कुश्ती  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

kushti
kushti
vivaran 'kushti' ek prakar ka dvndvayuddh hai, jo bina kisi shasr ki sahayata ke keval sharirik bal ke sahare lada jata hai. puranon men isaka ullekh mallakrida ke roop men milata hai.
shuruat kushti ka arnbh snbhavat: us yug men hua, jab manushy ne shastron ka upayog nahin jana tha. us samay is prakar ke yuddh men pashu bal hi pradhan tha. pashu bal par vijay pane ke lie manushy ne vividh prakar ke danv penchon ka prayog sikha hoga aur usase mall yuddh athava kushti ka vikas hua hoga.
sadasy do (2)
sthal bada maidan
shreniyan phlaee vet, baintem vet, phedar vet, lait vet, veltar vet, midil vet, lait hevi vet, hevi vet.
bharatiy pahalavan gama pahalavan, dara sinh, guru hanuman, satapal sinh, sushil kumar pahalavan, dhiraj thakaran.
snbndhit lekh 'bhimaseni', 'hanumnti', 'janbavnti', 'jarasndhi, 'phri stail kushti', 'soomo kushti', 'amarikan phri stail mallayuddh', 'shvinjen mallayuddh' adi.
any janakari madhy kal bharatiy mallayuddh paddhati ka muslim deshon ki yuddh paddhati ke sath samanvay hua. yah samanvay vishesh roop se mugal kal men hua. babar madhy eshiya men prachalit kushti paddhati ka kushal aur balashali pahalavan tha. akabar bhi is kala ka achchha janakar tha. usane uchchakoti ke mallon ko rajashray pradan kar kushti kala ko protsahit kiya.

kushti (angrezi:Kushti) ek prakar ka dvndvayuddh hai, jo bina kisi shastr ki sahayata ke keval sharirik bal ke sahare lada jata hai. isamen pratidvndvi ko bina angabhng kie ya pida pahunchae parast kiya jata hai. puranon men isaka ullekh mallakrida ke roop men milata hai. in ullekhon se gyat hota hai ki isake prati un dinon vishesh akarshan aur adar tha. madhy kal men muslim samrajy aur snskriti ke prasar ke sath bharatiy mallayuddh paddhati ka muslim deshon ki yuddh paddhati ke sath samanvay hua. yah samanvay vishesh roop se mugal kal men hua. adhunik kal men deshi rajavadon ne kushti kala ko snrakshan pradan kiya. patiyala, kolhapur, maisoor, indaur, ajamer, badauda, bharatapur, jayapur, banaras, darabhnga, bardavan, tamakhuee[1] ke rajaon ke akhadon ki deshavyapi khyati rahi hai. vahan kushti ladane vale pahalavanon ko har prakar ki suvidhaen prapt thin aur in akhadon ke nami pahalavan desh men ghoom-ghoom kar kushti ke dngalon men bhag lete aur kushti ka prachar kiya karate the.

itihas

kushti ka arnbh snbhavat: us yug men hua hoga, jab manushy ne shastron ka upayog jana n tha. us samay is prakar ke yuddh men pashu bal hi pradhan tha. pashu bal par vijay pane ke lie manushy ne vividh prakar ke danv-penchon ka prayog sikha hoga aur usase 'mall yuddh' athava 'kushti' ka vikas hua hoga. 'ramayan' aur 'mahabharat' men kushti ki paryapt charcha huee hai. ramayan se bali-sugriv ka yuddh aur mahabharat se bhim-duryodhan ke yuddh ka ullekh udaharan svaroop diya ja sakata hai. is prakar ke dvndvayuddh ki apani ek naitik snhita thi, aisa in yuddhon ke varnan se prakat hota hai. usake viruddh acharan karane vala nindaniy mana jata tha. shrikrishn ke snket par bhim dvara jarasndh ki sndhiyon ke chire jane aur duryodhan ki jangh par prahar karane ki ninda logon ne ki hai.[2]

snrakshan

adhunik samay men deshi rajavadon ne kushti kala ko snrakshan pradan kiya. patiyala, kolhapur, maisoor, indaur, ajamer, badauda, bharatapur, jayapur, banaras, darabhnga, bardavan, tamakhuee[3] ke rajaon ke akhadon ki deshavyapi khyati rahi hain. vahan kushti ladane vale pahalavanon ko har prakar ki suvidhaen prapt thin aur in akhadon ke nami pahalavan desh men ghoom-ghoom kar kushti ke dngalon men bhag lete aur kushti ka prachar kiya karate the. kuchh any log bhi achchhe pahalavanon ko protsahit karate the.

