देवनागरी -देवीशंकर द्विवेदी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Icon-edit.gif yah lekh svatntr lekhan shreni ka lekh hai. is lekh men prayukt samagri, jaise ki tathy, ankade, vichar, chitr adi ka, snpoorn uttaradayitv is lekh ke lekhak/lekhakon ka hai bharatakosh ka nahin.
lekhak- shri devishnkar dvivedi

          kisi samaj men kisi vishesh bhasha ko apanane ke parinam ve nahin hote jo kisi vishesh lipi ko apanane ke hote hain. bhasha aur lipi alag alag vastuen hain. bhasha keval maukhik parnpara se bhi chalati rah sakati hai, usake lie lipi apanane tak ki avashyakata nahin hai, doosari or lipi kisi vishesh bhasha se hi bndhi mani jae, yah avashyak nahin hai, ek hi lipi ka anek bhinn bhinn bhashaon ke lie upayog snbhav hai, yah anivary nahin hai ki hindi bhasha devanagari lipi men hi sikhi jae, yah kisi any lipi men bhi sikhi ja sakati hai aur bina lipi ke bhi sikhi ja sakati hai. devanagari ka prayog keval hindi ke lie nahin kiya jata, marathi ke lie bhi kiya jata hai, any bhashao ke lie bhi devanagari ka prayog kiya ja sakata hai. gujarati, udiya adi ki lipiyan devanagari ka hi kuchh parivartit roop hai. vastav men sari ary bhashaen devanagari men sahaj hi likhi ja sakati hain. devanagari ke aksharon kuchh samanyatah parivartan parivarddhan ke dvara snsar ki bhashaon ko alag alag prayog ke lie sahaj hi lipi pradan ki ja sakati hai. isi parivartan parivarddhan ke dvara snsar ki bhashaon ko alag alag prayog ke lie sahaj hi lipi pradan ki ja sakati hai. isi parivartan parivarddhan ka ek ayam yah bhi hoga ki vartaman aksharon ko bhinn bhinn bhashaon men milati julati lekin bhinn dhvaniyo ke lie kam me laya sakata hai.
          devanagari ko prayah snsar ki anyatam vaigyanik lipi, ekamatr vaigyanik lipi ya poornatah vaigyanik lipi kaha ja sakata hai. is kathan ki samiksha karani ho to hamare liye yah jan lena avashyak hoga ki snsar ki sari lipiyon men vaigyanikata ke kaun kaun se lakshan kis kis matra men hain. vastutah ham is kathan ki pariksha is prakar karate nahin hain.
          lipi kya hai ? kya vah kuchh aksharon (arthath akritiyon) ka punj matr hai ya usamen un aksharon ka bhashagat mooly arthath uchcharan ya (chitralipi men) arth bhi sammilit hai ? udaharan lekar kahen to yadi ham ‘karm’ likhen aur use vaidh roop se ‘link’ padhen to kya ise devanagari lipi kaha jaega ? main nishchit roop se nahin kah sakata ki bhinn log is prashn ka kya uttar dengen. pata nahin kisi ne yah prashn kabhi is atyantik roop men apane samaksh rakha bhi hai ya nahin. mujhe lagata hai ki adhitar log ise devanagari hi kahenge yadyapi sath men shayad yah bhi jod denge ki isamen aksharon ka dhvanigat mooly badal gaya hai ya badal diya gaya hai. prachalit udaharanon ki samiksha karake denkhen. angrezi ka ‘haim’ shabd roman men likha ho to roosi bhashi use ‘nat’ padhenge. roosi nam ‘natasha’ roosi lipi men likha ho to angreji bhashabhashi use ‘hamava’ padhenge (is uchcharan men dablyoo ke ant men oopar ghundi nahin hogi, rekha utarakar niche aegi, lekin is bhed par shayad angreji samaj ka dhyan tak nahin jaega) arthath donon bhashaon men prachalit lipi men in aksharon men paraspar akriti samy