi ka nam saty hai), 'karata purukh' (rachayita), 'akamoorat' (akshay aur nirakar), 'nirbhu' (nirbhay), 'niravair' (dvesh rahit) aur 'ajuni sabhng' (janm-maran se mukt sarvgyata) hai. use sirf 'guru prasad' arthath guru ki kripa se hi jana ja sakata hai. usake samane sabhi barabar hain, at: chhooachhoot, roodhivadita, oonch-nich sab jhooth aur adnbar hain. janm-maran vihin ek eeshvar men astha, chhuachhoot rahit samatamoolak samaj ki sthapana aur manav matr ke kalyan ki kamana sikkh dharm ke pramukh siddhant hain. karm karana, bant kar khana aur prabhu ka nam jap karana isake adhar hain. inhin mntavyon ki prapti ke lie guru nanak dev ne is dharm ki sthapana ki thi.

sikkhon ke das guru

bich men guru nanak dev aur sikkhon ke das guru

sikkh dharm men guru parampara ka vishesh mahattv raha hai. isamen das guru mane gaye hain, jinake nam, janm v guru banane ki tithi tatha nirvan prapti ki tithi is prakar hai-

kr.sn nam janm tithi guru banane ki tithi nirvan tithi
1. guru nanakadev 15 aprail, 1469 20 agast, 1507 22 sitambar, 1539
2. guru angad 31 march, 1504 7 sitambar, 1539 28 march, 1552
3. guru amaradas 5 apral, 1479 26 march, 1552 1 sitambar, 1574
4. guru ramadas 24 sitambar, 1534 1 sitambar, 1574 1 sitambar, 1581
5. guru arjun dev 15 aprail, 1563 1 sitambar, 1581 30 mee, 1606
6. guru haragovind sinh 14 joon, 1595 25 mee, 1606 3 march, 1644
7. guru hararay 16 janavari, 1630 3 march, 1644 6 aktoobar, 1661
8. guru har kishan sinh 7 julaee, 1656 6 aktoobar, 1661 30 march, 1664
9. guru tegabahadur sinh 18 aprail, 1621 20 march, 1664 24 navnbar, 1675[2]
10. guru govind sinh 22 disambar, 1666 11 navnbar, 1675 7 aktoobar, 1708

tisare guru amaradas ne jati pratha evn chhooachhoot ko samapt karane ke uddeshy se 'lngar' parampara ki ninv dali. chauthe guru ramadas ne 'amrit sarovar' (ab amritasar) namak ek naye nagar ki ninv rakhi. amritasar men hi panchaven guru arjun dev ne 'haramndir sahab' (svarn mndir) ki sthapana ki. unhonne hi apane pichhale guruon tatha unake samakalin hindoo, muslim snton ke padon evn bhajanon ka sngrah kar 'adigrnth' banaya.

panch kakke

guru arjun dev ki muslim shasakon ne nadi men dubokar hatya karava di thi. chhathe guru haragovind ke kal men mugal badashahon ke gair musalamanon par atyachar badhate ja rahe the, jisaka unhonne bahaduri se muqabala kiya. unhonne apane anuyayiyon ko hintutv ki raksha hetu sipahiyon ki tarah lais rahane aur achchhe ghudasavar banane ka upadesh diya. guru tegabahadur dvara bhi islam dharm svikar n karane se inkar kar dene par aurngazeb ne unake donon beton ko divar men chinava diya. dasaven guru govind sinh ne sikkh pnth ko naya svaroop, nayi shakti aur nayi ojasvita pradan ki. unhonne 'khalasa' (shuddh) parnpara ki sthapana ki. khalasaon ke panch anivary lakshan nirdharit kiye gaye, jinhen 'panch kakke' ya 'panch kakar' kahate hain, kyonki ye panchon lakshan 'k' se shuroo hote hain, jaise- kesh, kndha, kada, kachchha aur kripan. ye panchon lakshan ek sikkh ko vishisht pahachan pradan karate hain.

guru govind sinh ki ichchha

sikkh dharm men kripan dharan karane ka adesh atmaraksha ke lie hai. guru govind sinh chahate the ki sikkhon men snton vale gun bhi hon aur sipahiyon vali bhavana bhi. is karan kripan sikkhon ka ek dharmik chihn ban gaya hai. guru govind ne purush khalasaon ko 'sinh' ki tatha mahilaon ko 'kaur' ki upadhi di. apane shishyon men dharmaraksha hetu sadaiv mar mitane ko taiyar rahane vale panch shishyon ko chunakar unhen 'panch pyare' ki sngya di aur unhen amrit chhaka kar dharm rakshakon ke roop men vishishtata pradan ki aur netritv men khalasaon ne muslim shasakon ka bahaduri poorvak samana kiya. guru govind sinh ne kaha ki unake bad koee any guru nahin hoga, balki 'adigrnth' ko hi guru mana jaye. tab se adigrnth ko 'guru grnth sahab' kaha jane laga. at: sikkh is pavitr grnth ko sajiv guru ke saman hi samman dete hain. use sadaiv 'rumala' men lapetakar rakhate hain aur makhamali chandani ke niche rakhate hain. ek sthan se doosare sthan par le jane hetu is grnth ko hamesha sir par rakhakar le jate hain. is par hamesha chnvar dulaya jata hai. gurudvare men isaka path karane vale vishesh vyakti ko 'grnthi' aur vishisht roop se gayan men pravin vyakti ko 'ragi' kahate hain.

