प्रशासनिक हिन्दी का विकास -डॉ. नारायणदत्त पालीवाल  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Icon-edit.gif yah lekh svatntr lekhan shreni ka lekh hai. is lekh men prayukt samagri, jaise ki tathy, ankade, vichar, chitr adi ka, snpoorn uttaradayitv is lekh ke lekhak/lekhakon ka hai bharatakosh ka nahin.
lekhak- daau. narayanadatt palival

          hamare desh men kashmir se lekar kanyakumari tak tatha gujarat se lekar nagalaind tak anek bhashaen, upabhashaen, boliyan tatha upaboliyan boli jati hai. inamen vibhinnata ke hote hue bhi ekata ke darshan hote hain. prachin kal se bhavanatmak ekata ke sndesh ke sath sath bharatiy sahity men desh ki sanskritik garima, yahan ki sabhyata, yahan ke adarsh aur jivan ke shashvat moolyon, yahan ki sabhyata, yahan ke adarsh aur jivan ke shashvat moolyon ko saman roop se vani mili hai. yahi karan hai ki sabhi bharatiy bhashaen bhavanaon aur vicharon ki abhivyakti ke madhyam ke roop men is dharati par sanskritik ekata ki pavan gnga pravahit karati hai. bhasha manav ko manav se jodati hai. yah vicharon ke adan pradan men sahayak hone ke sath sath parnparaon, snskritiyon aur manyataon tatha vishvason ko samajhane ka madhyam bhi he. prachinakal se hi vibhinn bhashaen is desh men parasparik sneh, bhaee-chare ki bhavana tatha sanskritik ekata aur akhndata ko banae rakhane men mahatvapoorn bhoomaka nibhati rahi hai. is vichar se dekha jae to snskrit, hindi tatha bharatiy snvidhan men manyata prapt any pradeshik bhashaen is desh ki samasik snskriti ke vikas ke lie mahatvapoorn sthan rakhati hain.

hindi ke vikas men snskrit ki bhoomika

snskrit bhasha ke vishay men snskrit ke prasiddh pashchaty vidvanh moniyar viliyam ne kaha hai ki ‘yadyapi bharat men panch sau se adhik boliyan prachalit hai, parntu hindutv ko manane vale sabhi vyaktiyon ke lie, chahe ve kitani jati, kul, maryada, snpraday aur boliyon ki bhinnataon ke kyon n ho, sarvasammati se svikrit aur samadoot ek hi pavitr bhasha aur sahity hai aur vah bhasha hai - snskrit aur vah sahity hai - snskrit sahity[1]. ise kisi kal aur sima men nahin bandha ja sakata. snskrit ko vishv ki 3 prachin mahanh bhashaon men gina jata he. yadi pichhali kee shatabdiyon ke itihas par drishti dalen to hamen gyat hoga ki jab desh chhote chhote rajyon aur pranton men bnta tha to snskrit ko kary vyavahar ke lie mahatvapoorn bhasha ke roop men apanaya gaya tha. bharat ki pradeshik bhashaen bhi snskrit ke prabhav ke antargat rahi hai. anek sarakari lekhapatron, kanoonon niyamon tatha sarakar aur nagarikon se snbndhit anek abhilekhon ka snskrit men paya jana is bat ka praman hai ki prashasanik karyon men is bhasha ka prachin kal men prachalan tha. isake atirikt yah bhasha hamare dharmagrnthon tatha shaikshinik, sanskritik aur vaigyanik sahity ki pran rahi hai. hindi sahity ki anek kritiyon par snskrit ka prabhav spasht hai. hindi ke adikal ko hi liya jae to usase pahale ki bhasha apabhrnsh par bhi snskrit ka vyapak prabhav raha hai. jahan tatha prashasanik hindi ka prashn hai svatntrata se poorv anek riyasaton ka kamakaj angreji men n hokar hindi men chalata tha. 1000 ee. ke bad musalamanon ke agaman par avashy hi snskrit ka prayog samapt ho gaya aur prashasanik bhasha par arabi-pharasi ka prabhav pada tatha musalaman shasakon ke samay sarakar, tahasiladar, vakil, chaparasi, sipahi amin, jila, daphtari, khajanchi, mal kaman adi ke saman shabd sarakari kamakaj men prachalit ho gaye jo aj bhi lokapriy hain aur barabar prayog men a rahe hain.
yah parivartan svabhavik bhi tha kyonki badali huee paristhitiyon tatha gyan aur vigyan ki vikasit avastha ke sath sath koee bhi jivnt bhasha ne shabdon aur arthon ko apanati hai. is prakar sarakari kamakaj ki ho ya samany janata ke prayog ki, kisi bhi bhasha ko nee disha milati rahati hai. angreji rajy ke dauran shiksha, gyan vigyan aur rajaniti ke kshetr men parivartan hue. atah naye ayam aur nee dishaon ko vani dene ke lie bhasha bhi apane roop ko usi ke anukool parivartit karati gee hai. jahan tak shabdavali ka prashn hai bhasha men snskrit, angreji, arabi, pharasi aur urdoo ke shabd khapate chale gaye. angreji ne apane shasan ki suvidha ke lie hindi aur snskrit ke shabdon ko bhi apanaya. isilie mukadama, gavah, kharij, peshi tatha arji jaise shabdon ke sath sath saman, jaj, varnt tatha edavoket jaise shabd bhi am prachalan men a ge.