hai. angreji ki lipi roman hai, roosi ki lipi ka nam sirilik hai. doosari or angreji aur phransisi ka udaharan len to ek hi prakar likha hua shabd angreji men ‘tren’ padha jata hai, ‘phransisi’ men train padha jata hai. yahan bhi donon bhashaon men prachalit lipi ke aksharon men akriti samy nahin hai. namakaran ki sthiti yahan bhinn hai. angreji aur phransisi in donon hi bhashaon ki lipi ka nam roman hai. marathi aur hindi men ‘reph’ ki akriti men bhed hota hai, kuchh aksharon ke dhvanigat mooly men bhi kuchh sthalon par bhed milata hai, lekin donon ki lipi ka nam devanagari hai. angreji-phransisi aur marathi-hindi men lipi ke namakaran ki jo pravritti milati hai, usase roosi angreji ki pravritti bhinn hai. ek antar yah bhi hai ki saman akriti vale aksharon ke dhvanigat mooly men paraspar jitana antar angreji aur roosi ke bich hai, any udahrit bhashaon men utana adhik antar nahin milata. doosare angreji aur roosi ki lipiyon men bhinn akriti vale aksharon ki snkhya analp hai. lekin in donon lipiyon ke namakaran ka bhed in donon karanon se hai, aisa nahin samajhana chahie. roosi bhasha ke lie roman ko anukoolit karane vale vyakti siril ke nam par usaka namakaran kar diya gaya, yah snyog ki bat hai. utane hi yadrichchhik roop se use roman hi kahate raha ja sakata tha, antar karana hota to use ‘roosi roman’ kaha ja sakata tha.
          isaka arth yah hua ki hamen snbodhon ko samajh lena chahie, prachalit namakaran se is prakriya men koee sahayata nahin leni chahie. uparyukt charcha ke pariprekshy men ham apane upayog ke lie nimnalikhit shabdavali nirdharit kar sakate hain.

1- akshariki ka kakahara-

aksharon (letars) tatha chinhon (dayakritiks) ki talika

2- lipi-

aksharon tatha chinhon ke snyojan ki pranali

3- lipyukti-

lipi ka bhashayi ikaiyo (uchcharan ya arth lipi) se snvad. dhyan rahe ki sadharatah is arth men bhi ‘lipi shabd ka prayog prachalit hai.

4- vartani-

shabdon, vakyon adi ke lie apanaee jane vali lipyukti
          choonki devanagari moolatah snskrit ke sndarbh men thi, isalie ham usake purane roop ki hi charcha karenge kyonki usaki vaigyanikata avaigyanikata ka uchit vivechan usake mool sndarbh men hi kiya ja sakata hai. upayukt bat to yah hogi ki tathakathit sudharon ke bad prapt hone vali usaki vichitr avasthaon ka dyotak bhinn bhinn namon se nahin to devanagari-1, devanagari-2, adi shirshakon se karaya jae.
          devanagari aksharon ki talika ko varnamala kaha gaya hai kyonki saskrit ke lie apanaee gee is lipyukti ka pratyek akshar vastutah ek varn (silebil) hota hai. svar to varnik hote hi hain, pratyek vynjanakshar men devanagari shuddh roop se (keval) ek varnamoolak lipi hai. ‘keval’ varnamoolak lipi men pratyek varn ke lie ek svatntr akshar apekshit hoga, varnon ke ghatakon ka samy khojakar kisi ek aksharansh, akshar ka chinh ka prayog usake ghatakon ke lie nahin kiya jaega. udaharanarth, ‘k’ tatha ‘ka’ do bhinn bhinn varn hain, isake lie ೦ tatha ០ sarikhe chinhon ka nirdharan karana ‘shuddh varnamoolakata’ hogi kyonki inamen saman roop se vidyaman ‘k’ svanim ke lie koee ek aksharansh prayukt nahin hua hai. aisi varnamoolak lipi men aksharon ki snkhya bahut adhik ho jegi.
