मधुमेह  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

madhumeh
madhumeh ke lakshan
vivaran madhumeh ek khataranak rog hai jisaka prabhav bharat men vyapak roop se phail raha hai. yah bimari hamare sharir men agnyashay dvara insulin ka strav kam ho jane ke karan hoti hai.
any nam dayabitiz, sugar ki bimari
prakar madhumeh ko tin prakar ke roop men vargikrit kiya ja sakata hai- prakar 1- ise juvenail (kishor, bachapan) madhumeh ya insulin nirbhar madhumeh kaha jata hai. prakar 2- ise der se shuroo hone vali ya gair insulin nirbhar madhumeh kaha jata hai.

prakar 3- 'jesteshanal madhumeh' - garbhavastha ke dauran shuroo ho jane vala madhumeh hota hai.

bharat men madhumeh bharat ko madhumeh ki rajadhani kaha jata hai. bharat men isaka sabase vikrit svaroop ubhara hai jo bahut bhayavah hai. jivanashaili men aniyamitata madhumeh ka bada karan hai. ek dashak pahale bharat men madhumeh hone ki ausat umr chalis sal ki thi jo ab ghat kar 25 se 30 sal ho chuki hai. 15 sal ke bad hi badi snkhya men logon ko madhumeh ka rog hone laga hai. kam umr men is bimari ke hone ka sidha matalab hai ki chalis ki umr ate-ate hi bimari ke dushparinamon ko jhelana padata hai.
karan insulin namak haaurmon ki kami ya isaki karyakshamata men kami ane se 'madhumeh rog' ya 'dayabitiz' ho jati hai.
niyntran madhumeh hone ke karan paida hone vali jatilataon ki rokatham ke lie niyamit ahar, vyayam, vyaktigat svasthy, saphaee aur snbhavit insulin injekshan athava khane vali davaiyon (daauktar ke sujhav ke anusar) ka sevan adi kuchh tarike hain.
snbndhit lekh vishv madhumeh divas, mirgi, aautizm, dengoo
any janakari japan men kanajava yoonivarsiti grejuet skool aauf medikal sains ke vaigyanikon ne insulin pratirodhi haaurmon ki khoj karane ka dava kiya hai. unaka kahana hai ki isase madhumeh ki nee davaen taiyar karane men bahut madad milegi.

madhumeh (angrezi:Diabetes) athava dayabitiz ek khataranak rog hai jisaka prabhav bharat men vyapak roop se phail raha hai. yah bimari hamare sharir men agnyashay dvara insulin ka strav kam ho jane ke karan hoti hai. isamen rakt glookoz star badh jata hai, sath hi in marizon men rakt kolestraaul, vasa ke avayav bhi asamany ho jate hain. dhamaniyon men badalav hote hain. madhumeh se pidit marizon ki ankhon, gurdon, snayu ya ligament, mastishk, hriday ke kshatigrast hone se inake gnbhir, jatil, ghatak rog ka khatara badh jata hai. madhumeh glookoz (rakt sharkara) ki chayapachay[1] ka ek vikar hai. insulin namak haaurmon ki kami ya isaki karyakshamata men kami ane se 'madhumeh rog' ya 'dayabitiz' ho jati hai.

madhumeh ke karan

madhumeh jaisi bimari prakritik ya anuvanshik karanon se ho sakati hai. yah ek aisa vikar hai, jisamen rakt men insulin ka star badh jata hai. madhumeh mukhyat: do karanon se hota hai, ya to sharir men insulin ka banana bnd ho jaye ya phir sharir men insulin ka prabhav kam ho jaye. donon hi paristhitiyon men sharir men glookoz ki matra badh jati hai.[2]

madhumeh insulin haaurmon udar ki ek badi grnthi jise agnyashay kaha jata hai, dvara utpadit hota hai. halanki vyakti ahar ke roop men sevan jari rakhata hai, khane ke roop men glookoz ki ek taja apoorti judati rahati hai, jo pahale se hi insulin ki karyavaee ke abhav ki vajah aprayukt glookoz se sntript hoti hai, sharir oorja ki kami se pidit hone lagata hai, jabaki glookoz sharir ki rakt koshikaon men pravesh karane ki pratiksha men rahata hai. parinamasvaroop, rakt men glookoz ka star badhane lagata hai aur adhik hokar mootr ke roop men bahar utsarjan hone lagata hai.[3]

prakar

karan aur prastuti ke adhar par par madhumeh ke prakar nirbhar hain. ise tin prakar ke roop men vargikrit kiya ja sakata hai:

