झारखण्ड  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(झारखंड se punarnirdeshit)
India-flag.gif
jharakhand
Jharkhand-map.jpg
rajadhani ranchi
rajabhasha(en) hindi bhasha, snthali bhasha, maithili bhasha, bhojapuri bhasha
sthapana 15 navnbar, 2000
janasnkhya 3,29,88,134[1]
· ghanatv 338[2] /varg kimi
kshetraphal 79,714 varg kimi[2]
bhaugolik nirdeshank 23° 35′ N ; 85° 33′ E
zile 24 [2]
sabase bada nagar jamashedapur
mukhy paryatan sthal jamashedapur, bokaro, ranchi, sahibagnj
ling anupat 1000:941 ♂/♀
saksharata 67.6%%
· stri 39.38%
· purush 69.74%
rajyapal draupadi murmu[2]
mukhyamntri raghubar das[2]
bahari kadiyan adhikarik vebasait
Jharkhand1 Logo.png

jharakhand (angrezi: Jharkhand) bharat ka ek pramukh rajy hai. jharakhand rajy men bahut badi snkhya men ghane van aur jhad-jhnkar jaisi adhikansh vanaspatiyan paee jati hain, yahi karan hai ki rajy ka nam jharakhand pada hai. yah rajy chhota nagapur pathar par basa hua hai, jo gnga ke maidani bhag ke dakshin men hai. 'jharakhand' ka shabdik arth hai- "van ka kshetr". mana jata hai ki jharakhand shabd ka prayog lagabhag char sau varsh pahale solahavin shatabdi men hua. apane brihat aur mool arth men 'jharakhand' purane bihar ke zyadatar dakshini hisse aur chhattisagadh, pashchim bngal aur udisa ke kuchh adivasi zile shamil hain. jharakhand men bharat ki lagabhag nabbe pratishat anusoochit janajati ka nivas sthal hai. snpoorn bharat men vanon ke anupat men yah pradesh ek agrani rajy mana jata hai tatha vanyajivon ke snrakshan ke liye mashahoor hai.

itihas

15 nnvabar, 2000 ko bharat sngh ke 28ven rajy ke roop men jharakhand rajy ka nirman hua. jharakhand adivasiyon ki grihabhoomi hai. ek prachin katha se gyat hota ki udisa ke raja jayasinh dev ne terahavin shatabdi men khud ko jharakhand ka shasak ghoshit kar apana shasan lagoo kar diya tha. jharakhand men mukhy roop se chhota nagapur pathar aur snthal paragana ke van kshetr shamil hain. yahan ki apani vishisht sanskritik parnparaen hain. svatntrata prapti ke bad 'jharakhand mukti morcha' ne niyamit andolan kiya, jisake karan se sarakar ne 1995 men 'jharakhand kshetr parishad' ki sthapana ki aur isake pashchath yah rajy poornat: astitv men aya. baboolal marandi jharakhnd rajy ke pratham mukhyamntri the. inhonne 2006 men bharatiy janata parti ko chhodakar 'jharakhnd vikas morcha' ki sthapana ki thi.

bhoogol

jharakhand 21°58'10" uttari akshansh se 25°19'15" uttari akshansh tatha 83°20'50" poorvi deshantar 88°4'40" poorvi deshantar ke madhy vistrit hai. jharakhand ka kul kshetraphal 79,714 varg kimi. jo bharat ke kul kshetraphal ka 2.4 pratishat hai. isamen 152 shahar evn 32,615 ganv hai. prashasanik drishtikon se poore rajy ko panch pramandalon evn 24 zilon men vibhajit kiya gaya hai. jharakhand ke poorv men pashchim bngal, pashchim men uttar pradesh aur chhattisagadh, uttar men bihar tatha dakshin men udisa se ghira hua hai. is rajy ki lambaee (uttar se dakshin) 380 kimi. aur chaudaee (poorv se pashchim) 463 kimi. hai.