          devanagari ‘pradhanata’ ek varnamoolak lipi hai kyonki usamen adhar varn ko banaya gaya hai yadyapi usake ghatak svanimon ke samy vaishamy ka bhi labh uthaya gaya hai. is samy vaishamy ki upeksha karana ek mahatvapoorn vaigyanik tathy ki upeksha karana hoga. svanim ki satta svikar karake arth bhedakata ke star par laghutam vyavaharik ikaee ko pahachana gaya hai. yah ek vaigyanik saty ki upalabdhi rahi hai aur lipi nirman men usaki vanchhit upadeyata bhi rahi hai. doosari or bhasha ki svatah uchcharan yogy laghutam ikaee ‘varn’ hoti hai. isalie lipi ko varn moolak adhar dena bhi ek vaigyanik saty ko angikar karana hai. is drishti se ham devanagari ki akshariki ko ‘svanimatmak varnamala’ (phonemik silebari) kah sakate hain. tisari ullekhaniy bat yah hai devanagari ke vynjanaksharon men anivary roop se nihit manane ke lie ‘a’ mana hai. adhunik svanajh isamen i, u, adi ki apeksha koee any ‘moolata’ nahin khoj pate rahe hain. eks-re philmon se yah rahasyodghatan hua hai ki uchcharan se poorv vakta ki jihva vakh ke prarnbh ki anivary mool sthiti se utpann hone vale svar ko ‘mool’ svar manana bhi vaigyanik aur svanik tathy hai tatha vynjanaksharon me nihit manane ke lie usaka chayan bhi svabhavik aur vaigyanik hai. devanagari ki vaigyanikata avaigyanikata ka vivechan karane ke poorv hame us lipi ka vaigyanik dharatal thik thak samajh lena chahie.
          jo log kahate hai. ki ‘a’ ko kahin ‘a’ to kahin ‘a’ likhana avaigyanik hai, ve devanagari ki vaigyanikata ka svaroop nahin samajh pae hain aur jane anajane roman lipi ke siddhant se prabhavit ho gaye hain. devanagari ke atirikt aur koee lipi aisi nahin hai (usase snbnddh lipiyon ko chhodakar) jo svanimon ke nirdesh ke sath sath varnon ki snkhya aur unaki simaon ka bhi nirdesh karati chalen. ‘a’ ke prayog se hamen gyat ho jata hai ki is varn nyashti par koee poorvavarti vynjan ya vynjananukram ashrit nahin hai, ‘a’ ke prayog se hamen yah soochana mil jati hai ki varn nyashti par koee poorvavarti vynjan ya vynjanukram ashrit hai. snskrit men vynjan varn viral hai, isalie unake nirdesh ke hetu ‘a’ yukt antim vynjanakshar men ‘a’ ke lop ke lie halnt chinh lagane se koee jhnjhat nahin badhata aur halnt chinh se yah vyakt ho jata hai ki vynjan apane poorvavarta vanik par ashrit hai. yah kahana bhi nasamajhi hai ki devanagari men matraon ka daen baen oopar niche lagana ‘avaigyanik’ hai. ‘vaigyanikata’ aur ‘ekaroopata’ samanarthi shabd nahin hain. ek drav ke jo lakshan hote hain usase milate julate sare dravon ke vahi lakshan nahin hote. ek matra jis sthan par lagati hai doosari matra ka bhi usi sthan par lagana avashyak nahin hai. snyukt vynjanon men tatha matraen v any chihn lagane men mukhy dhyey hota hai varn ka simankan. sath sath is bat ka nirdesh diya jata hai ki varn nyashti kaun sa svar hai. is nirdesh ke lie matra kahan lagaee jae, yah bat gaun hai. jo log kahate hain ki vynjananugami svaron ka nirdesh karane vali matraen anivaryatah vynjanaksharon ke bad sidhi rekha men likhi jani chahie, ve svanimatmak vicharon se prabhavit hote hain. ‘varn moolakata’ ke karan matraon ka sthan utana mahatvapoorn nahin rah jata.
          oopar kaha gaya hai ki devanagari lipi ki kuchh vaigyanikata usake svanik ‘yatharth’ ki hai. mool svar ‘a’ ki charcha men isaka udaharan vidyaman hai. matraon ka nirdesh yadi svanik yatharth ki bhi raksha kare aur anukram par dhyan dete hue ek sidhi rekha men prapti ho to yah bat vaigyanik hogi. lekin sidhi rekha me anukramik roop men inaka prapt hona lipi ke varnamoolak adhar k karan ‘avaigyanik’ nahin hone pata, vaigyanikata ke dharatal ki snkhya avashy hi ek rah jati hai. vaigyanikata ka yahi dharatal usaka mool dharatal hai. yah avashyak hai ki matraon ke bhinn bhinn sthanon par unake hone ka vaisa koee vaigyanik uddeshy nahin hai jaisa ‘a’’ ki akriti bhinnata ka.