hindi ka rashtravyapi roop

angrejon ke viruddh sudoor uttar se dakshin tak poorv se pashchim tak jo rashtravyapi andolan chala usaka madhyam adhikansh roop men hindi hone ke karan yah bhasha rashtravayapi roop men samane aee. is prakar hindi ek akhil bharatiy bhasha ke roop men is desh ko jodati huee dhire dhire parasparik kary vyavahar ki bhasha ke roop men vikasit hone lagi aur use snskrit ke pashchath is desh ke janamanas ko jodane vali bhasha ka roop mila. daa. suniti kumar chatarji ka kathan hai ki ‘apane desh se prem rakhane vale jo bharatiy rashtr ko akhnd manate hain, avashy svikar karenge ki hamari rashtriy, vyaparik tatha sanskritik ekata ke bad hindi ko eeshvar ke ashirvad svaroop manata hoooon. isase ham is nishkarsh par pahunchate hain ki snskrit ki mahatvapoorn bhoomika ke sath sahityik aur antaprantiy vyavahar men hindi ko jo mahatvapoorn sthan prapt hua usamen badalati huee paristhitiyon aur urdoo tatha bharat ki sabhi bhashaon ka sahayog sammilit hai. choonki snskrit ki bhoomika bharat ke snvidhan men manyata prapt any sabhi bhashaon aur hindi ke vikas tatha poshan ka marg sugam banane men usaka yogadan mahatvapoorn siddh hua. antaprantiy vichar se hindi ki shabdavali men snskrit athava tatsam shabdon ko pradhanata dena avashyak hai. isi adhar par hindi ki shabdavali ka avashyak ang akhil bharatiy roop men svikar kiya ja sakata hai.
mera mat to yah hai ki hindi ko rashtrabhasha (jo nam ab bharat ki sabhi manyata prapt bhashaon ke lie prayukt hota hai) ka sthan isalie prapt nahin hua ki vah sabhi bharatiy bhashaon men shreshth hai varanh isalie prapt hua ki is bhasha ka desh men sabase adhik prachar aur prasar hai tatha ise adhikansh janata samajhati tatha bolati hai. hindi prarnbh se bharat ke sabhi pranton men boli v samajhi jati thi aur prayah sabhi pranton ke ahindi bhashi lekhakon ne is bhasha men sahity srijan bhi kiya hai. isase is bhasha ko snskrit ki bhanti akhil bharatiy roop mila hai. hindi ko usaka akhil bharatiy svaroop pradan karane men desh ke kone kone men phaile hue mazadoor varg, vyapari varg, ajivika v vibhinn vyavasay vale logon ki bhi mahatvapoorn bhoomika rahi hai.

rajabhasha hindi ki snvaidhanik sthiti

jab bharat svatntr hua to is bat ki avashyakata padi ki navodit rashtr ki garima aur atmasamman ke anukool hindi ko rashtrabhasha ke roop men angikrit aur vikasit kiya jae. atah samaj ki nee nee avashyakataon ki poorti ke sadhan ke roop men aur bharatiy jan jivan ke chintan tatha bhavanaon aur snvedanaon ki abhivynjana ke madhyam ke roop men any bharatiy bhashaon ke sahayog ke sath sath hindi ko snpark bhasha ke roop men chuna gaya. bhashayi svabhiman svatntr rashtr ke jivan ka ek ansh hota hai. atah svatntrata ke pashchath hindi ko rajakaj ki bhasha banane ke pichhe yah bhavana thi ki snpark bhasha ke roop men vikasit hokar hindi, gyan vigyan, adhyayan-adhyapan aur sahity ki hi bhasha n rahe varanh use prashasanik bhasha ka roop bhi diya je aur sarakari kam kaj bolachal tatha kary vyavahar ki bhasha bana diya jae. yah thik bhi tha kyonki komalakant padavali prashasanik karyon ke lie prayog men nahin laee ja sakati. jis bhasha ne snt kabir ki sakhiyon ko sajaya, sooradas aur tulasidas ki kavita ko snvara aur prasad, pnt tatha mahadevi ke giton ko madhur roop diya use snpark bhasha ke roop men vikasit karane tatha prashasan ke kshetr men jan jan ki bhasha banane ke prayatn kie ge. atah sahityik hindi tatha bolachal ki hindi ko nyayalayon, vidyalayon, karyashalaon, prashasanik snsthaon aur sarakari patr vyavahar men apanae jane ke lie naya roop diya jane laga. atah yah prayas kiya gaya ki dhire dhire sarakari kshetron meen aisa vatavaran bane jo hindi ko apane dainik kary men apanane ke lie sahayak ho. isake lie vaidhanik vyavastha ke sath sath manaviy aur bhautik sadhan jutane ka prayas kiya gaya aur rajabhasha ke roop men hindi ko sarakari kamakaj ka madhyam chun liya gaya. bharat ke snvidhan nirmataon ne hindi ka mahatv samajhate hue use rajabhasha aur snpark bhasha ke roop men angikar karane ki vyavastha ki. phalatah bharat ke snvidhan ke anuchchhed 343 men yah vyavastha ki gee ki devanagari lipi men likhi huee hindi yahan ki rajabhasha hogi. snvidhan ke anuchchhed 351 men isaken lie jo nirdesh die gaye hain ve is prakar hain-