mall ka bhojan

kushti kala men parngat hone ke lie mall ko chittanirodh, manoyog tatha snyam ki satat sadhana karani padati hai. bharatiy mall ka bhojan kafi pushtikarak hota hai. mall ko apani rasana par niyntran rakhana chahie. bharatiy mall adhikatar doodh, ghi, badam adi ka sevan karate hain. shakti vardhan ke lie kuchh mall mans ke shorave ka bhi prayog karate hain. aj bhi desh ke kone-kone men, chahe vah nagar ho ya ganv, akhade pae jate hain. saphal mall banane ke lie tin baton ka dhyan rakhana padata hai-

  1. niyamit vyayam
  2. uchit bhojan tatha
  3. kushti ka niyamit abhyas evn vikas

kushti ki paddhatiyan

bharatiy kushti ko nimn char paddhatiyon men batan gaya hai-

  1. bhimaseni
  2. hanumnti
  3. janbavnti
  4. jarasndhi
bhimaseni kushti - is kushti ka nam 'mahabharat' ke pandav bhim ke nam par hai. is kushti men sharir ki shakti ka vishesh hota mahattv hai.
hanumnti kushti - ek rananiti ke adhar par dushman se ubarane ke lie yah kushti banaee gee hai. hanumnti kushti men danv pench aur kala ki pradhanata hoti hai.
jabavnti kushti - jabavnti kushti men hath-pair se is prakar prayas kiya jata hai ki pratispardhi chitt n kar pae. isamen sharirik shakti aur danv-pench ki apeksha sharir sadhana ka mahattv hai.
jarasndhi kushti - is kushti ka nam rakshas jarasndh ke nam par hai, isamen hath-panv modane ka prayas pradhan hai.

bharatiy mallon ki prasiddhi

bharat ke kee mallon ne vishv men khyati arjit ki hai. bharatiy mall- goonga, burd tatha hamida ne mallayuddh ke kshetr men kafi prasiddhi prapt ki. navayuvak mall gunga ne imamabakhsh ko kushti ke lie lalakara aur pahali bar use asaman dikhala diya, kintu bad ki kushtiyon men imamabakhsh goonga par vijay prapt kar 'rustam-e-hind' bana raha. idhar hamida aur burd ki kee kushtiyan anirnit rahin, kintu 1938 ee. men hamida ne burd ko parast kar diya. isi samay bnbee (vartaman mumbee) men ek antarrashtriy dngal hua, jisamen roomaniya, hngari, jarmani, turki, chin, philistin adi deshon ke mallon ne bhag liya. is pratiyogita men jarmani ke mall kraimar ne ajey goonga ko parast kar bharat ko chakit kar diya, kintu use darabhnga men pooranasinh bade se har manani padi tatha kalakatta (vartaman kolakata) men rajavnshi sinh bhi us par sabal pade. ant men imamabakhsh ne use chitt kar bharatiy mallon ka gaurav akshunn rakha. hamida ne king kang ko parast kar videshi mallon ke hriday men bharatiy mallayuddh ki shreshthata ka sikka jama diya.

desh ke vibhajan se mallayuddh ke kshetr men bharat ki bahut badi kshati huee. uchch koti ke pray: sabhi mall pnjabi musalaman the, jo bntavare ke bad pakistan ke nagarik ho ge. imamabakhsh ka putr bholoo 'rustam-e-pakistan' ke khitab se sammanit hua tha tatha usake any bhaee asalam, akaram, goga adi bhi uchchakoti ke pahalavan rahe. is prakar gama parivar ki parnpara akshunn rahi. uchchakoti ke bharatiy pahalavan mngala ray, keshar sinh tatha pooranasinh kanishth rahe the.