          matraon ke sndarbh men ek aur bat bhi ullekhaniy hai. varn men sarvadhik shaktishali tatv hota hai usaki nyashti. varn nyashti ke lie matra ka prayog hone par usaka sthan gaun sa ho jata hai. ek to usaki akriti apekshakrit mahatvahin dikhati hai, doosare vynjanaksharon ke ird gird use apana koee aur dhoondhana padata hai. yah bat akaran nahin hai ki vidyarthi matraon ke nirdesh men jitani trutiyan karate hain unaki tulana men aksharon ki tulana nagany si hoti hain. prashn yah uthata hai ki shaktishali tatvon ki lipi men gaun sthan dena aur vyajnnaksharon ko pramukh sthan dena kahan tak tarkasngat hai. isaka ek uttar to yah hai ki lipi men is pramukhata ya gaunata ke pradarshan ki koee tatrvik avashyakata nahin hai, kyonki sampoorn varn ko mahatv dene ke bad is bat ka koee mooly nahin rah jata. doosara saiddhantik uttar yah hai ki jis prakar pradarshan men ninv ka mahatv nahin hota, us prakar varn nyashti ka bhi pramukh pradarshan me ninv ka mahatv nahin hota aur usi prakar varn nayashti ka bhi pramukh mahatv n hona svabhavaki hai. tisara vyavaharik uttar yah hai ki matraen vynjanon ka nirdrash karati to kee guni matraon ki avashyakata padati. jab kuchh matraon ki avashyakata padane par daen baen oopar niche sabhi sthanon ka upayog karana padata hai, tab kee guni matraon ke lie sthan khojana kitana kathin hota, isaki sahaj hi kalpana ki ja sakati hai.
          devanagari akshariki ki akriti matr ki charcha ki jae to vaigyanikata avaigyanikata ka prashn hi nahin uthata. saralata aur kathinata ki bat avashy ki ja sakati hai, lekin yah bat bhi sapekshata ki hai. devanagari ke kuchh akshar isake kuchh any aksharon ki apeksha saral kathin hai. isi prakar, devanagari, ke aksharon ki apeksha saral kathin akshar snbhav hain.
          devanagari lipyukti ka vivechan karen. choonki svanim ek vyatireki ikaee hai aur usaka mooly usaki karyakarita men hota hai. isalie usake svanik paksh ka vivechan tatvatah avashyak nahin hai. is drishti men kisi bhi svanim ke lie koee bhi akriti yadrichchhik roop se apanaee ja sakati hai. devanagari lipyukti is drishti se poornatah vaigyanik hai. yadi hamari akanksha ho ki svanik p़ksh ki gaunata ke bavajood us dharatal par vaigyanikata ka nirvah kiya jae to devanagari men amoolachool parivartan avashyak ho jaega. svan tatvon ka nirdeshan karane vali lipi ke nirman ki snbhavana ki vyavaharik kathinaee ka pahaloo to hai hi, ek saiddhantik apatti yah hai ki bolakar pahachani jane vali laghutam ikaee svanim hoti hai, svanatatv nahin. aisi lipi ho to lekhan shram ki matra men bhi vriddhi ho jaegi. in baton ka samadhan karate hue aisa avashy kiya ja sakata hai ki aksharon ki akriti ke nirdharan men yadrichchhikata baratane ke bajae svan tatvon ki akriti ke nirdharan men yadrichchhikata barati jae aur unaka niyamit snyojan karake poornakshar banae jaen tatha unake mooly nirdharan ka nirvah adyopant kiya je. spasht hai ki devanagari aksharon ka nirman aise siddhanton par nahin hua hai. p-ph ki akriti ka jo antar mahapranatv ke abhav bhav ka nirdesh karata hai, vah v-k men bhi vidyaman hai, lekin dhvanigat antar ka vah isamen yugm men nahin hai. bh-jh ki akriti men bhi vahi antar hai lekin dhvanigat antar bhinn prakar ka hai. r-v ko nikat lane