jharakhand ka ek drishy
bhoo-akriti

jharakhand ka pramukh bhautik lakshan chhota nagapur pathar hai, jo patharon, pahadiyon v ghatiyon ki shrinkhala hai. yah lagabhag samooche rajy men phaila hai aur adhikanshatah sphatakiy (kristal) chattanon se bana hai. hazaribag v ranchi, ye do mukhy pathar damodar nadi ke bhrnshit aur koyala yukt avasadi besin se vibhajit hain. inaki oonchaee ausatan lagabhag 610 mitar hai. pashchim men 300 se adhik vichchhedit, lekin sapat shikhar vale pathar hain, jinaki oonchaee lagabhag 914 mitar hai aur ye pat kahalate hain. jharakhand men uchchatam bindu hazaribag sthit parasanath ki shnkvakar grenait choti hai, jisaki oonchaee 1,369 mitar hai. jain matavalnbi aur snthal janajati, donon hi ise pavitr manate hain. damodar ghati men mitti baluee hai, jabaki pathar ki mitti adhikanshatah lal hai.

bhaugolik sthiti

jharakhand ke poorv men pashchim bngal, pashchim men uttar pradesh aur chhattisagadh, uttar men bihar tatha dakshin men udisa se ghira hua hai. audyogik nagari ranchi isaki rajadhani hai. is pradesh ke any bade shaharon men dhanabad, bokaro evn jamashedapur shamil hain. vartaman samay men jharakhand rajy ke kul zilon ki snkhya 24 hai.

jalavayu

jharakhand pradesh ushnakatibndhit kshetr men sthit hai. jharakhand ki jalavayu samanyataah ushnakatibndhit hai kintu oonche pathari bhag hone ke karan yahan ki jalavayu ki sthiti as-pas se bhinn hai. yah kshetr maaunasooni jalavayu ke antargat ane vale pratyek mausam ke utar-chadhav ko jhelata hai. atah yahan ki jalavayu 'ushn maaunasooni' mani jati hai. jharakhand men kark rekha netarahat, kisko, oramanjhi[3], gola, murahulasudi, gopalapur, pokhanna, gosanidih, jhalabarada, palakudari hote hue bngal ki or jati hai arthath yah rekha jharakhand ke thik bichon-bich guzarati hai, zisake adhar par is garm jalavayu ka kshetr kaha jana chahie. kintu jharakhand ki jalavayu men paryapt ardrata payi jati hai, jisake karan yah ushnakatibndhiy jalavayu se kuchh bhinn prakar ki ban jati hai.

arthavyavastha

krishi

jharakhand rajy ke 79,714 varg kimi kshetr men se 18,423 varg kimi kshetr men van hain. krishi aur krishi sambndhit gatividhiyan jharakhand ki arthavyavastha ka mukhy adhar hain. krishi yogy bhoomi ka kshetraphal keval 38 lakh hekteyar hai.

sinchaee aur bijali

damodar, mayoorakshi, barakar, uttari koyel, dakshini koyel, snkh, suvarnarekha, kharakee aur ajay yahan ki pramukh nadiyan hain aur rajy ke jal ka pramukh srot hai. rajy men kul buvaee ka kshetr 1.57 lakh hekteyar hai jisamen se 8 pratishat kshetr men hi sinchaee ki suvidha upalabdh ho pati hai. jharakhand men sthapit vidyut kshamata 2,590 megavat hai. jisake srot hain- 420 megavat (tenughat tap bijalighar) se, 840 megavat (pataratoo tap panabijalighar) se, 130 (sikkidri bijali pariyojana) se aur 1,200 megavat (damodar ghati nigam tap / panabijali pariyojana)se. tap v panabijali par adharit vibhinn bijaligharon ki kshamata 4,736 megavat ki ja sakati hai jisamen 686 panabijali utpadan shamil hai.

udyog aur khanij

jharakhand ke kuchh bade udyog hain:

  • sarvajanik kshetr ka bokaro stil plant
  • jamashedapur men niji kshetr ki tata ayaran end stil knpani (tisko)
  • any pramukh udyog hain: tata injiniyaring end lokomotiv knpani (telko)
  • timaken indiya limited (jamashedapur)
  • bharat kuking limited (dhanabad)
  • khiladi siment phaiktari (palamoo)
  • indiyan ailyoominiyam (muri)
  • e si si siment (chaibasar)
  • sentral kolaphijds limited (ranchi)
  • usha martin, usha bailtran, yooreniyam karaporeshan (in) limited (jadoogoda)
  • hindustan kaaupar limited (musabani)
  • tin plet knpani aauph indiya limited (jamashedapur)
  • indiyan eksaplosiv limited (gomiya)
  • hindalako baauksait (loharadaga)
  • jharakhand rajy khanij snsadhanon men desh ka samriddhatam rajy hai. yahan upalabdh pramukh khanij hain- koyala, kachcha loha, choona patthar, tanba, baauksait, chini mitti, kainait, chikani mitti, dolomait, grephait, baintonait, sabun patthar billauri ret aur silika baloo.
  • is navagathit rajy men sinhabhoomi, bokaro, hazaribag, ranchi, kodarama aur dhanabad men koyala, abhrak aur any khanijon ke dohan ki apar kshamataen hain.

shiksha

jharakhnd men saksharata dar 2001 ke 54.13 pratishat ki tulana men 67.6% ho gee hai. yahan 21,386 vidyalay aur panch vishvavidyalay hain. isake alava yahan indiyan skool aauf mains, jana- mana vyapar evn prabndhan snsthan, zeviyar lebar rileshns instityoot aur kendriy khanan shodh snsthan jaise shaikshanik v shodh snsthan sthit hain. jamashedapur sthit indo- dainish tool room (aee. di. ti. ar.), ranchi sthit dizain devalepament aind trening sentar aur men tool room audyogik kriyakalapon ko kalapurzo v prashikshan suvidhaen upalabdh karane men mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibha rahe hain.

  • jharakhnd ki shiksha snsthaon men kuchh atynt pramukh shiksha snsthan shamil hain.
  • janajatiy pradesh hone ke bavazood yahan kee nami sarakari evn niji kaaulej hain jo kala, vigyan, abhiyantriki, medisin, qanoon aur mainejament men uchch star ki shiksha dene ke liye vikhyat hain .
shikshan snsthan
  • ranchi vishvavavidyalay
  • siddhoo kanhoo vishvavidyalay dumaka
  • vinoba bhave vishvavidyalay hazaribag
  • birasa krishi vishvavidyalay ranchi
  • birala praudyogiki snsthan mesara ranchi
any snsthan
  • rashtriy dhatukarm prayogashala jamashedapur
  • rashtriy khanan shodh snsthan dhanabad
  • bharatiy lah shodh snsthan ranchi
  • rashtriy manochikatsa snsthan ranchi
  • jeviyar prabndhan snsthan.

parivahan

kabhi mahattvapoorn rahe jalamarg ab apana mahattv kho chuke hain. rajy men mal ke avagaman snbndhi suvidhaen ranchi, bokaro, dhanabad aur jamashedapur men upalabdh hain. isake ilava kiriburu, loharadag aur sabhi koyala khadanon men ayask vahan ki suvidhaen upalabdh hain.

ranchi ka ek drishy

sadak marg

  • jharakhand rajy men sadakon ki kul lnbaee 4,311 kilomitar hai. isamen 1,500 kilomitar rashtriy rajamarg aur 2,711 kilomitar prantiy rajamarg hain.
  • jharakhand ke lagabhag ek chauthaee ganvon tak hi pakki sadaken pahunchi hain, jabaki rashtriy rajamarg ka 1,006 kimi rajy se hokar guzarata hai, jisamen graind trnk rod bhi shamil hai.
  • chhota nagapur pathar ke asapas ki sadaken behatarin hain, jo yahan dvitiy vishv yuddh ke dauran kie ge kam ka parinam hain.
  • hazaribag aur baharagoda ke bich 333 kimi ki char len vali rajamarg pariyojana ka nirman-kary hua hai.