kushti ka vikas

bharat ke bahar kushti any kee deshon men prachalit hai, kintu vahan isaka prachinatam prachar yoonan men hi gyat hota hai. homar ke prasiddh kavy 'iliyad'[4] men ejaiks tatha yoolisij ke mallayuddh ka vistrit varnan hai. usamen yoolisij dvara bahari tang marakar ejaiks ko dharashayi kar dene ka vivaran hai. kroton nivasi milo us kal ka sarvavikhyat mall tha, jisane lagatar chhah olnpik khelon men sarvochch vijay chihn (padak) prapt kiya tha. milo ke snbndh men yah kinvadnti hai ki usane paithagoras ke vidyalay ki girati huee chhat ko akele hi snbhal liya tha. yoolisij tatha ejaiks ki kushti ka vivaran bahut kuchh benihasan ki qabr par nirmit bhavanon par ankit chitron se milata hai. is adhar par kuchh vidvanon ka mat hai ki mallayuddh kala yoonaniyon ne misravasiyon se hi sikhi, yadyapi yoonani parnpara ke anusar thisiyas[5] yoonani mallayuddh ke janmadata tatha vidhinirmata mane jate hain.

yoonan ki bhanti hi rom men bhi kushti ki kala ka vikas hua tha. yoonan aur rom ki prachin kushti kala ka samanvay 'griko' roman paddhati ke roop men hua hai, aisi logon ki dharana hai, kintu is samay yoorop men jis griko roman shaili ka prachar hai, vah prachin shaili se sarvatha bhinn hai. adhunik paddhati ka pradurbhav 1860 ee. ke lagabhag frans men hua aur yah kramash: sare yoorop men phail gee. roos nivasi haikan eshimid is paddhati ka sabase prasiddh mall hua. peshevar pahalavan ab is paddhati ko bahut kam apanate hain.

repachej niyam

kushti men repachej vo niyam hai jisake tahat agar koee khiladi shuruati daur men har jata hai aur usase jitane vala khiladi phainal tak pahunchata hai to harane vale khiladi ko apani takat ajamaish ka doosara milata hai. yah shabd phrench se liya gaya hai jisaka arth 'rescue' arthath bachav hota hai. kushti men yah us khiladi ke lie bachav ka ek aur mauka hota hai jo shuruati mukabale men har jata hai. kushti men any khelon ki bhanti pahalavanon ke bich mukabale ka draau unaki rainking ke mutabik nahin hota hai. yah akasmik draau ke tahat tay kiya jata hai ki kin do pahalavanon ke bich mukabala hoga. tenis men kabhi do taaup rainking khiladi shuruati daur men apas men nahin bhidate lekin kushti men yah snbhav hai aur isilie is repachej niyam ko yahan lagoo kiya jata hai.

phri stail

vishv olnpik men griko-roman paddhati men bhi kushti hoti hai. is paddhati men kamar ke niche ka bhag pakadana varjit hai. pratidvndvi ek doosare ka sharir keval khule hath se hi pakad sakate hain. hath aur banh ka pakadana is niyam ke apavad hain. bhaunh tatha munh ke bich ke bhag ko chhoona nishiddh hai. gala dabana, kapade pakadana, bal pakadana, panv se marana, dhakka dena ya anguli marodana varjit hai. kainchi lagakar pratidvndvi ko donon pavon ke bich dabana varjit hai. panv ka prayog kisi bhi roop men nahin kiya ja sakata, n to lagane men aur n bachav karane men. is paddhati ka mallayuddh 1896 se 1912 tak olnpik ke khelon men hota raha. 1920 men aintavarp men jo olnpik khel ayojit hua, usamen is paddhati ke sath ek nee paddhati ka mallyuddh bhi sammilit kiya gaya, jise ‘phri stail kahate’ hain. olnpik khelon men koee bhi donon paddhatiyon men nishnat mall virale hi hote hain. ab tak svedan ke aivar johansan aur istoniya ke paloo saloo hi aise pahalavan hain jinhen kramash: las ainjels[6] aur barlin[7] ke olnpik khelon men donon paddhatiyon men ek sath vishv vijayi hone ka gaurav prapt hua hai.

kushti ki shreniyan

kushti nimnalikhit vajan ke anusar hoti hain tatha isaki nimn 8 shreniyan mani gee hain-