  • prakar 1 - ise juvenail (kishor, bachapan) madhumeh ya insulin nirbhar madhumeh kaha jata hai.
  • prakar 2 - ise der se shuroo hone vali ya gair insulin nirbhar madhumeh kaha jata hai.
  • jesteshanal madhumeh - garbhavastha ke dauran madhumeh shuroo ho jata hai.

insulin nirbhar madhumeh

ise juvenail (kishor, bachapan) madhumeh ya insulin nirbhar madhumeh kaha jata hai. yah ab ek aautoeemyoon vikar ka parinam hona siddh ho gaya hai. jisamen pratiraksha koshikayen agnyashay par hamala kar isaki koshikaon ko poori tarah se galati se nasht kar deti hai jisake ek parinam ke roop men sharir men insulin ka utpadan nahin ho pata hai. madhumeh ke sath jine ke lie is prakar ke rogiyon ko bahar se jivanabhar insulin lene ki zaroorat hoti hai.

ekva chek
Aqua cheque

prakar 1- madhumeh ke lakshan bachapan men ya yuvakishor vayaskon men shuroo hote hain aur ve teji se vikasit hote hain. pratidin qarib 200 bachchon men prakar-1 ki madhumeh़ ke lakshanon ka nidan chikitsakon dvara kiya jata hai. jisake karanavash in bachchon ko pratidin insulin ke injekshan lagane padate hain taki unake rakt men sharkara ki matra ko niyntrit kiya ja sake. madhumeh se grasit bachchon ki snkhya men 3% ki varshik vriddhi ho rahi hai aur bahut hi chhote bachchon men yah vriddhi 5% hai. 15 varsh se kam ayu vale lagabhag 70,000 bachche prativarsh is rog se grast ho rahe hain.

prakar 1 ke mahattvapoorn lakshan hain-

  • lagatar bhookh lagana
  • asatyavat vazan ghatana
  • pyas aur laghushnka men vriddhi
  • thakan aur sahanashakti ki kami
  • drishti ka dhundhalapan adi.

yadi shighr nidan aur insulin ke sath ilaz, nahin kiya jata hai to prakar 1 madhumeh ka rogi jivanaghatak dayabitik- koma jise 'dayabitik kitoesidosis' bhi jana jata hai, men ja sakata hai.

praudhavastha men shuroo hone vali madhumeh

praudhavastha men shuroo hone vali madhumeh vayaskon men dekha jane vala madhumeh ka sabase am roop hai, aur mote vyaktiyon men, aramadayak jivan shaili ke jine vale, vriddh vyakti aur madhumeh ke parivarik itihas ke vyaktiyon men hota hai. is mamale men, agnyashay shuroo men insulin ki samany matra bana raha hota hai. sharir men koshikaon ko insulin pratirodh vikasit hone par ve kram men rakt sharkara ka upayog karane ke lie insulin ka upayog nahin kar pate. is prakar samay ke sath, agnyashay insulin ka utpadan kam kar deta hai. isake bhi prakar 1 ke saman hi lakshan hote hain, lekin ve aur adhik dhire-dhire vikasit hote hain aur shuroo men kee rogiyon dvara chook kiye ja sakate hain.

gesteshanal madhumeh

is mamale men ek stri men usaki garbhavastha ke pichhale kuchh mahinon men madhumeh vikasit hoti hai. zyadatar mamalon men, bachche ke janm ke sath madhumeh samapt ho jati hai, lekin kuchh men yah prakar 2 madhumeh ke roop men jari rah sakati hai. gesteshanal madhumeh garbhavastha ke dauran kuchh haaurmon ki gadabadi hone ke karan ghatit hoti hai. madhumeh ke is prakar ke rogi men koee spasht lakshanon ke sath, keval nidan asamany rakt sharkara riporton ke karan shant ho sakati hai.

