देवनागरी लिपि (कश्मीरी भाषा के संदर्भ में) -मोहनलाल सर  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Icon-edit.gif yah lekh svatntr lekhan shreni ka lekh hai. is lekh men prayukt samagri, jaise ki tathy, ankade, vichar, chitr adi ka, snpoorn uttaradayitv is lekh ke lekhak/lekhakon ka hai bharatakosh ka nahin.
lekhak- shri mohanalal sar

          lipi bhasha ki anivaryata nahin hai. yah matr ek drishyatmak sadhan hai aur bhasha ko surakshit rakhane ka bhi ek madhyam hai. isake atirikt yah bhasha ke aitihasik lekha ka bhi ek sadhan hai kuchh bhashaon me lekhan lipi ki parnpara hajaron varsh purani hai aur kuchh bhashaon ne is vartaman shatabdi men hi apanaya hai. abhi snsar ki anek adivasi bhashaon ki koee lekhan vidhi nahin hai, halanki eesaee mishanariyon ne is kshetr men kafi kary kiya hai aur anek adivasi bhashaon ko roman lipi men likhana shuru kiya. jin bhashaon men lekhan vidhi ki purani parnpara hai, unamen bhi ve log jo padhana likhana nahin janate, apani bhasha bolane me poori tarah se daksh hote hai. anubhav kshetr ko dhyan men rakhate hue aise bhasha samudayon ke niraksharon ki bhasha saksharon ki bhasha se hin nahin hoti. un ki bhasha bhi saksharon ki bhasha jitani sthir, vyavasthit aur snpann hoti hai.

bhasha aur lipi

          bhasha aur lipi ka koee anyonyashrit snbndh bhi nahin hota. agar lipi badali jati hai to bhasha men koee parivartan nahin ata. turki ne 1926 men arabi lipi ke badale roman lipi apanaee. logon ki bhasha par isaka koee prabhav nahin pada. bloomaphild is bat ko samajhate hue kahate hain, ‘bhasha nahin badalati chahe use kisi bhi lekhan vidhi se lipibaddh kiya jae, jaise vyakti nahin badalata, chahe usaka chitr kaise bhi khincha jae.’ (1933: 21) bhashaon ka itihas to manav ke itihas se juda hua hai. manav jitana purana hai bhasha bhi utani purani ho sakati hai, lekin lipiyon ka itihas panch-chhah hajar varsh purana hi hai. bhasha vyakti ke svabhav se judi hoti hai jabaki lipi ek aupacharik avashyakata hai. ek hi lipi men anek bhashao ko likhane ki parnpara bhi kafi samay se chali a rahi hai. roman lipi isaka ek udaharan hai. pashchimi deshon ki adhikansh bhashaen roman lipi men hi likhi jati hain isi prakar ek bhasha ko anek lipiyo men likhane ki parnpara bhi vartaman hai. snskrit hajaron varshon se vibhinn bharatiy lipiyon men likhi jati rahi hai.

lipi ki avashyakata

          lipi chinh bhasha ki dhvani ka ek drishyatmak pratik hota hai. yadi bhasha ki dhvaniyon ko in drishyatmak pratikon men utarane ki vyavastha n ho to bhasha prayojan ke kshetr simit ho jate hain, bhasha ki prayojan parakata ka vikas nahin ho pata hai. udaharan ke lie, agar bhasha ki koee lekhan vyavastha nahin hai to usako shiksha ke madhyam ki bhasha banana asnbhav hai. vibhinn kary kshetro men bhasha ke prayog se hi bhasha ki vibhinn prayuktiyon ka vikas hota hai. prayuktiyon ka vikas bhasha vikas ke lie anivary hai. isalie bhasha ke sndarbh men lipi ki avashyakata nirvidad ho jati hai.