  1. phlaee vet 114 1/2 paund tak
  2. baintem vet 125 1/2 paund tak
  3. phedar vet 136 1/2 paund tak
  4. lait vet 147 1/2 paund tak
  5. veltar vet 160 1/2 paund tak
  6. midil vet 174 paund tak
  7. lait hevi vet 191 paund tak
  8. hevi vet 191 paund ke oopar

pratidvndvi ko vidhanat: yah adhikar hai ki vah chahe to apane bhar se ek bhar oopar se kushti lade. apane nishchay ki soochana bhar lene ke poorv hi snbaddh adhikari ko de dena pratidvndvi ke lie avashyak hai. nam ke pukare jane par donon pratidvndvi apane-apane kone men akar khade ho jate hain. ek ke panv men lal tatha doosare ke panv men hara phita bndha rahata hai. nirnayak[8] bich men khada hokar donon ko bulata hai aur unake joote, nakhoon adi ka nirikshan karane ke pashchath donon pratidvndvi apane-apane kone men vapas chale jate hain. nirnayak sadaiv daktar hua karate hain. unake pas lal, hare tatha safed tin-tin lainp, ek-ek staaup vach[9], ghnta, lal hare rng ke patte, phenkane vala lal hare rng ka binb[10] hota hai.[2]

shanbo

olnpik khel men ek tisare prakar ki kushti ko bhi manyata prapt hai. use 'shanbo' kahate hain. yah kushti ek vishesh prakar ka mote kapade vala jaiket pahanakar ladi jati hai aur jaiket ko pakadakar hi danv-pench mara jata hai. usamen badan ko nahin chhua ja sakata. isamen griko roman athava phri stail ki bhanti kndhon ka lagana anivary nahin hai.

daishik shailiyan

antararashtriy manyata prapt kushti ki uparyukt shailiyon ke atirikt kuchh any daishik shailiyan bhi hain, jinamen 'knbaralaind tatha vestamoralaind kushti' ullekhaniy hain.

rephari hold

is kushti ka prachalan uttari inglaind tatha dakshini skaautalaind men hai. mallayuddh prarnbh hone se poorv pratidvndvi sine se sina milakar, ek doosare se is prakar lipat jate hain ki ek mall ki baeen bhuja doosare mall ki dahini bhuja ke oopar tatha ek ki thuddi doosare ke dahine kndhe par padati hai. isake pashchath ve apane hathon ko ek-doosare ki pith par rakhakar bnd kar lete hain. is avastha ko 'rephari hold'[11] kahate hain aur vah savadhan hone ki avastha samajhi jati hai. jis mall ke hathon ki pakad shithil hokar chhoot jati hai, usaki parajay mani jati hai.

daaug phal

is paddhati ki kushti men jay-parajay ka nirnay badi saralata se ho jata hai. nirnay men do maton ki snbhavana atyalp hai. jis pratidvndvi ka, pavon ke atirikt, koee bhi ang bhoomi se chhoo jata hai, usaki parajay mani jati hai. jab donon pratidvndvi sath hi bhoomi par girate hain to bhoomi ko pahale sparsh karane vala pratidvndvi parajit mana jata hain. jab donon sidhe girakar bhoomi ko sath hi sparsh karate hain to kushti barabar mani jati hai. isako 'daaug phal'[12] kahate hain. aisi avastha men pratidvndviyon men pun: kushti karaee jati hai. danv lagane ya any kisi avastha men bhi panv ke atirikt kisi ang se bhoomi chhoo jane par pratidvndvi ki har ho jati hai. is kushti men bhujaon men bndh jane ke karan panvon ka mukt prayog kiya jata hai. yadyapi pratidvndvi ko panv se sidhe aghat karana varjit hai, tathapi is paddhati ke kalakar panv snbndhi danv-penchon men bade kushal hote hain.

soomo kushti

soomo kushti

'soomo' japaniyon ka rashtriy vyayam hai. isaka prayog japani yuvak apane sharir ko shaktishali evn sngathit banane ke lie karate hain. pratham soomo kushti, jisaka likhit vivaran upalabdh hai, eesa se 23 varsh poorv huee thi. vijayi vyakti ka nam sukune tha. sukune aj tak japani mallon ka aradhy devata mana jata hai.

shvinjen mallayuddh

shvinjen mallayuddh[13] svitjaralaind ka rashtriy khel hai aur bolachal ki bhasha men is svis mallayuddh ko 'phrench snajajam suis yuddh' ke roop men jana jata hai. jo mall bhoomi ko pahale sparsh kar leta hai, usaki parajay pahale hi ho jati hai.