se kh akshar ban jata hai kintu dhvanyatm dharatal par is tathy ka koee auchity nahin hai. dh-gh men shirorekha khndit akhndit hone se knthy-dnty ka antar nirdisht hua hai, m-bh men shirorekha ka antar vahi hai lekin dhvanigat antar bhinn hai. sare knth dnt sparshi ka antar shirorekha ke akhndit khndit hone se nahin nirdisht hota hai. d ke bad ek shoony jodane se n ban jata hai, lekin svanik dharatal par is tathy ka bhi koee auchity nahin hai. t ke arddh vritt ko poorn vritt banakar usaka mahapran roop th prapt kiya jata hai lekin any mahapran roopon ke lie yah paddhati anyatr nahin milati hai. t ke niche ek ghudi ki yog karane se usaka saghosh mahapran roop dh ban jata hai, ghudi ka yah mooly aur kahin nahin milata. n men r ki akriti vidyaman hai lekin dhvanyatmak dharatal par isaka kaee auchity nahin hai. ek khadi rekha thoda niche jakar dh ko d kar deti hai. thoda oopar jakar n ko m bana deti hai. rekha ka dhvanyatmak mooly donon prasngon men bhinn bhinn hai aur inamen se koee bhi mooly kisi bhi any prasng se nahin milata. p ke bhitar ki vibhajak rekha use sh banakar jo dhvanyatmak mooly arjit karati hai, vah mooly use v ko b banakar prapt nahin hota. aur in do men se kisi mooly ke lie usaka prayog anyatr kahin nahin milata. d ko h banane vala chinh koee vyavasthit dhvanyatmak mooly nahin grahan karata aur kisi bhi dhvanyatmak mooly ke lie kahin anyatr prayukt nahin hota. ra ko s karane vali adi rekha bhi isi koti ki hai. matra bhed ke lie a aur a men jo bhed milata hai, vah i tatha ee tatha u-oo men nahin milata. antim donon yugmon ke lie bhi matra bhed ke lie bhinn bhinn chinh prayukt hue hain. a-o, e-ai men aisa nahin hua hai. akriti se aisa lagata hai ki a ka nirman u se aur ph ka nirman p se hua hai, dhvanyatmak vastavikata aisi nahin hai, i se jh ke nirman ka abhas hota hai, kintu dhvanyatmak dharatal par isaki bhi koee sngati nahin hai. d men jo chinh lagakar i banaya jata hai, usaka aisa koee sngat dhvanyatmak mooly nahin ban pata, n vah anyatr milata hai. chinh i par lagakar matra vriddhi karata hai, vynjanaksharon par vahi reph ban jata hai. p- ph men jo bhed mahapranatv ka samavesh karata hai, u-oo men vah matra vriddhi karata hai. ai ki matra hai lekin svayn ai men usaka svaroop hai. lekin ye sari asngatiyan asngatiyan nahi rah jati kyonki devanagari lipi men aksharon ke nirman ka adhar dhvani tatvon ka snyojan nahin hai.
          devanagari varnamala ki ek ullekhaniy vaigyanikata isake aksharon ki vyavasthit snyojana hai. sabase pahale sparsh vynjan die ge hain jo uchcharan sthan ki drishti se kramashah pichhe ki or se age ki or ate hain. pratyek varg men ghosh aur pran ki drishti se vynjanon ka sthan nirdharit hai. vargon ke ant men varg nasiky ka sthan hai. sparsh vynjanon ke bad antasth aur ooshm ate hain. inhen bhi pichhe ki or se kramashah age badhane ke kram se vyavasthit kiya gaya hai svaron men mool svar a (tatha dirgh roop a) ke bad adyopant hrisv dirgh ke kram ke kram se agr pashch mool svar, phir pichhe se age ki or ka kram apanate hue shesh do mool svar ri, lri aur ant men agr pashch dvisvar die gaye hain. dhyan rahe ki yah vaigyanikata devanagari lipi ki vaigyanikata nahin hai, keval usake aksharon ki kramavyavastha ki vaigyanikata hai.