lakshan

  • madhumeh ke rogi ko adhik pyas lagati hai.
  • koee ghav ho gaya ho to jaldi thik nahin hota.
  • pairon ki pindaliyon men lagatar dard tatha ainthan rahana tatha sunn pad jana.
  • sharir ki tvacha sookhi rahana tatha pairon ke talave men jalan hona.
  • madhumeh ke rogi ko bhookh bahut lagati hai.
  • bar-bar laghushnka ki ichchha ke alava vazan men giravat ankhon men roshani ki kami bhi madhumeh ke lakshan ho sakate hain.
  • parivar men kisi any vyakti ko pahale se madhumeh hona is rog ki snbhavana ko badha deta hai.[4]

prabhav

motapa aur madhumeh ka ausat
Obesity and Diabetes

madhumeh rogiyon men qarib char fisadi rogiyon ko prativarsh pair men ghav ho jata hai. pairon men ek to rakt ka pravah kam hota hai, doosara isaki dhamaniyon men plek teji se jamata hai. log pair ki dekhabhal ke prati bhi laparavah hote hain, jisase pairon men ghav ho jata hai. yah ghav bharata nahin, balki badhata chala jata hai. bharat men prativarsh ek karod madhumeh rogiyon ko pairon men takaliph hoti hai. isamen se qarib 40 hazar logon ki zindagi bachane ke lie unake pairon ko kat dena padata hai. yah kisi bhi tarah ki durghatana ke bad pairon ke katane ki sabase badi vajah hai. isake alava sharir ke nichale hisse ke snvedanashil angon men bhi ghav ki shikayat ho jati hai.

vikritiyan

madhumeh sharir ke har ang ko prabhavit karata hai, kee bar vikriti hone par hi rog ka nidan hota hai. is prakar yah rog varshon se chupachap sharir men panap raha hota hai. isase sharir ke kee ang prabhavit ho jate hain.

prabhavit ang v lakshan
  • netr men motiyabind ka banana, kalapani, ankh ke parde ki kharabi v adhik kharabi hone par andhapan.
  • hriday evn dhamaniyon ka hridayaghat (hart ataik), hridayashool (enjaina).
  • gurda mootr men adhik protinh‍s jana, chehare ya pairon par ya poore sharir par soojan aur anh‍t men gurdon ki karyahinata.
  • mastishh‍k v sh‍nayu tntr uchh‍ch manasik kriyaon ki vikriti jaise- sh‍maranashakti, snvedanaon ki kami, chakh‍kar ana, napunsakata (nh‍yooropaithi), lakava.

bharat men madhumeh

bharat ko madhumeh ki rajadhani kaha jata hai. khanapan ki kharabi aur sharirik shram ki kami ke karan pichhale dashak men madhumeh hone ki dar duniya ke har desh men badhi hai. bharat men isaka sabase vikrit svaroop ubhara hai jo bahut bhayavah hai. jivanashaili men aniyamitata madhumeh ka bada karan hai. ek dashak pahale bharat men madhumeh hone ki ausat umr chalis sal ki thi jo ab ghat kar 25 se 30 sal ho chuki hai. 15 sal ke bad hi badi snkhya men logon ko madhumeh ka rog hone laga hai. kam umr men is bimari ke hone ka sidha matalab hai ki chalis ki umr ate-ate hi bimari ke dushparinamon ko jhelana padata hai. bharat men 1995 men madhumeh rogiyon ki snkhya 1 karod 90 lakh thi, jo 2008 men badhakar char karod ho gee hai. anuman hai ki 2030 men madhumeh rogiyon ki snkhya ath karod ke asapas ho jaegi. bharat sarikhe deshon men qarib 340 se 350 lakh vyakti is vyadhi ka shikar hain, jo ek vishv rikard hai. 17% nagaravasi evn 2.5% gramavasi is bimari se pidit hain. dilli madhumeh anusndhan kendr ke adhyaksh daau. e. ke. jhingan ke anusar sabhi tarah ke nichale ang vichchhedan ke mamale men 45 se 75 fisadi madhumeh rogi hote hain. 2030 men madhumeh rogiyon ki anumanit snkhya qarib ath karod hai, jisamen ek karod logon ko dayabitik pairon ka khatara hoga. yah madhumeh rogiyon men sarvadhik gambhir, jatil v kharchili bimari hai. is rog ke parinamasvaroop sharir ke nichale hisse ke angon men vichchhedan ki snkhya badhi hai. madhumeh (dayabitiz) ke karan hi gurde ki kharabi, hridayaghat, pairon ka gaingrin aur ankhon ka andhapan ab bharat ki mukhy svasthy samasya ban chuki hai.