rel marg

  • jharakhand se guzarane vali kalakatta (vartaman kolakata)- dilli rel lain 1864 men shuroo huee thi.
  • jharakhand rajy men vikasit relave pranali hai.
  • ranchi, bokaro, dhanabad, jamashedapur kuchh pramukh relave steshan hain.

havaee marg

  • ranchi men niyamit vayusevaen bhi upalabdh hain.
  • viman seva se ranchi, dilli, patana aur munbee se juda hai.
  • jamashedapur, bokaro, giridih, devaghar, hazaribag, daltanagnj aur noamundi men havaee pattiyan hain.

sanskritik jivan

jharakhand ke sanskritik kshetr apane-apane bhashaee kshetron se jude hain. hindi, snthali, munda, ho, kudukh, maithili, malto, kuramali, khoratha aur urdoo bhashaen yahan par boli jati hai. bhojapuri boli ka likhit sahity n hone ke bavajood isaka ullekhaniy maukhik lok sahity hai. magahi ki bhi samriddh lok parampara hai.

adhikansh janajatiy ganvon men ek nrityasthali hoti hai. pika, chhu, jadur, karama, nachani, natua, agni, chhokara, snthal, jamada, ghatavari, mahata, sohari, luriseri yahan ke lokanrity hain. pratyek ganv ka apana pavitr vriksh (sarana) hota hai, jahan ganv ke pujari dvara pooja arpit ki jati hai. isake alava avivahiton ka shayanagar bhi hota hai. saptahik hat janajatiy arthavyavastha men mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhati hai. janajatiy tyohar (jaise sarahul), vasntotsav (sohari) aur shitotsav (magh parab) ullas ke avasar hain. janajatiy snskriti bahari prabhavon, jaise eesaeeyat, audyogikikaran, ne snchar samparkon, janajatiy kalyan karyakramon aur samudayik vikas pariyojanaon chalate tezi se badal rahi hai.

yahan dharmik aur sanskritik mahattv ke anek sthan hain. jamashedapur men dimana jhil aur dalama vany abhayarany hain. prasiddh vrindavan udyan ki pratikriti jubali park, jamashedapur ke 225 ekad ke kshetr men phaila hai. netarahat rajy ke prasiddh lokapriy paryatan sairagahon men se ek hai. pavitr nagar devaghar apane vaidyanath mandir ke lie vikhyat hai. vibhinn hindoo tyoharon men holi v chhath (mukhyat: mahilaon dvara soory poojan) shamil hain.

paryatan sthal

koyale ki khan, dhanabad

rajy men anek manoram sthal hain. ye hain-

  • ichagadh pakshi vihar
  • uddhav pakshi vihar- sahibagnj (pathara jhil)
  • chacharo magaramachchh palan kendr kodarama (tilaya bandh)
  • chndrapur pakshi vihar
  • javaharalal neharoo chidiyaghar (bokaro)
  • tenughat pakshi vihar, dalama vanyajiv abhayarany (jamashedapur)
  • tata stil chidiyaghar (jamashedapur)
  • palakot vanyajiv abhayarany (gumala)
  • bhagavan birasa chidiyaghar (ranchi)
  • birasa hiran abhayarany (kalamati ranchi)
  • betala rashtriy udyan (palamoo)
  • ranchi matsy kendr (ranchi)
  • hazaribag rashtriy udyan
  • tatoloee garm pani jharana (dumaka)
  • sarnda van
  • jharakhand men kuchh mashahoor mndir bhi hain-
  • jharakhand dham
  • lagnta baba mndir/majar
  • bindhyavasini mndir
  • masanajor dham


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

vithika

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 2001 ki janaganana ke anusar
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Jharkhand - At a Glance (angrezi) (ech.ti.em.el) jharakhand ki adhikarik vebasait. abhigaman tithi: 14 julaee, 2013.
  3. 2.2 kimi. uttar

snbndhit lekh