‘hindi bhasha ki prasar vriddhi kar usaka vikas karana taki vah bharat ki samasik snskriti ke sab tatvon ki abhivyakti ka madhyam ho sake tatha usaki atmiyata men hastakshep kie bina hindustani aur ashtam anusoochi men ullikhit any bharatiy bhashaon ke roop, shaili aur padavali ko atmasat karate hue tatha jahan avashyak ya vanchhaniy ho vahan usake shabd bhndar ke lie mukhyatah snskrit se tatha gaunatah vaisi ullikhit bhashaon se shabd grahan karate hue usaki samriddhi sunishchit karana sngh ka kartavy hoga.’

prarnbh men yah vyavastha thi ki angreji ka prayog 1965 tak chalata rahe tatha bich men hindi ko vikasit roop de diya jae. bhasha ke prashn par 1965 men kher ayog ki sthapana ki gee aur us ayog ki sipharishon par vichar karane ke lie 1957 men pnt samiti banaee gee. is ayog tatha samiti donon ne jahan hindi ka prayog badhane ki sipharish ki vahin angraji ka prayog 1965 ke bad bhi jari rakhane ki sipharish ki. in paristhitiyon ko kary roop dene ke lie 1963 men snsad dvara rajabhasha adhiniyam 1963 pas kiya gaya. isake anusar yah vyavastha ki gee ki sngh ke jin karyon ke lie 26 janavari, 1965 se pahale angreji ka prayog kiya jata tha unake lie us tarikh ke bad bhi hindi ke atirikt angreji ka prayog kiya ja sakata hai. bad men paristhitiyan badalin aur 1967 men rajabhasha (snshodhan) adhiniyam 1967 pas kiya gaya. is prakar yah vyavastha huee ki ‘hindi hi sngh ki rajabhasha hogi, kintu angreji ke istemal ki chhoot tab tak bani rahegi, jab tak hindi ko rajabhasha ke roop men apanane vale sabhi rajyon ke vidhanamndal angreji ka prayog samapt karane ke lie snkalp n parit karen aur unake snkalpon par vichar karane ke bad snsad ke donon sadan bhi aisa hi n karen.’ is prakar kanoon ke vichar se sarakari kagajapatron, likha padhi aur dainik karyon men hindi aur angreji donon hi bhashaon ko chalane ki vyavastha huee. hal hi men bharat sarakar dvara hindi ke snbndh men ek adhisoochana jari ki gee hai jisase prashasanik karyon men hindi ke vyapak prayog ki vyavastha ki gee hai.

hindi men takaniki shabdavali ka vikas

hindi ko prashasanik karyaen men lane ke lie sabase pahale takaniki shabdavali ki avashyakata padi. is disha men kendriy hindi nideshalay tatha vaigyanik aur takaniki shabdavali ayog ne bada kam kiya. unake prayas se vibhinn vishayon ki shabdavali ke snkalan taiyar kie ge aur prashasanik kshetr men prayog ke lie paribhashik shabd sngrah banae ge. yah ullekhaniy hai ki snskrit ki shabd nirman samarthy ki barabari koee bhasha nahin kar sakati. snskrit ki lagabhag 2000 dhatuen anek shabdon ke nirman me sahayak hain. isaken sath hi pratyay aur upasarg lagakar ne shabdon ka nirman kiya ja sakata hai. yahan tak kaha gaya hai ki upasarg, pratyay aur dhatuon ki sahayata tatha shabdon ke kram parivartan, sndhi adi se lagabhag 85 karod shabd banae ja sakate hain. parntu dekhana hai ki anek shabd keval kosh ki hi shobha banane ke lie hain ya ve vyavaharopayogi bhi hain. atah ati utsah aur keval snskrit nishth shabdavali ke prayog ka moh chhodana vyavaharik drishti se kahin adhik upayogi hai. yahi karan hai ki arnbh men snvaidhanik, vidhi aur prashasanik kshetr men shabdavali se snbndhit samasya ko hal karane ke lie banae ge kuchh kosh mahatvapoorn hote hue bhi lokapriy nahin ho sake. isaka karan yah hai ki prashasanik kary ke kshetr men aisi shabdavali ka svagat hota hai jo vyavaharik roop se sahaj, svabhavik aur aur samajh men a sakane yogy ho. vastav men jis bhasha ka prayog sarakari karyo men kiya jata hai aur jo vibhinn vibhagon athava dainik sarakari patr vyavahar ke lie athava ek rajy se doosare rajy ke bich parasparik adan pradan ke prayog men ati hai. us bhasha ka svaroop n to poori tarah se samany bolachal ki bhasha se mel kha sakata hai aur n poori tarah s sahityik bhasha se. atah usaka svaroop kuchh alag hi hota hai aur usaki shabdavali bhi usi ke anuroop hona anivary hai.
jahan tak hindi ki apani shabd snpada ka prashn hai hamen anek shabdakosh milate hai. is bich ne ne shabd in koshon men aur bhi jud ge hain. yahan tak ki hindi shabdasagar ke 11 bhagon men lagabhag 2,11,50,000 shabd upalabdh hain. prashn hindi ki snpada ka utana nahin hai jitana ki abhivynjana shakti aur samay ki snpoorn paristhitiyon ke anuroop gyan vigyan ki vibhinn shakhaon se snbndhit paribhashik aur pravidhik arth roopon ko samajha sakane yogy hone ki usaki samarthy ka hai. atah hindi ke vikas ki yah nee disha atynt mahatvapoorn rahi hai aur bhasha ko ne ne shabd aur arth mile hain. ab dhire dhire nyayalayon men, karyolayon men, samachar patron men, karyashalaon men aur janata tatha sarakar ke parasparaki kary vyavahar men ek ne roop men ubhar kar samane a rahi hai. is kary men vibhinn rajyon ne shabdavali ke nirman ka kary kiya hai aur usake dvara banae ge anek kosh, shabd sngrah athava shabd snkalan nirntar prayog men a rahe hain. inamen uttar pradesh, bihar, rajasthan, madhy pradesh, hariyana, himachal pradesh tatha dilli prashasan adi sammilit hain.