bharatiy sndarbh

          bharatiy bhashaon ki vikas prakriya men lipi chayan ka mahatvapoorn sthan raha hai. lipi ke nishchit ya sthir n hone ki sthiti men bhasha niyojakon ne bhasha ki isi samasya ko prathamikata di aur bhasha ki dhvani vyavastha ko dhyan men rakhate hue lekhan vyavastha ka chayan kiya. bharat men bhashaon ki tarah hi lipiyon ki bhi anekata hai. halanki yah bat bhi spasht hai ki vibhinn bharatiy lipiyon men chinh vyavastha alag alag hote hue bhi, moolatah inamen samanataen hain. ek samanamata yah hai ki, urdoo aur tamil ko chhodakar shesh sabhi lipiyon ka varnakram ek jaisa hai. pahale svar ate hain aur phir vynjan. in sabhi lipiyon men vynjan usi prakar vargon men vibhakt hain; jaise devanagari men. tamil ki varnamala ka kram bhi devanagari ki tarah svaron aur vynjanon men vibhakt hai, par vynjanon ka kram bhinn hai.
          urdoo ki varnamala men svar aur vynjan mile hue hain. urdoo varnamala men varnon ke nam bhi hain. udaharan ke lie agar dhvani ‘j’ hai to lipi chinh ka nam ‘jim’ aur agar dhvani ‘j’ hai to lipi chinh ka nam ‘dal’ hai. any bharatiy lipiyon men chinhon ke namon ki aisi spasht vyavastha nahin hai.
          bharatiy lipiyon ki ek aur samanata roman lipi se tulana karane par spasht hoti hai. roman lipi men ek hi lipi chinh do asnddh dhvaniyon ka pratik ho sakata hai. udaharan ke lie ‘b’ ‘k’ dhvanik ka bhi pratik ho sakata hai aur ‘s’ dhvani ka bhi. ‘banaj’ shabd men yah ‘k’ ka aur ‘City’ shabd me yah ‘s’ ka pratik hai. dhvani shastr ki drishti se ‘k’ aur ‘s’ apas men asnbaddh dhvaniyan hain.
          bharatiy lipiyon men yah samasya nahin hai. ek hi lipi chinh kabhi bhi do asnbaddh dhvaniyon ka pratik nahin hota. doosari bat yah hai ki roman men lipi bhinn hone par uchcharan ek hi hone ke anek udaharan hain. aise do vaky bhi ho sakate hain jinaki dhvani to ek hi hai par lipiyan alag-alag. is sndarbh men haauket (1973: 16) ke do prasiddh vaky prastut hain:
(1) the sons raise meat
(2) the suns rays meet
          yah samasya any lipiyon me bhi ho sakati hai. kintu is sima tak vyapak nahin ho sakati jaise ki roman men hai. devanagari ka ek aisa hi udaharan ‘karta’ aur ‘karata’ ho sakata hai. jahan donon shabdon ka uchcharan ek hi hai par lipiyan bhinn hain.
          bharatiy snvidhan ki athavin anusoochi men jo 15 bhashaen di gee hain, uname keval sindhi aur kashmiri ke lie hi lipi nirdharan samasya adhik charcha ka vishay raha hai. sarakari taur par samasya sulajhaee gee hai aur yah nirnay liya gaya hai ki sindhi devanagari aur urdoo donon lipiyon men likhi jaegi aur kashmiri keval urdoo lipi men. sindhi ka apana koee pradesh nahin hai, isalie usake bare me kendriy star par hi nirnay lie jate hain. kashmiri kashmir ki bhasha hai. kashmir men hindi ki apeksha urdoo ka adhik prabhav hai, isalie kashmir ke manakikaran ke lie urdoo par nirbhar rahana svabhavik hai. adhikansh ne agat shabd bhi urdoo se hi lie jate rahe hain. phalatah kashmir ko urdoo lipi men sikhane ka nirnay pradeshik sarakar ke lie svatah siddh ho gaya.