amarikan phri stail kushti

amarikan phri stail mallayuddh

18vin shatabdi ke antim charan ke poorv amarika men tyauharon ke avasar par sthaniy mallon ki kushtiyan hoti thin. san 1780 ee. ke lagabhag 'haravard vishvavidyalay' men isaka prachar arnbh hua. vahan ne chhatron tatha purane snatakon ke bich mall-yuddh hone ki parnpara chal padi. amarikan phri stail kushti atynt nirdayata se ladi jati hai. is padvati ki tulana prachin pan kroshan paddhati se ki ja sakati hai.

bharatiy pahalavan

bharat ke pahalavanon ne 1920 men pahali bar peris men hue olnpik khelon men bhag liya. usamen bhag lene vale pahalavan the maharashtr ke navale aur badauda ke shinde. 1936 ke barlin olnpik men karam rasool (pnjab), anavar rashid (uttar pradesh) aur e. thoret (maharashtr) sammilit hue the. 1948 se bharatiy pahalavan niyamit roop se olnpik men bhag le rahe hain. us varsh lndan men olnpik hua tha. usamen ke. di. yadav ko chhote vazan (phlaee vet) men chhatha sthan mila tha. 1952 ke helasinki olnpik men inhin yadav ko 57 kilo vet men tisara aur 62 kilo vet men ke. di. mngave, maharashtr ko chautha sthan prapt hua tha. isake bad se to pratyek olnpik men bharatiy pahalavan barabar saphalata prapt kar rahe hain. isi prakar bharatiy pahalavan vishv kushti pratiyogita, eshiyaee khel aur rashtramndaliy khel men bhi bhag lete hain aur saphalata prapt karate hain.[2] bharat sarakar ne 'netaji subhash rashtriy khel pratishthan' (patiyala) shanbo men adhunik vishv many paddhatiyon dvara pahalavanon ko prashikshit karane ki vyavastha ki, taki ve vishv ki vibhinn pratiyogitaon men adhikadhik saphalata prapt kar saken. sath hi saphal pahalavanon ko sammanit karane ke lie 'arjun puraskar' ki vyavastha ki gee hai. ab tak yah puraskar nimnalikhit pahalavanon ko diya gaya hai-

  1. malua (dilli)
  2. udayachnd (sena)
  3. vishnbhar sinh (relave)
  4. mukhtiyar sinh (sena)
  5. ganapat andelakar (maharashtr)
  6. chndagiram (hariyana)
  7. bhim sinh (sena)
  8. premanath (dilli)
  9. jagaroop sinh (hariyana)
  10. sudesh kumar (dilli)

gama pahalavan

shayad hi koee aisa bharatiy khel-premi ho, jisane 'rustam-e-zaman' pahalavan ka nam n suna ho. gama pahalavan bharat men ek kinvadnti ban chuke hain. sharirik taqat ke lie jis prakar ajakal dara sinh ki misal di jati hai, isi prakar kuchh samay pahale tak 'gama pahalavan' ka nam liya jata tha. 19 sal ke gama ne tatkalin bharat vijeta 'pahalavan rahimabakhsh sultanivala' ko chunauti de dali thi. rahimabakhsh gujaranvala, pnjab ka rahane vala kashmiri, 'bat' jati ka hi tha. kahate hai rahimabakhsh ki lambaee 7 phit thi. gama men shakti aur phurti advitiy thi, lekin gama ki lambaee 5 phut 7 inch thi. rahimabakhsh apani praudha avastha men pahunch chuka tha aur apani pahalavani ke antim samay ki kushtiyan lad raha tha. rahimabakhsh ki umr ka adhik hona gama ke paksh men jata tha. 1927 tak gama ko kisi ne chunauti nahin di. 1928 men gama ka muqabala patiyala men zibesko se hua. 42 sekend men gama ne zibesko ko dhool chata di aur dakshin eshiya ke mahanh pahalavan ki upadhi dharan ki. 1929 ke faravari ke mahine men gama ne 'jesi pitarasan' ko dedh minat men pachhad diya. isake bad 1952 men apane pahalavani jivan se avakash lene tak gama ko kisi ne chunauti nahin di. gama apane pahalavani jivan men ajey rahe, jo kisi bhi pahalavan ke lie aj bhi asambhav hai. yah gun gama ko vishv ka mahanatam pahalavan ke darje men le ata hai.