          aksharon tatha chinhon ke snyojan ki pranali men prayah jatilata milati hai kintu avaigyanikata nahin milati hai. oopar kaha ja chuka hai ki apane poorvavarti vynjan ke bad judane vala varnik us vynjanakshar men matra ke roop men jod diya jata hai. snyukt vynjan yadi sidhi rekha men likhe jate hain to usi kram men padhe jate hain jis kram men ve likhe gaye hain. yadi ve oopar niche likhe gaye hai to unhen padhane ke lie kramashah oopar se niche utara jata hai. is niyamitata ke bhitar milane vale vivaranon se asngatiyan milati hain. sare snyukt vynjanon ke lie ade aur khade aksharon ka vikalp (kk kk) nahin hai, kuchh vikalp hai, kuchh men koee ek roop hi prachalit hai, vynjanaksharon me se ‘a’ ka lop karane ke lie vividh paddhatiyan hain. ek vikalp yah hai ki akshar ka uttaransh na likha jae, parntu kuchh aksharon men (udaharanarth n, chh, t, th, d, dh, d,) yah vikalp nahin hai. reph jis akshar par lagata hai, usi nirdisht varn ke pahale uchcharit hota hai. lekin anusvar jis akshar par lagata hai, usase dyotit varn ke bad uchcharit hota hai. yadyapi reph aur anusvar donon shirorekha ke oopar lagane vale chinh hain. kri + sh, t + rh tatha jh + n ke lie svatntr akshar hai jabaki any snyukt vynjanon ke lie nahin hai.
          devanagari lipyukti svanimashrit varnamala hai. lipi ka niyamit mooly gyat ho jane ke bad snskrit ki vartani poorn vaigyanik hoti hai, isamen yadrichchha ke lie koee gunjaish nahin hai. vartani ya to uchcharan par ashrit hoti hai ya prasnganusar roop vaigyanik gathan (udaharanarth kayik, bhavuk) par. yah bat kahane ka bhi koee karan nahin dikhata ki snskrit men roopavaigyanik gathan par ashrit vartani uchcharan par bhi ashrit nahin thi.
          hindi ke prasng men devanagari lipyukti kuchh badali hai. hindi men pharasi tatha angreji se aee huee ya navavikasit dhvaniyon ke lie devanagari men kud chinh lagakar usaka anukoolan kiya gaya hai. vartani men vaigyanikata bahut adhik hai yadyapi usaki vyakhya ke niyam kahin kahin jatil hain.
          aisa hi anukoolan pratyek dharatal par kisi bhi bhasha ke lie devanagari men kiya ja sakata hai. ek ullekhaniy suvidha yah hai ki isamen kam aksharon ka prayog karana padata hai. 'kamal' likhane men devanagari tin aksharon ka prayog karati hai jabaki roman men isake lie panch akshar banane padate hain. devanagari men ek sprihaniy antarrashtriy lipi ke gun hain. akhil bharatiy lipi ke roop men usaka prayog thoda bahut hone bhi laga hai.

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

tritiy vishv hindi sammelan 1983
kramank lekh ka nam lekhak
hindi aur samasik snskriti
1. hindi sahity aur samasik snskriti daau. karn rajasheshagiri rav
2. hindi sahity men samasik snskriti ki sarjanatmak abhivyakti pro. kesarikumar
3. hindi sahity aur samasik snskriti daau. chndrakant bandivadekar
4. hindi ki samasik evn sanskritik ekata daau. jagadish gupt
5. rajabhasha: karyacharan aur samasik snskriti daau. en.es. dakshinamoorti
6. hindi ki akhil bharatiyata ka itihas pro. dineshvar prasad
7. hindi sahity men samasik snskriti daau. munshiram sharma
8. bharatiy vyaktitv ke snshlesh ki bhasha daau. raghuvnsh
9. desh ki samasik snskriti ki abhivyakti men hindi ka yogadan daau. rajakishor pandey
10. sanskritik samanvay ki prakriya aur hindi sahity shri rajeshvar gngavar
11. hindi sahity men samasik snskriti ke tattv daau. shivanndan prasad
12. hindi:samasik snskriti ki snvahika shri shivasagar mishr
13. bharat ki samasik snskririti aur hindi ka vikas daau. haradev bahari
hindi ka vikasashil svaroop
14. hindi ka vikasashil svaroop daau. anndaprakash dikshit
