पतंग  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

patng

patng hava men udane vali ek vastu hai, jo dhage ke sahare udati hai. prachin kal se hi insan ki yah ichh‍chha rahi ki vah mukt akash men ude. manav ki isi ichchha ne patng ki utpatti ke lie prerana ka kam kiya. kabhi manornjan ke taur par udaee jane vali patng aj patngabazi ke roop men ek rivaj, parnpara aur tyohar ka paryay ban gee hai. patng vishv ke kee deshon men udaee jati hain, kintu bharat ke kee rajyon men yah bahut badi snkhya men bachchon, boodhon aur javanon dvara vibhinn parvon aur tyoharon par udaee jati hai. aj bhi maharashtr, gujarat, karnatak, uttar pradesh, rajasthan aur dilli adi men patng udane ke lie samay nirdharit hai. alag-alag rajyon men patngon ko alag-alag namon se jana jata hai. adhunik samay men patng ke prati logon ka prem kam ho gaya hai. pahale patngabazi ke mukabale bahut hote the, kintu ab pahale jaise patngabaz dikhaee nahin dete aur n hi unake mukabale.

itihas

grik itihasakaron ki manen to patngabazi ka khel 2500 varsh purana hai, jabaki adhikatar logon ka manana hai ki patngabazi ke khel ki shuruat chin men huee thi. chin men patngabazi ka itihas do hazar sal se bhi jyada purana mana gaya hai. kuchh log patngabazi ko parshiya ki den manate hain, vahin adhikansh itihasakar patngon ka janm chin men hi manate hain. unake anusar chin ke ek senapati hanasij ne kagaz ko chaukor kat kar unhen hava men udakar apane sainikon ko sndesh bheja aur bad men kee rngon ki patngen banaeen. yah bhi kaha jata hai ki duniya ki pahali patng ek chini darshanik mo di ne banaee thi. is prakar patng ka itihas kee varsh purana hai. patng banane ka upayukt saman chin men uplabdh tha, jaise- resham ka kapada़, patng udane ke liye mazaboot resham ka dhaga aur patng ke akar ko sahara dene vala halka aur mazaboot bans. chin ke bad patngon ka phailav japan, koriya, thaeelaind, barma, bharat, arab, uttari afrika tak hua.[1]

tulasidas ka ullekh

hindoo dharm ke prasiddh aur dharmik grnth 'ramacharitamanas' men mahakavi tulasidas ne aise prasngon ka ullekh kiya hai, jab shriram ne apane bhaiyon ke sath patng udaee thi. is sndarbh men 'balakand' men ullekh milata hai-

'ram ik din chng udaee.
indralok men pahunchi jaee॥'

ek any bada hi rochak prasng hai. pnpapur se hanuman ko bulavaya gaya tha. tab hanumanaji bal roop men the. jab ve ae, tab 'makar snkranti' ka parv tha. shriram bhaiyon aur mitr mndali ke sath patng udane lage. kaha gaya hai ki vah patng udate hue devalok tak ja pahunchi. us patng ko dekh kar indr ke putr jaynt ki patni bahut akarshit ho gee.[2] vah us patng aur patng udane vale ke prati sochane lagi-

'jasu chng as sundarataee.
so purush jag men adhikaee॥'

is bhav ke man men ate hi usane patng ko hastagat kar liya aur sochane lagi ki patng udane vala apani patng lene ke lie avashy aega. vah pratiksha karane lagi. udhar patng pakad lie jane ke karan patng dikhaee nahin di, tab balak shriram ne bal hanuman ko usaka pata lagane ke lie ravana kiya. pavan putr hanuman akash men udate hue indralok pahunch ge. vahan jakar unhonne dekha ki ek stri us patng ko apane hath men pakade hue hai. unhonne us patng ki usase mang ki. us stri ne poochha- "yah patng kisaki hai?" hanumanaji ne ramachndraji ka nam bataya. is par usane unake darshan karane ki abhilasha prakat ki. hanuman yah sunakar laut ae aur sara vrittant shriram ko kah sunaya. shriram ne yah sunakar hanuman ko vapas vapas bheja ki ve unhen chitrakoot men avashy hi darshan denge. hanuman ne yah uttar jaynt ki patni ko kah sunaya, jise sunakar jaynt ki patni ne patng chhod di. kathan hai ki-