vidhi shabdavali

jahan tak ki vidhi shabdavali ka snbndh hai vidhi mntralay ke adhin rajabhasha vidhayi ayog dvara is disha men mahatvapoorn kary kiya gaya hai. aisi shabdavali ka nirman hua hai jo anek adhiniyamon ke hindi roopon men prayog men laya jata gaya hai. yah avashyak hai ki kanoon ke kshetr men janata ko apani bhasha ke prayog ki chhoot honi chahie. ab tak nyayalayon men hindi bhashi kshetron men hindi aur any kshetron men vahan ki kshetriy bhasha ka sthan nahin milata tab tak yah samasya ulajhi hi rahegi. yah kaisi vidnbana hai ki nyayalay men jis samay nirnay sunaya jata hai us samay angreji n janane vale aparadhi ya paksh ko yah maloom bhi nahin ho pata ki use kya dnd diya ja raha hai athava usake mamale men kya kiya gaya. yahan hamen yah dhyan rakhana avashyak hai ki kanoon ke kshetr men shabdon ka vishesh mahatv hai. vahan ek shabd ke lie nirvachan dvara ek hi nirdharit arth hota hai. jaise -

niyam (rool) abhiyog (charj)
upaniyam (bai laj) abhiyojan (prosikyooshan)
vinimay (regyooleshan) abhiyokta (prosikyootar)
adhiniyam(ekt) abhiyukt (kriminal)
niyamavali (rools end regyooleshan) dvosh (kanavikshan)
vidheyak (bil) dvosh mukt (ektiveted)
dhara (sekshan) siddh dvosh (knvikt)
upadhara (sabasekshan) dvoshi (ekyoojd)
khnd (klauj) vadi (plaintiph)
upakhnd (sab klauj) prativadi (diphaidaint)

kanoon ki bhasha men vaky ki yathavatata bhi avashyak hai. is kshetr men yadi ham bhasha ko saral aur subodh banane ke lie prayas dvara shabd parivartan karenge to arth ka anarth bhi ho sakata hai. atah kanoon ki shabdavali men hamen kabhi kabhi kathin shabdon ka svagat karana padega jo prayog dvara hi saral lag sakegen. snskrit shabdavali is disha men sahayak huee. saralata ke vichara se is samay aj prachalan men ae shabd jaise saman, arji, halafanama, bayan, bahas, varnt, jirah, vakil, apil, adi shabdon ko prayog men late rahane ki parnpara bani huee hain. kanoon ke kshetr mn pratyek shabd ka apana nishchit aur spasht arth hone ke karan kanooni shabdavali ke nirman men kanooni pahaloo ka vichar bhi mahatvapoorn hai. is disha men hindi bhashi rajy ke vidhi v bhasha mntriyon ke jayapur aur bhopal ke sammelanon men niti snbndhi disha snket diya gaya hai aur kanooni shabdavali ke anek manak shabdakosh taiyar kie ge hain.