15. hindi ke vikas men bhojapuri ka yogadan daau. udayanarayan tivari
16. hindi ka vikasashil svaroop (shabdavali ke sndarbh men) daau. kailashachndr bhatiya
17. manak bhasha ki snkalpana aur hindi daau. krishnakumar gosvami
18. rajabhasha ke roop men hindi ka vikas, mahattv tatha prakash ki dishaen shri jayanarayan tivari
19. sanskritik bhasha ke roop men hindi ka vikas daau. trilochan pandey
20. hindi ka saralikaran achary devendranath sharma
21. prashasanik hindi ka vikas daau. narayanadatt palival
22. jan ki vikasashil bhasha hindi shri bhagavat jha azad
23. bharat ki bhashik ekata: parnpara aur hindi pro. manik govind chaturvedi
24. hindi bhasha aur rashtriy ekikaran pro. ravindranath shrivastav
25. hindi ki snvaidhanik sthiti aur usaka vikasashil svaroop pro. vijayendr snatak
devanagari lipi ki bhoomika
26. rashtriy aur antarrashtriy sndarbh men devanagari shri jivan nayak
27. devanagari pro. devishnkar dvivedi
28. hindi men lekhan snbndhi ekaroopata ki samasya pro. p. ba. jain
29. devanagari lipi ki bhoomika daau. babooram saksena
30. devanagari lipi (kashmiri bhasha ke sndarbh men) daau. mohanalal sar
31. rashtriy aur antarrashtriy sndarbh men devanagari lipi pn. rameshvaradayal dube
videshon men hindi
32. vishv ki hindi patr-patrikaen daau. kamata kamalesh
33. videshon men hindi:prachar-prasar aur sthiti ke kuchh pahaloo pro. premasvaroop gupt
34. hindi ka ek apanaya-sa kshetr: snyukt rajy daau. ar. es. megregar
35. hindi bhasha ki bhoomika : vishv ke sndarbh men shri rajendr avasthi
36. marishas ka hindi sahity daau. lata
37. hindi ki bhavi antarrashtriy bhoomika daau. brajeshvar varma
38. antarrashtriy sndarbh men hindi pro. siddheshvar prasad
39. nepal men hindi aur hindi sahity shri sooryanath gop
vividha
40. tulanatmak bharatiy sahity evn paddhati vigyan ka prashn daau. indranath chaudhuri
41. bharat ki bhasha samasya aur hindi daau. kumar vimal
42. bharat ki rajabhasha niti shri krishnakumar shrivastav
43. videsh doorasnchar seva shri ke.si. katiyar
44. kashmir men hindi : sthiti aur snbhavanaen pro. chamanalal saproo
45. bharat ki rajabhasha niti aur usaka karyanvayan shri devendracharan mishr
46. bhashayi samasya : ek rashtriy samadhan shri narmadeshvar chaturvedi
47. snskrit-hindi kavyashastr men upama ki sarvalnkarabijata ka vichar daau. mahendr madhukar
48. dvitiy vishv hindi sammelan : nirnay aur kriyanvayan shri rajamani tivari
49. vishv ki pramukh bhashaon men hindi ka sthan daau. ramajilal jangid
50. bharatiy adivasiyon ki matribhasha tatha hindi se inaka samipy daau. lakshmanaprasad sinha
51. main lekhak nahin hoon shri vimal mitr
52. lokgyta sarvgyta (lokavartta vigyan ke sndarbh men) daau. haradvarilal sharma
53. desh ki ekata ka mool: hamari rashtrabhasha shri kshemachnd ‘suman’
videshi sndarbh
54. marishas: sagar ke par laghu bharat shri es. bhuvaneshvar
55. amarika men hindi -daau. kerin shomar
56. lipazing vishvavidyalay men hindi daau. (shrimati) marget gatslaf
57. jarmani snghiy ganarajy men hindi daau. lothar lutse
58. soorinam desh aur hindi shri sooryaprasad bire
59. hindi ka antarrashtriy pariprekshy shri bachchooprasad sinh
svaichchhik snstha sndarbh
60. hindi ki svaichchhik snsthaen shri shnkararav londhe
61. rashtriy prachar samiti, vardha shri shnkararav londhe
sammelan sndarbh
62. pratham aur dvitiy vishv hindi sammelan: uddeshy evn upalabdhiyan shri madhukararav chaudhari
smriti-shraddhanjali
63. svargiy bharatiy sahityakaron ko smriti-shraddhanjali daau. prabhakar machave

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