madhumeh, khady piramid
Diabetes food pyramid

madhumeh ka niyntran

  • madhumeh hone ke karan paida hone vali jatilataon ki rokatham ke lie niyamit ahar, vyayam, vyaktigat svasthy, saphaee aur snbhavit insulin injekshan athava khane vali davaiyon (daauktar ke sujhav ke anusar) ka sevan adi kuchh tarike hain.
  • vyayam se rakt sharkara star kam hota hai tatha glookoz ka upayog karane ke lie sharirik kshamata paida hoti hai.
  • madhumeh ke marizon ko tvacha ki dekhabhal karana atyavashyak hai. bhari matra men glookoz se unamen kitanu aur phaphoondi lagane ki snbhavana badh jati hai. choonki rakt snchar bahut kam hota hai atah sharir men hanikarak kitanuon se bachane ki kshamata n ke barabar hoti hai. sharir ki surakshatmak koshikaen hanikarak kitanuon ko khatm karane men asamarth hoti hain. uchch glookoz ki matra se nirjalikaran (di-haidreshan) hota hai jisase tvacha sookhi ho jati hai tatha khujali hone lagati hai.
nidan

rakh‍t men gh‍lookoj ki janch asani se ki ja sakati hai. samanh‍yat gh‍lookoj ka ghol pikar janch karavane ki avashh‍yakata nahin hoti. prarnbhik janch men mootr men ailaboomin v rakh‍t vasa ka anuman bhi karavana chahie.

  • namak, chini, gud, ghi, tel, doodh v doodh se nirmit vash‍tuyen, paranthe, meve, aisakrim, mithaee, mans, anh‍da, chaaukalet, sookha nariyal adi khady padarthon ka prayog kam karana chahie.
  • hari sabjiyaaun, khira, kakadi, tamatar, ph‍yaj, lahasun, niboo v samanh‍y mirch masalon ka upayog kiya ja sakata hai. aloo, chaval v phalon ka sevan kiya ja sakata hai. jh‍var, chana v gehoon ke ate ki roti (mish‍si roti) kafi upayogi hai sarason ka tel anh‍y telon (soyabin, moongaphali, sooryamukhi) ke sath prayog men lena chahie bhojan ka samay jahan tak snbhav ho nishchit hona chahie aur lamh‍be samay tak ‍bhookha nahin rahana chahiye.

savadhaniyan

  • niyamit rakh‍t gh‍lookoj, rakh‍tavasa v rakh‍t chap ki janch karayen.
  • nirdeshanusar bhojan v vh‍yayam se sntulit vazan rakhen.
  • pairon ka utana hi dhh‍yan rakhen jitana apane chehare ka rakhate hain kh‍yonki pairon par mamooli se dikhane vale ghav teji se gnbhir roop le lete hain or gaingrin men parivartit ho jate hain jisake parinam sh‍varoop pair katavana pad sakata hai.
  • dhoomrapan v madirapan ka th‍yag karen.
  • anavashh‍yak davaon ka upayog n karen v achanak dava kabhi banh‍d n karen.

vishv madhumeh divas

vishv madhumeh divas ka pratik chihn

vishv madhumeh divas har sal 14 navnbar ko manaya jata hai. 14 navambar ko chatarra, benting ka janmadin hai jinhonne kanada ke toranto shahar men bent ke sath milakar sanh 1921 men insulin ki khoj ki thi. itihas ki is mahanh khoj ko akshun rakhane ke lie intaraneshanal madhumeh phedereshan (aeedieph) dvara 14 navambar ko pichhale do dashakon se vishv madhumeh divas har sal manaya jata hai. is din madhumeh ki khataranak dastak ke bare men logon ko samajhaya jata hai. phredarik benting ke yogadan ko yad rakhane ke lie intaraneshanal dayabetik phedareshan dvara 14 navnbar ko duniya ke 140 deshon men madhumeh divas manaya jata hai. har sal ek naya 'thim' chayan kiya jata hai aur janata ko jagaruk banane ki pahal ki jati hai. sanh 2006 se yah snyukt rashtr vishv madhumeh divas ho gaya hai.[5]