prashasanik shabdavali tatha snskrit

sarakari kamakaj ki shabdavali men kuchh to padanam hote hain aur kuchh patr vyavahar ke lie prayog men ane vale vishisht shabd tatha vakyansh hote hain. isaken atirikt niyamon, viniyamon, adhisoochanaon, snhitaon aur vibhinn vibhagon se snbndhit niyamon ki shabdavali hoti hai. arnbhik sthiti men upasarg aur pratyay lagakar anek shabd banae ge. udaharan ke lie, sachiv (sekretari) shabd ko len. isake sath arnbh men ane vale paryapt shabd asani ke sath ban ge. upasachiv, avar sachiv, sah sachiv, snyukt sachiv, niji sachiv, vaiyaktik sachiv, mahasachiv, snsadiy sachiv, mntri parishad sachiv adi shamil hain. isi bhanti sachivalay (sekreteriyet), sachivalayiy (sekreteriyal) adi shabd bhi gine ja sakate hain. aise shabdon ke nirman men snskrit ka prabhav spasht hai.
          is paddhati ko apanane par vibhinn prakar ki snkalpanaon ko vyakt karane ke lie thode bahut parivartan ke sath hamare pas ek shabd samooh upalabdh ho jata hai. jaise praroop (drapht) shabd ki sahayata se praroopan, praroopakar, praroopit adi shabd banae ja sakate hain. parntu isaken urdoo samanarthi ‘masauda’ shabd ko is prakar ke roopon men parivartit nahin kiya ja sakata. yahi niyam hindi ke patr, paripatr (sarkular) prapatr (pharm), patravali (phail), patrachar athava patravyavahar par bhi lagoo hota hai jo kadachit chitthi athava khat shabd se poora nahin ho sakata. vibhinn prakar ki snkalapanaon ko abhivyakt karane ke silasile men adhikar shabd ko bhi liya ja sakata hai jisako yadi adhikrit bana diya jae to angraji ke aatharaijd shabd ka arth ban jata hai. hamen authentik ke lie shabd ki avashyakata hoti hai to isi ki sahayata se pradhikrit shabd bana liya jata hai. isi sndarbh men aaphisar ke lie adhikari shabd ka prayog bhi aphasar ke sthan par adhik uparayogi lagata hai. yahi bat kanoon ke kshetr me prayog ki jane vali shabdavali par bhi nirbhar hai. udaharan ke lie, vidhi shabd ko lijie. isaka prayog kanoon ke badale kiya jata hai. ham isaki sahayata se upavidhi (bai-laa), vidhayak (lejisletar), vidhayika (lejislechar), vidhik (ligal), vidhisammat (in knpharmiti vid laa), vidhivetta (kanoon ka janakar) vidhivisheshgy (speshalist in laa) adi shabd bana sakate hain yah spasht hai ki keval kanoon shabd se ham itane adhik shabd nahin bana sakenge. isi prakar vidhan, vaidhanik, snvidhan, vaidhanikata aur snvaidhanik adi shabdon ka udaharan diya ja sakata hai.
          prashasanik kshetr men kuchh shabd aise bhi prayog men ate hai. jinaka arth samany tatha ek sa lagata hai aur sadharan balachal men aise shabdon ke lie ham ek hi shabd se kam chala sakate hain. parntu jab karyalay ki aupacharikata ka dhyan rakhate hue yadi sarakari prayojanon ke lie un shabdon ka prayog kiya jae to yah avashyak ho jata hai ki unake lie alag alag shabd prayog men laen udaharan ke lie, adesh, nidesh, anudesh, adhyadesh tatha samadesh shabdon ko liya ja sakata hai jo kramashah angrezi ke ardar, dayarekshan instrakshan aardinens oair kamand ke lie prayog men ate hain. isi tarah yadi ham karyalayi batachit men kahe ki ap kya rimark denge ya apake kaments kya hain athava apaka obajaraveshan kya hai ya ap ki opiniyan kya hai athava ap ke vyooj kya hai to aisa lagata hai ki ham kisi vishay par kisi ke vichar janana chahate hai aur sadharanataya apaki kya ray hai kahane se kam chal sakata hai. parntu vyavaharik prayog men jahan kabhi-kabhi ye shabd sath-sath prayog men a jaen vahan kathinaee ati hai aur ne-ne shabdon ki avashyakata hoti hai. parinamasvaroop rimark ke lie tippani, kaments ke lie ray, ovajaraveshan ke lie mntaby, opiniyan ke lie mat aur vyooj ke lie vichar shabd prayog karana avashyak ho jata heai, jabaki samany bolachal men ham in sab ke lie salah shabd se hi kam chala sakate hain.