kashmir ka lipi itihas

          kashmir ke lipi itihas ka sinhavalokan karane se pata chalata hai ki atit men kashmiri ko sharada lipi men likhane ki parnpara thi. vartaman kal men prasiddh kashmiri kavi gulam ahamad ‘mahajoor’ ne is lipi ke punarjivan ki joradar sipharish ki thi. ajakal is lipi ka prayog matr dharmik anushthanon tak simit rah gaya hai.
          sharada ke bad kashmiri ko urdoo aur devanagari donon lipiyon me likhane ke praman hain, halanki adhikansh sahity urdoo lipi men hi likha jata raha hai. us samay kashmiri ki vishisht dhvaniyon ko prakat karane ke lie urdoo lipi men koee atirikt chinh nahin banae jate the. anuman matr se hi un dhvaniyon ka uchcharan kiya jata tha. devanagari men in dhvaniyon ke lie kuchh chinh nishchit the. 1881 men prakashit ‘kashmiri shabdamritam’ me in chinhon ka prayog kiya gaya hai.
          svatntrata ke bad urdoo ko aupacharik roop se kashmiri ki lipi svikar karane par in vishisht dhvaniyon ke chinhon ka bhi nirdharan kar liya gaya. ab lagabhag 35 varshon se in chinhon ka prayog ho raha hai, kintu lipi lokapriy nahin ho saki hai. rediyo kashmiri, bhasha akadami aur kashmir vishvavidyalay ke kashmiri vibhag ke atirikt is lipi ka bahut kam prayog hai. kashmir ke sarvajanik sthanon par is lipi men soochanaon ka sarvatha abhav rahata hai. shayad lipi ki kathinaee ke karan hi ye soochanaen kashmiri ke badale urdoo men likhane ki pratha hai. kashmir ke sarvajanik parivahan addon par pratidin hazaron kashmiri ate hain. in addon par koee bhi soochana kashmiri men nahin likhi jati. lipi ki duroohata ke karan hi kashmir ke vibhinn sthanon ke namon ko urdookaran athava hindikaran kiya jata hai aur yahi parivartit nam sarvajanik vahanon adi par likhe jate hain. kuchh udaharan is prakar hain:
prachalit nam       urdoo-hindikrit nam
huduvor             hndavada
boonthyapor             avntipor
bnrdupur             bandi pora
varrumul             baramulla

          kashmir men saksharata ki bhasha bhi kashmiri nahin ho saki hai. jammoo kashmir rajy ki rajabhasha urdoo hone ke karan is rajy ki saksharata ki bhasha bhi urdoo hi hai. matribhasha aur saksharata ki bhasha ek n hone se saksharata ke andolan ki samasya adhik pechida ho jati hai.
          saksharata ki bhasha banane ke lie bhi lipi ke prachur prachar ki avashyakata hoti hai. jahir hai ki kashmiri ko is sndarbh men abhi kafi saphar tay karana hai aur raste ko aur adhik pusht banane ki bhi zaroorat hai. arthath lipi chinhon par punarvichar ki avashyakata hai. lipi chinh tabhi lokapriy aur sarvamany ho jate hain jab ve bhasha ki dhvani vyavastha ka jayaja lena sngat hoga.

kashmiri ki dhvani vyavastha

          kashmiri svar vyavastha ko dekhane se pata chalata hai ki yah vyavastha urdoo hindi se bhinn hai. pahali bat kashmiri men pashch svar aise bhi hai jo vartulakar nahin hai. hindi urdoo ke sabhi pashch svar vartulakar hain. jaise ‘u’, ‘oo’, ‘o’, ‘au’ in svaron ko bolate samay hothon ka akar gol ho jata hai. kashmiri me ‘au’ ko chhodakar ye svar to hain hi, inake atirikt aise pashch svar bhi hain jinake uchcharan men othon ka akar gol nahin hota. devanagari men in svaron ko is prakar ankit kiya jata hai - u, oo, a. doosari bat hai ki kashmiri men sabhi svaron ke hrisv aur dirgh dono roop hain. urdoo hindi men ‘e’ aur ‘o’ ke bhi hrisv roop nahin hain. kashmiri men in donon ke hrisv roop hain jin ko devanagari men ‘e’ aur ‘a’ dvara ankit kiya jata hai.
          vynjanatk dhvaniyon men hindi ki varg chaturth dhvaniyan arthath ‘dh’, ‘jh’, ‘dh’ aur ‘bh’ kashmiri men nahin hain. kashmiri men ‘ch’ varg ki any dhvaniyon ke atirikt aisi sparsh sndharshi dhvaniyan bhi hain jin ka uchcharan sthan dnt mool ke as pas hai. devanagari men in dhvaniyon ko ‘ch’ aur ‘chh’ lipi chinhon dvara likha jata hai.
          kashmiri men snyukt vynjanon ki vyavastha nahin ke barabar hai. ek hi vynjan sath sath kabhi nahin ata. hindi urdoo ke aise vynjanon vale shabd yadi kashmiri men prayukt hote hain to inaka roop kashmiri dhvani vyavastha ke anukool ho jata hai jaise:
urdoo hindi    kashmiri
adda       ardu
khaddar       rkhardur
          doosare prakar ke snyukt vynjan bhi kashmiri men bahut kam hote hain. ‘r’ ke sath pahale vynjan ke roop men snyukt hone vale snyukt vynjan bhi keval shabd ke adi men a sakate hain. any sthanon par nahin. any bhashaon se ae hue aise snyukt vyajanon vale shabd kashmiri men snyukt vynjanon ke roop men nahin rahate. udaharan ke lie kuchh shabd prastut hain:
shukr    rshakur
ardr    adur
bhasm    barsum
khatm    khartum
hukm    rhakum