samachar

guruvar, 4 navnbar, 2010

insulin pratirodhi haaurmon ka pata chala

bharat ko madhumeh ki rajadhani kaha jata hai kyonki bharat men madhumeh ek mahamari ki tarah phail raha hai. khanapan ki kharabi aur sharirik shram ki kami ke karan pichhale dashak men madhumeh hone ki dar duniya ke har desh men badhi hai. bharat men isaka sabase vikrit svaroop ubhara hai jo bahut bhayavah hai. jivanashaili men aniyamitata madhumeh ka bada karan hai. jald hi prakar 2 madhumeh ka saphal ilaj kiya ja sakega. japan men kanajava yoonivarsiti grejuet skool aauf medikal sains ke vaigyanikon ne insulin pratirodhi haaurmon ki khoj karane ka dava kiya hai. unaka kahana hai ki isase madhumeh ki nee davaen taiyar karane men bahut madad milegi. adhyayan men vaigyanikon ne paya ki prakar 2 madhumeh ke mariz men yakrit se nikalane vale insulin pratirodhi haaurmon ka pravah bahut zyada ho jata hai.

khoj

gauratalab hai ki insulin pratirodhi (aeear) ek bhautik avastha hai. isamen yakrit se nikalane vala insulin haaurmon kam sakriy ho pata hai. is vajah se rakt men glookoz ka star badh jata hai, jo prakar 2 madhumeh ke lie zimmedar hai. naya shodh jarnal 'sel metabolijm' men prakashit hua. dal ka netritv karane vale vaigyanik hirophoomi mishoo ne kaha, 'is adhyayan men yakrit ki us karyapranali par roshani dala gaya hai jise pahale nahin khoja gaya tha. yah insulin pratirodhi haaurmon ke pravah ke bare men janakari deta hai.' vaigyanikon ne arnbh men prakar 2 madhumeh vale logon ke yakrit men zyadatar pae jane vale pravah vale protin (hipaitokins) se yukt jin ki khoj ki thi. is khoj ke adhar par unhen laga ki prakar 2 madhumeh aur insulin pratirodhi ke vikas men yakrit ka bhi yogadan ho sakata hai.

parinam

unhonne paya ki zyada insulin pratirodhi prakar 2 madhumeh vale logon men 'selino protin pi (esipi)' ka star yakrit men bahut hi zyada hota hai. is tarah ke protin ka star svasth ke muqabale madhumeh se pidit logon men zyada hota hai. vaigyanikon ne prayog ke taur par selino protin ko ek choohe ko diya. isase vah insulin pratirodhi ho gaya. usake rakt men glookoz ka star badh gaya. jab yakrit men selino protin ko nishkriy kiya gaya, to usake khoon men glookoz ka star kam ho gaya. ullekhaniy hai ki yah protin yakrit men banata hai. halanki logon ko khoon men glookoz ke star ko banae rakhane men isaki pramukh bhoomika ke bare men janakari maloom nahin thi. mishoo ne kaha, 'hamare shodh ne yah snbhavana badhaee hai ki yakrit se nikalane vale hipaitokins ke pravah men badha pahunchane par kee tarah ki bimariyan hone ki ashnka hoti hai.'

samachar ko nimn srot par padhen


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. oorja utpadan ke lie glookoz ki chhinnata
  2. vishh‍v dayabitiz़ divas (hindi) aaunali maee helth. abhigaman tithi: 14 navnbar, 2010.
  3. madhumeh (hindi) helth ejukeshan laibreri. abhigaman tithi: 10 navambar, 2010.
  4. madhumeh (hindi) indik ji. abhigaman tithi: 10 navambar, 2010.
  5. vishv madhumeh divas (hindi) (ech.ti.em) di. ech. ar. si. indiya. abhigaman tithi: 14 navnbar, 2010.

snbndhit lekh


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