saral bhasha tatha lok-prachalit prayogon ka mahatv

prashasan ke kshetr men hindi ko badhava denee ke lie yah avashyak hai ki bhasha saral oair samajh men a sakane yogy ho. isake lie prachalit prayogon ka bhi apana alag mahatv hai. isilie prashasanik bhasha men shabd chayan men badi satarkata avashyak hai, jisase mool samagri ka arth parivartit n ho. shabdavali ke kshetr men ek bat yah bhi hai ki kisi vishesh kshetr me kary karane valon ko us kshetr-vishesh ki shabdavali ki hi adhik avashyakata padati hai jaise shiksha ke kshetr men prayog men ane vali shabdavali ki chikitsa ke kshetr men ya nyayalayon me kam karane vale karmachariyon ko utana prayog nahin karana padata hai isake lie unhen apane dainik kary se snbndhit buniyadi shavdavali ke gyanarjan ki hi adhik avashyakata rahati hain.
hindi me mashin, dayari, bas, kar, motar, baink, chaik baik-drapht, mani ardar, rediyo, sinema, gais, kard, mainejar, kamishan, bil adi shabd bahut hi lokapriy roop men chal rahe hain. isi tarah salahakar bord, zila bord, janch kameti, vard adhikari, janana vard, seminar kaksh jaise shabd samany bolachal ke atirikt prashasanik karyon men bhi poori tarah se apana lie gaye hain. yahan tak ki ‘kal’ ke badale ‘mashin’ aur ‘suee lagana’ ke badale ‘injekshan’ adhik asan pratit hone laga hai. itana hi nahin angreji ke etam shabd se etami, mainejar se mainejari, injiniyaring se injiniyari aur daauktar se daauktari adi shabd hindi ki prakriti ke anukool dhal lie ge hain. isilie abhiyantriki ya chikitsakiy jaise prayog adhik lokapriy nahin rahe hain.
uparyukt sthiti se yah spasht hota hai ki snskrit ki shabdavali men ne shabdon ka nirman bhale hi sugam ho jata ho parntu aise shabd jo janata ki jaban par chadh chuke hain aur am bolachal athava samany karyavyavahar men nirntar prayog men a rahe hain, hindi ko adhik jivnt aur lokapriy banane men sahayak hain. shabdakosh men jitane shabd die jate hain, samany karyavyavahar men prayog ke lie arth ki spashtata aur vibhinn snkalpanaon ki abhivyakti ki abhivyakti ke lie shabd chayan men poori satarkata apekshit hoti hai keval kosh ke sahare shabdon ka manamana ya andhadhundh prayog bhasha ki ekaroopata ki drishti se to thik nahin hi hai varanh isase arth ka anarth bhi ho sakata hai. prashasan ka kary ek vishesh karyapranali par adharit hota hai. yahi karan hai ki is kary ki bhasha bhi takaniki prakar ki hoti hai jisaka svaroop sahityik bhasha tatha sadharan bhasha ki bolachal men prayah alag hota hai. is bhasha ka snbndh keval sarakari karyalayon se nahi varanh samany se bhi hota hai. atah jitana adhik saral roop isee diya ja sake utani hi adhik suvidha jan samany ko mil sakegi. yahi karan hai ki sarakari bhasha arthath prashasanik hindi ke snbndh men saral ya kathin bhasha ki bat uthaee jati rahati hai. kathin shabdavali ke prayog se bhasha jitani bojhil hogi utani vah jan sadharan se door ho jaegi. parntu akhil bharatiy roop ko dhyan men rakha jae to vah samasya bhi samane ati hai ki kis shabd ko saral kaha jae aur kise kathin. urdoo janane valon ke lie mnjoori, dakhal, pesh karana adi saral hain to snskrit athava bngala adi janane valon ke lie svikriti, hastakshep tatha prastut karana adi saral ho sakate hain. vastav men bhasha ka snbndh vishay se hai. atah bharat jaise desh me jahan anek prakar ki kshetriy bhashaen hain, saral aur kathin bhasha ki samasya aur bhi ulajh jati hai. nirntar prayog se shabd saral lagane lagate hain aur bhasha bhi unhen atmasat kar leti hai. arnbh men rashtrapati, snsad, vidheyak adi shabd kathin lagate the parntu ab abhyas aur prayog ke karan ye shabd bahut lokapriy ho gaye hain. yahi karan hai ki gadhe hue shabdon se bhasha ko bojhil banane ki apeksha bharat ki sabhi kshetriy bhashaon men se prachalit shabd badal die jaen to dhire dhire se shabd hindi men khap jaenge aur isase bhashayi ekata bhi vikasit hogi. ‘sabadivijanal majistret’ ke lie ‘khndamndaladhish’ tatha ‘ekjikyootiv injiniyar divijan-1’ ke lie adhishasi abhiynta pratham prakhnd jaise prayogon se jitana bacha ja sake utana achchha hai.