bhaee maradana

snpoorn sikkh parnpara men bhaee maradana ka atynt mahattvapoorn sthan hai. ve jati se mirasi musalaman the aur guru nanak dev ke bachapan ke mitr the. bhaee maradana bahut kushal rabab vadak the. ve sara jivan guru nanak dev ke sath rahe. guru nanak dev ki 20 varsh ki desh-videsh ki yatra men bhaee maradana unake sath rahe. guru nanak dev jo bhi vani rachate the, bhaee maradana unake sath rahe. guru nanak dev jo bhi vani rachate the, bhaee maradana use sngitabaddh karate the. antim samay men bhi ve guru nanak dev ke sath rahen gurugrnth sahab men bhaee maradana rachit tin shlok sngrahit hain.

pavitr nishan

yah sikkh pnth ka pavitr nishan hai, jisamen do or vakrakar talavaron ke bich ek vritt tatha vritt ke bich ek sidha khanda hota hai. talavaren dharmaraksha ke lie samarpan ka, vritta 'ek onkar' ka tatha khanda pavitrata ka pratik hai.

lngar

gurudvaron men pratidin, vishesh avasaron par bhaktajanon ke lie bhoj ki vyavastha hoti hai, jisamen halava, chhole tatha pani, chini, pinjari, makkhan se bana tatha kripan se hilaya hua kada prasad diya jata hai. tisare guru amaradas ne sikkhon tatha any dharmavalambiyon men samanata v ekata sthapit karane ke uddeshy se lngar ki shuruat ki thi.

  • vahe guru- yah eeshvar ka prashnsatmak nam hai.
  • sat shri akal, bole so nihal- eeshvar saty, kalyanakari aur kalatit hai, jisake nam ke smaran se mukti milati hai.
  • vahe guru d khalasa, vahe guru di fatah- khalasa pnth vahe guru (eeshvar) ka pnth aur aur antat: usi ki vijay hoti hai.

panch takht

sikkh dharm ke panch pramukh dharmakendr (takht) hain-

  1. akal takht
  2. haramndir sahab
  3. patana sahab
  4. anandapur sahib
  5. huzoor sahab.

dharm sambandhi kisi bhi vivad par in takhton ke pithasin adhikariyon ka nirnay antim mana jata hai.

panch kakar

sikkhon ke 10ven aur antim guru govind sinh ne panch kakar- kesh, kngha, kada, kachchha aur kripan ko anivary bana diya. gurudvare men pratidin ya vishesh avasaronn par svechchha se kiya gaya shram, jaise- gurudvare ki sidhiyon ki saphaee, kada prasad banana, bhaktajanon ke joote snbhalana v saf karana adi. kabhi-kabhi dharm virodhi kary karane par saza ke roop men vyakti ko ye kary karane ka adesh diya jata hai.

sikkh dharm men divali

sikkhon ke chhathe guru haragobind sinh ji ko divali vale din mugal badashah jahangir ki qaid se mukti mili thi. guru haragobind sinh ji ki badhati shakti se ghabara kar mugal badashah jahangir ne unhen aur unake 52 sathiyon ko gvaliyar ke qile men bndi banaya hua tha. jahangir ne sanh 1619 ee. men desh bhar ke logon dvara haragovind sinh ji ko chhodane ki apil par guru ko divali vale din mukt kiya. haragovind sinh ji kaid se mukt hote hi amritasar pahunche aur vahan vishesh prarthana ka ayojan kiya gaya. haragovind sinh ji ke riha hone ki khushi men guru ki mata ne sabhi logon men mithaee banti aur charon or dip jalae ge. isi vazah se sikkh dharm men divali ko 'bndi chhod divas' ke roop men manaya jata hai. sanh 1577 ee. men divali ke din hi amritasar ke prasiddh svarn mndir ki ninv rakhi gee thi. sikkh dharm men divali ke tyohar ko tin din tak annd ke sath manaya jata hai. amritasar men divali ke din vishesh samaroh ka ayojan kiya jata hai, jisamen door-door se log ate hain. pavitr sarovar men is din log subah-subah dubaki lagate hain aur svarn mndir ke darshan karate hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. sikkh dharm (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el.). . abhigaman tithi: 25 mee, 2012.
  2. Guru Tegh Bahadur

snbndhit lekh