'tin tab sunat turnt hi, dinhi chhod patng.
khench li prabhu beg hi, khelat balak sng.'

uparokt prasng ke adhar par patng ki prachinata ka pata chalata hai.

bharat men patng ka ana

bharat men bhi patng udane ka shauq hajaron varsh purana ho gaya hai. kuchh logon ke anusar pavitr lekhon ki khoj men lage chin ke bauddh tirthayatriyon ke dvara patngabazi ka shauq bharat pahuncha tha. bharat ke kone-kone se yuvaon ke sath umradaraj log bhi yahan ate hain aur khoob patng udate hain. ek hajar varsh poorv patngon ka zikr snt nambe ke giton men bhi darj hai. mugal badashahon ke shasan kal men to patngon ki shan hi nirali thi. khud badashah aur shahazade bhi is khel ko badi hi ruchi se khela karate the. us samay to patngon ke pench ladane ki pratiyogitaen bhi hoti thin aur jitane vale ko bada eenam bhi milata tha.
vibhinn rngon ki patngen

patng udane ki rivaj aj se lagabhag 2500 se 3000 sal pahale chin men shuroo hua, lekin patngabazi ke khalifa v ustadon ka manana hai ki sabase pahali patng hakim jalinoos ne banaee thi. kuchh hakim lukaman ka bhi nam lete hain. baharahal, koriya aur japan ke raste hoti huee patng bharat pahunchi. yahan isaka apana ek alag itihas hai. mugal darabar men isaka aisa bolabala aur khumar tha ki raja-rajavade, jagiradar evn vazir bhi patngabazi men khud hissa lete the. mugal samrat bahadurashah zafar bhi patngabazi ka bahut shaukin tha. mugaliya daur ke bad lakhanoo, ramapur, haidarabad adi shaharon ke navabon men bhi isaka khumar chadha. unhonne ise ek baji ki shakl de di. unhonne apani patngabazi ko garibi door karane ka madhyam banaya. ye log patngon men asharaphiyan bandh kar udaya karate the aur akhir men patng ki dor tod dete the, taki ganv ke log patng loot saken. vajid ali shah to patngabazi ke lie har sal apani patngabaz toli ke sath patngabazi ke mukabale men dilli ate the. dhire-dhire navabon ka yah shauq am logon ki zindagi ka aham hissa banata gaya. varsh 1927 men 'go baik' vaky ke sath likhi huee patngon ko asaman men udakar 'saiman kamishan' ka virodh kiya gaya tha. ajadi ki khushi ko jahir karane ka madhyam bhi patng ko banaya gaya.[3]

patngotsav

aj bhi chin men patng udane ka shauq kayam hai. vahan pratyek varsh 9 sitambar ki tarikh ko patngotsav ke roop men manaya jata hai. is din chin ki lagabhag samoochi janata poore josh aur utsah ke sath patngabazi ki pratiyogita men bhag leti hai. amerika men to reshami kapade aur plastik se bani patngen udaee jati hain. vahan joon ke mahine men patng prati‍yogitaon ka ayojan hota hai. japani bhi patngabazi ke bahut shaikin hote hain. unaka manana hai ki patng udane se devata prasann hote hain. vahan prati varsh mee ke mahine men patngabazi ki pratiyo‍‍gitaen ayojit ki jati hain.[1]

patng ka udana

udati huee patngen

patng majaboot dhage ke sahare udane vali vastu hai. yah dhage par padane vale tanav par nirbhar karati hai. patng hava men tab uthati hai, jab hava ka pravah patng ke oopar aur niche se hota hai, jisase patng ke oopar kam dabav aur patng ke niche adhik dabav ban jata hai. yah vikshepan hava ki disha ke sath kshaitij khinch bhi utpann karata hai. patng ka lngar bindu sthir ya chalit ho sakata hai. patng amataur par hava se bhari hoti hai, lekin hava se halki patng bhi hoti hai, jise 'hailikait' pukara jata hai. ye patngen hava men ya hava ke bina bhi ud sakati hain. hailikait patnge any patngon ki tulana men ek any sthirata siddhant par kam karati hain, kyonki hailikait hiliyam-sthir aur hava-sthir hoti hain. jab hava achchhi-khasi bah rahi ho to patng udana bada asan ho jata hai, kyonki is samay patng ko kam mehanat men hi kafi oonchaee tak udaya ja sakata hai, kintu jab hava nahin bah rahi hoti to patng badi mushkil se oopar uthati hai aur mehanat bhi bahut karani padati hai.