hindi anuvad v mool praroopan ki samasya

sarakari kamakaj kee varshon se angrezi men kiya ja raha hai. atah madhyam parivartan ke lie anuvad ka sahara lena padata hai. yah kaha gaya hai ki anuvad yadi sundar hai to vah eemanadar nahin ho sakata aur eemanadar hai to vah sundar nahin ho sakata hai. is sundarata ka ashay us bhasha ke lality tatha usaki prakriti ke anukool hone se hai jis bhasha men anuvad kiya gaya hai. isake lie praroop tatha patr ki rooparekha mooool se hindi athava snbndhit kshetriy bhasha men taiyar karana adhik uchit hoga.
tikat, steshan, pletapharm jaise shabdon ke lie yatra patr, gadi-vishram-sthal, yatri vishram sthal jaise shabdon ka prayog uchit nahin hai. kabhi kabhi shabd gadhane ka moh hamen makshikasthane makshika ki sthiti men la deta hai. isase anuvad men asvabhavikata a jati hai aur vah ashuddh bhi ho sakata hai. jaise ‘vail ikvipd haaspital’ ka hindi anuvad bhool se ‘kuon se sajjit aspatal’ kiya ja sakata hai, jo ashuddh hai. angreji men prachalit paripati ke anusar ‘d andar saind ij dairektid too se’ ka hindi anuvad ‘nimnahastaksharakarta ya adhohastakshari ko yah kahane ka nidesh hua hai’ kiya jata hai. yah hindi ki prakriti ke anukool nahin hai. isi tarah ‘kold bladaid mardar’ ke liye nrishns hatya n likhakar ‘shit rudhir hatya’ likhana tatha ‘rephrijaretar vatar’ ke lie saral v svabhavik roop men ‘mashin ka thnda pani’ n likhakar ‘prashitanakrit jal’ likhana kahan tak thik hoga, isaka svayn hi anuman lagaya ja sakata hai. kintu prachalan men is tarah ke kuchh vishesh shabd hindi ki prakriti ke anukool bhi jan padate hain aur unaka prayog vishuddh roop se shabd ke sthan par shabd ka anuvad hote hue bhi atapata nahin lagata. jaise- lalaphitashahi (redatepizm), shvet patr (vhaeet pepar), rajat jaynti (silvar jubali), lalit kala (phain art), shirshak (haiding) adi. angreji ke ‘intar’ shabd ke lie hindi ne snskrit ‘antar’ shabd apana liya hai aur isake sath any shabd jodakar hindi ke anek shabd bana lie ge hain jo barabar prayog men a rahe hain. jaise antar-vidyaliy, antar-rajayiy, antarrashtriy, antardeshiy, antar-prantiy, antar-vibhagiy adi sabhi isi prakar ring sarvis ke lie mudrika seva athava tivr mudrika jais kathin lagane vale shabd lokapriyata prapt kar chuke hain. isi prakar megh-sndesh tatha aryabhat jaise prayog bhi ullekhaniy hain.
aj hamen hindi ko aisa svaroop pradan karana hai jo hamare desh ki ashaon aur akankshaon ke anukool to ho hi antarrashtriy kshetron men bhi suvidhajanak ho. isake lie hamen udar drishtikon apanana hoga. snskrit ka mahatv raha hai aur hai. hindi ke vikas men usake yogadan ki bat bhi mahatvapoorn hai. parntu badalati huee paristhitiyon aur gyan vigyan ke kshetron men asim vikas ki snbhavanaon ko dekhate hue hamen hindi ko ek aisi bhasha ke roop men vikasit karana hai jo aj ke yug men abhivyakti ka saksham madhyam ho. atah keval snskritanishth bhasha ki bat par bal n dete hue aj hamen bharat ki sabhi bhashaon ke lie aur visheshakar prashasanik kshetr men rajabhasha tatha niji kshetr men snpark bhasha ke roop men hindi ke poshan ke lie apana kartavy samajhana chahie. hindi is desh ki bhasha hai. isaka snbndh is dharati, is mitti aur yahan ke janamanas se hai parntu sabhi kshetriy bhashaen yahan ki sabhyata aur snskriti ki poshak hain. kshetriy bhashaon ka vikas prachar v prasar snpark bhasha hindi ke lie snjivani shakti hai. yadi sabhi bharatiy bhashaon ke lie devanagari lipi apana li jae to bhashayi ekata ko bal milega or angreji to keval suvidha ki bhasha kahi ja sakati hai. atah is desh men pratyek nagarik, karmachari tatha adhikari ka yah rashtriy kartavy hai ki vah apane dainik kary vyavahar me is desh ki rajabhasha hindi ko snpark bhasha ke roop men protsahit kare tatha snskrit ke parishkrit, saragarbhit evn sahaj shabdon se is bhasha ko vah roop de jisase bharatavarsh ke sabhi pranton men sahajagamy sootr bhasha ka vikas ho sake.
is bhashayi ekata ko aur adhik sudridh banane ke lie yah bhi avashyak hai ki bhasha ki kshetriy evn anchalik bhashaon ke shabdon ko bhi rajabhasha ki takaniki shabdavali men yathochit sthan diya jae. desh ki vibhinn pranton ki rajy sarakaren tattardeshiy shabdon ko prashasanik drishti se lokapriy banane men vishesh sahayak ho sakati hain. nagapur aur maarishas men ayojit kramashah pratham tatha dvitiy vishv hindi sammelan men is bat par bal diya gaya hai ki hindi ko antarrashtriy mnch par pratishthit kiya jae, jisase isako vishv bhasha ka svaroop prapt ho sake. is lakshy tak pahunchane ke lie yah avashyak hai ki pahale ham bharat ke pratyek rajy men vahan ki kshetriy bhasha ko rajabhasha ke roop men pratishthit karen aur rashtriy star par snpark bhasha ke roop men hindi ko usaka apekshit sthan dilaen. asha hai tisare vishv hindi sammelan se is disha men aur adhik saphalata milegi.

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. moniyar viliyam, hinduijm, (ke.em.munshi dvara snpadit 'indiya in hairitens' jild 2, pri. 91 radhakumud mukharji dvara uddhrit