dara sinh

dara sinh apane zamane ke vishv prasiddh phristail pahalavan aur prasiddh abhineta the. dara sinh ne khel aur manornjan ki duniya men saman rup se nam kamaya aur apane kam ka loha manavaya. yahi vajah hai ki unhen abhineta aur pahalavan donon taur par jana jata hai. unhonne 1959 men poorv vishv chaimpiyan jarj gardiyanka ko parajit karake kaaumanavelth ki vishv chaimpiyanaship jiti thi. bad men ve amarika ke vishv chaimpiyan laoo thej ko parajit kar phristail kushti ke vishv chaimpiyan ban gaye. sath ke dashak men poore bharat men unaki phri stail kushtiyon ka bolabala raha. dara sinh ko pahalavani ka shauq bachapan se hi tha. bachapan apane pharm par kam karate-karate gujar gaya, jisake bad oonche qad majaboot kathi ko dekhate hue unhen kushti ladane ki prerana milati rahi. dara sinh ne apane ghar se hi kushti ki shurooat ki thi. bharat ki azadi ke dauran 1947 men dara sinh singapur pahunche. vahan rahate hue unhonne 'bharatiy stail' ki kushti men maleshiyaee chainpiyan trilok sinh ko parajit kar kualalnpur men maleshiyaee kushti chaimpiyanaship jiti. usake bad unaka vijayi rath any deshon ki or chal pada aur ek peshevar pahalavan ke roop men sabhi deshon men apani kamayabi ka jhnda gadakar ve 1952 men bharat laut ae. qarib panch sal tak phri stail resaling men duniya bhar (poorvi eshiyaee deshon) ke pahalavanon ko chitt karane ke bad dara sinh bharat akar san 1954 men bharatiy kushti chainpiyan (rashtriy chainpiyan) bane. dara sinh ne un sabhi deshon ka ek-ek karake daura kiya jahan phristail kushtiyan ladi jati thin. inhen bhi dekhen: guru hanuman evn satapal sinh

samachar

18 disnbar, 2017 somavar

rashtramndal kushti chainpiyanaship men bharat ne jite 30 men se 29 svarn

bharatiy pahalavanon ne dakshin afrika ke johanasabarg men ayojit rashtramndal kushti chainpiyanaship men kamal ka pradarshan karate hue 30 men se kul 29 svarn padak apane nam kiye. bharat ne toornament men 29 svarn ke alava 24 rajat aur 6 kansy sahit kul 59 padak jite. pratiyogita ke pahale din shanivar ko bharat ne 10 svarn padak jite the. chainpiyanaship men bharatiy pahalavanon ka griko roman stail kushti men pradarshan ekatarapha raha jahan unhonne danv par lage sabhi 10 vajan shreniyon ke svarn padak jite the. olnpik men do bar ke padakadhari sushil kumar ne rashtramndal kushti chainpiyanaship men svarn padak jitakar antararashtriy mnch par shanadar vapasi ki hai. antararashtriy kushti men tin sal ke bad vapasi kar rahe sushil ne 74 kigra phristail varg men nyoojilaind ke akash khullar ko chit kar sone ka tamaga hasil kiya. glasago rashtramndal khel (2014) men svarn jitane ke bad yah unaka pahala padak tha. glasago rashtramndal khel (2014) men svarn jitane ke bad yah unaka pahala padak tha. riyo olinpik men kansy padak vijeta sakshi malik ne bhi kaaumanavelh‍th kushti chainpiyanaship men svarn padak apane nam kiya. sakshi ne nyoojilaind ki tayala tuahine phord ko mahilaon ke phristail pratiyogita ke 62 kigra varg ke ekatarapha phainal mukabale men 13-2 se karari shikast dekar svarn jita.

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tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. gorakhapur
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 kushti (hindi) bharatakhoj. abhigaman tithi: 10agast, 2015.
  3. gorakhapur
  4. XXIII700
  5. Theseus
  6. (1932 ee.)
  7. (1936 ee.)
  8. Referee
  9. viram ghadi
  10. disc
  11. Referee hold
  12. Dog fall
  13. Schwingen

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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