bharat men patngabazi

bharat ke haidarabad aur pakistan ke lahaur men patngabazi ka khel bade utsah ke sath khela jata tha. aj bhi maharashtr, gujarat, karnatak, uttar pradesh, rajasthan aur dilli adi men patng udane ke lie samay nirdharit hai. alag-alag rajyon men patngon ko alag-alag namon se jana jata hai.[1]

  • uttar bharat ke log raksha bndhan aur 'svatntrata divas' vale din khoob patng udate hain. is din log nile asaman men apani patngen udakar ajadi ki khushi ka ijahar karate hain.
  • dilli, hariyana, uttar pradesh tatha madhy pradesh ke log is din patngabazi ka jamakar lutph uthate hain. patng udate aur katate samay ve apas ke chhote-bade sare bhed bhool jate hain. is din charon taraf kuchh khas vaky sunaee dete hain, jaise- 'vo kata', 'kat gee', 'looto', 'pakado' 'vo mara ve' adi.
patng vikreta
  • gujarat ki audyogik rajadhani ahamadabad ki bad karen to bharat hi nahin, yah poore vishv men patngabazi ke lie prasiddh hai. har varsh 14 janavari ko 'makar snkranti' soory ke uttarayan hone ke avasar par yahan "antararashtriy patng mahotsav" ka ayojan hota hai, jisamen ahamadabadi nila asaman indradhanushi rngon se sarabor ho jata hai. chin, nidaralaind, yooese, aaustreliya, japan, brajil, itali aur chili adi deshon se bhi patngabajon ki phauj yahan ati hai. yah patng mahotsav 1989 se prativarsh manaya jata raha hai. yahan ek patng myoojiyam bhi bana hai.
  • pahale kagaz ko chaukor katakar patngen banaee jati thin, kintu aj ek se badhakar ek dizain, akar, akriti evn rngon vali bhinn prakar ki motaraijd evn faibar glas patngen bazar men maujood hain, jinhen udane ka ehasas apane ap men anokha aur sukhad hota hai. in patngon ki mang bhi bahut zyada hai aur ye bahut akarshak bhi hoti hain.
  • maleshiya ki vaoobalang, indo‍neshiya ki iyang inyanghave, yooese ki vishal vainar, itali ki vastuparak, japan ki rokkakoo tatha chin ki draigan patngon ki bhavyata lakhon patng premiyon ko ashchary se abhibhoot kar deti hai.

pench ladana

patng duniya ke bahut se deshon men udaee jati hai, parntu 'ladaka patng' (faitar kaits) keval bharat aur bharatiy upamahadvip ke padosi deshon jaise- pakistan, afaganistan, bangladesh, nepal aur shrilnka men lokapriy hai. do patngon ke pench ki ladaee men doosari patng ki dor ko katakar girane ke khel ka annd aur romanch usamen bhag lene vale hi mahasoos kar sakate hain. pench ki ladaee men kee hunar hote hain. patng ka sntulit hona, patngabaz ka anubhavi hona, doosare ki dor katane ke lie khud ki patng ko khoob teji se apani or khinchate jana ya bahut teji se dhil dete jana aur sath men jhataka ya uchake dena. dor ko phurti se lapetane vale tatha zaroorat padane par nirbadh roop se chhodate jane vale asistent ki bhoomika bhi is samay bahut hi khas hoti hai. jaise hi ek dor katati hai, use thamane vale hathon ko maloom pad jata hai, tanav ki jagah dhilapan. usaki kati patng nissahay-si jamin ki disha men doobane lagati hai. chehara utar jata hai. jitane vale samooh ki chikhen akash goonja deti hain- 'vah kata, vo kata', 'vo mara ve' adi.