snbndhit lekh

tritiy vishv hindi sammelan 1983
kramank lekh ka nam lekhak
hindi aur samasik snskriti
1. hindi sahity aur samasik snskriti daau. karn rajasheshagiri rav
2. hindi sahity men samasik snskriti ki sarjanatmak abhivyakti pro. kesarikumar
3. hindi sahity aur samasik snskriti daau. chndrakant bandivadekar
4. hindi ki samasik evn sanskritik ekata daau. jagadish gupt
5. rajabhasha: karyacharan aur samasik snskriti daau. en.es. dakshinamoorti
6. hindi ki akhil bharatiyata ka itihas pro. dineshvar prasad
7. hindi sahity men samasik snskriti daau. munshiram sharma
8. bharatiy vyaktitv ke snshlesh ki bhasha daau. raghuvnsh
9. desh ki samasik snskriti ki abhivyakti men hindi ka yogadan daau. rajakishor pandey
10. sanskritik samanvay ki prakriya aur hindi sahity shri rajeshvar gngavar
11. hindi sahity men samasik snskriti ke tattv daau. shivanndan prasad
12. hindi:samasik snskriti ki snvahika shri shivasagar mishr
13. bharat ki samasik snskririti aur hindi ka vikas daau. haradev bahari
hindi ka vikasashil svaroop
14. hindi ka vikasashil svaroop daau. anndaprakash dikshit
15. hindi ke vikas men bhojapuri ka yogadan daau. udayanarayan tivari
16. hindi ka vikasashil svaroop (shabdavali ke sndarbh men) daau. kailashachndr bhatiya
17. manak bhasha ki snkalpana aur hindi daau. krishnakumar gosvami
18. rajabhasha ke roop men hindi ka vikas, mahattv tatha prakash ki dishaen shri jayanarayan tivari
19. sanskritik bhasha ke roop men hindi ka vikas daau. trilochan pandey
20. hindi ka saralikaran achary devendranath sharma
21. prashasanik hindi ka vikas daau. narayanadatt palival
22. jan ki vikasashil bhasha hindi shri bhagavat jha azad
23. bharat ki bhashik ekata: parnpara aur hindi pro. manik govind chaturvedi
24. hindi bhasha aur rashtriy ekikaran pro. ravindranath shrivastav
25. hindi ki snvaidhanik sthiti aur usaka vikasashil svaroop pro. vijayendr snatak
devanagari lipi ki bhoomika
26. rashtriy aur antarrashtriy sndarbh men devanagari shri jivan nayak
27. devanagari pro. devishnkar dvivedi
28. hindi men lekhan snbndhi ekaroopata ki samasya pro. p. ba. jain
29. devanagari lipi ki bhoomika daau. babooram saksena
30. devanagari lipi (kashmiri bhasha ke sndarbh men) daau. mohanalal sar
31. rashtriy aur antarrashtriy sndarbh men devanagari lipi pn. rameshvaradayal dube
videshon men hindi
32. vishv ki hindi patr-patrikaen daau. kamata kamalesh
33. videshon men hindi:prachar-prasar aur sthiti ke kuchh pahaloo pro. premasvaroop gupt
34. hindi ka ek apanaya-sa kshetr: snyukt rajy daau. ar. es. megregar
35. hindi bhasha ki bhoomika : vishv ke sndarbh men shri rajendr avasthi
36. marishas ka hindi sahity daau. lata
37. hindi ki bhavi antarrashtriy bhoomika daau. brajeshvar varma
38. antarrashtriy sndarbh men hindi pro. siddheshvar prasad
39. nepal men hindi aur hindi sahity shri sooryanath gop
vividha
40. tulanatmak bharatiy sahity evn paddhati vigyan ka prashn daau. indranath chaudhuri
41. bharat ki bhasha samasya aur hindi daau. kumar vimal
42. bharat ki rajabhasha niti shri krishnakumar shrivastav
43. videsh doorasnchar seva shri ke.si. katiyar
44. kashmir men hindi : sthiti aur snbhavanaen pro. chamanalal saproo
45. bharat ki rajabhasha niti aur usaka karyanvayan shri devendracharan mishr
46. bhashayi samasya : ek rashtriy samadhan shri narmadeshvar chaturvedi
47. snskrit-hindi kavyashastr men upama ki sarvalnkarabijata ka vichar daau. mahendr madhukar
48. dvitiy vishv hindi sammelan : nirnay aur kriyanvayan shri rajamani tivari
49. vishv ki pramukh bhashaon men hindi ka sthan daau. ramajilal jangid
50. bharatiy adivasiyon ki matribhasha tatha hindi se inaka samipy daau. lakshmanaprasad sinha
51. main lekhak nahin hoon shri vimal mitr
52. lokgyta sarvgyta (lokavartta vigyan ke sndarbh men) daau. haradvarilal sharma
53. desh ki ekata ka mool: hamari rashtrabhasha shri kshemachnd ‘suman’
videshi sndarbh
54. marishas: sagar ke par laghu bharat shri es. bhuvaneshvar
55. amarika men hindi -daau. kerin shomar
56. lipazing vishvavidyalay men hindi daau. (shrimati) marget gatslaf
57. jarmani snghiy ganarajy men hindi daau. lothar lutse
58. soorinam desh aur hindi shri sooryaprasad bire
59. hindi ka antarrashtriy pariprekshy shri bachchooprasad sinh
svaichchhik snstha sndarbh
60. hindi ki svaichchhik snsthaen shri shnkararav londhe
61. rashtriy prachar samiti, vardha shri shnkararav londhe
sammelan sndarbh
62. pratham aur dvitiy vishv hindi sammelan: uddeshy evn upalabdhiyan shri madhukararav chaudhari
smriti-shraddhanjali
63. svargiy bharatiy sahityakaron ko smriti-shraddhanjali daau. prabhakar machave

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