manja

manje ki charakhiyan

do patngon ki ladaee men dhage ya dor ka bahut mahatv hai. soot ka yah dhaga n keval majaboot hona chahie, balki usaki satah ke khuradarepan men doosare dhage ko katane ki paini kshamata hona chahie. is khas dhage ko 'manja' kahate hain. ise banane ka tarika mehanat bhara aur khataranak hai. ek khas kism ki loee taiyar karate hain, jisamen chaval ka ata, aloo, sares, pisa hua barik kanch ka burada aur rng mila rahata hai. ise hathon men rakhakar, do khnbhon ke bich bandhe ge soot ke safed dhagon par ukt loee ki anek paraten chadhaee jati hain aur is prakar tez aur khataranak manja taiyar kiya jata hai.[4]

manje se nukasan

ahamadabad men 'uttarayan' (makar snkranti) ke kuchh saptah poorv se sadak kinare, phutapathon par aise safed aur rngin dhagon ki anek pnktiyan dekhi ja sakati hain. uttar pradesh v bihar men anek garib shramik manja taiyar karane ke kam men jute rahate hain. unake hath v ungaliyan kanch lage kntile, khuradare manje ko lipate-potate, sahejate, lapetate, jagah-jagah se kat jate hain, chhil jate hain, bindh jate hain, lahooluhan ho jate hain. ve hath par pattiyan bandhate hain aur phir dhage lapetate hain. unake chehare se pida tapakati hai, phir bhi majaboorivash kam kie jate hain. parishramik kam hi milata hai. poora parivar vahin sadak kinare din gujarata hai. pichhale kuchh varshon se kuchh shaharon men patngabazi ke khel men manje ke upayog ko bnd karane ki muhim shuroo huee hai, parntu usaka asar abhi kshin hai. yah avaj isalie uthi hai ki asani se n dikhaee padane vale manje ki chapet men anek rahagir v akash men vicharate pakshi a jate hain.

filmi giton ka nirman

rng-birngi patngen

kaviyon v sahityakaron se lekar film nirdeshakon tak ne patng par apani kala ka rng chadhaya. patng par anek kavitaen, gajal v filmi gane adi likhe gaye, jaise-

  • 'n koee umng hai, n koee tarng hai, meri zindagi hai kya, ek kati patng hai - kati patng
  • 'dhil de dhil de de re bhaiya' - ham di‍l de chooke sanam (1999)
  • 'ari chhod de sajani‍ya chhod de patng meri chhod de' - nagin (1954)
  • 'chali-chali re patng meri chali re' - bhabhi (1957)
  • 'ye duni‍ya patng ni‍t badale rng' - patng

mahnga shauk

ab patngabazi vyavasayik ho gee hai. dilli v gujarat men hi nahin, bharat ke har kone men patng udayi jati hai. aj yah mahnge khelon men shumar hai. dilli men hi lagabhag 140 pnjikrit aur lagabhag 250 gair-pnjikrit patng klab hain. aise kee klab agara, bareli, bhopal, ilahabad, bikaner, gujarat, jammoo ke alava any bade shaharon men bhi hain, jahan sadasyon ko mukabale ke lie taiyar kiya jata hai. patngabazi ek khel hai, ek kala hai, jisako sikhana padata hai aur abhyas karana padata hai. isake apane niyam v sharte hoti hain, jaise 500 gaj ke oopar hi pench lada sakate hain. patngabazi ki pratiyogita men hissa lene ke lie 500-1500 tak rupe kharch karane pad sakate hain. har jagah patng udane ke lie alag-alag samay nirdharit hai aur har jagah ke apane-apane taur-tarike hain, lekin sabhi ka uddeshy ek hi hai- "apasi bhaeechara aur samajik sauhard badhana".


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 hava ke sng ude patng (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 23 mee, 2013.
  2. shriram ne bhi udaee thi patng (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 24 mee, 2013.
  3. chali chali re patng meri (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 23 mee, 2013.
  4. patng katen ungaliyan nahin (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 23 mee, 2013.

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