talavyakaran

          kashmiri men talavyakaran ek vishshti aur vyapt svanimik prakriya hai. shabd saghana me prakriya ka mahatvapoorn sthan hai. talavy dhvaniyan ‘ch’, ‘chh’, ‘j’, ‘sh’ aur ‘y’ ko chhodakar shesh sabhi vynjanatmak dhvaniyon ka talavy karan snbhav hai. vyutpann roop yadi pulling bahuvachan hai to antim vynjan ka talavyakaran ek samany niyam hai-
ekavachan    bahuvachan
gur ‘ghoda’       guiy ‘ghode’
sin ‘gahara’       sainy ‘gahare’
tul ‘uthaya’       tuly ‘uthaye’
          dhvani vyavastha ki in baton ko dhyan men rakhane se chinhon ke anavashyak vistar se bacha ja sakata hai aur lipi ko svikarana sahaj ho jata hai. agar kashmiri ke lie devanagari lipi ko bhi aupacharik svikriti di jae to samasya kafi saral ho jaegi. devanagari men chinhon ki itani jatilata nahin hai jitani ki urdoo men anubhav ho rahi hai.
          jammoo kashmir sarakar ne bhasha niyojan ki drishti se samay samay par prabhavashali kadam uthae hain. svargiy mukhyamntri shekh muhammad abdulla ne rajy ke sabhi adhyapakon ke lie urdoo aur hindi ka gyan anivary kar diya tha, arthath urdoo lipi aur devanagari lipi janana rajy ke har adhyapak ke lie avashyak hai. yahi niti kashmiri bhasha ki lipi ko sahaj svikary banane ke lie apanaee jani chahie. kashmiri ke lie devanagari aur urdoo donon lipiyan svikar ki jani chahie. isase kashmiri sahity rachana men nishchit abhivri़ddhi hogi.
          dogari jammoo ki bhasha hai. yah bharatiy snvidhan ki athavin anusoochi ki bhasha nahin hai. kashmiri ki apeksha dogari ka kavyakarm adhik vyapak hai. karan yah hai ki dogari bhasha ki lipi devanagari hai jisamen likhane aur chhapane ki duruhata nahin hai. kashmiri kyonki keval urdoo ki snshodhit lipi men hi likhi jati hai, isalie likhane aur chhapane donon men kafi kathinaiyan hain.
          agar kashmiri ki prayojanaparakata ka vikas kiya jana hai aur isako vibhinn bhashik karyakshetron men vyapak bhoomika nibhani hai. to is sndarbh men prabhavashali kadam uthae jane avashyak hai.

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  • kacharu, braj bi. 1969, ai repharens gramar aph kashmiri dipartament aauph lingvistiks, yoonivarsiti aauph ilinay
  • 1973, en introdakshan tu spokan kashmiri dipartament aph ligvistik yoonivarsiti aph ilinay
  • kelakar, ashok ar 1968 stadij in hindi-urdoo introdakshan end vard phonalji dakkin kalej, post grejuet end risarch instityoot, poona
  • kaul, eeshvar 1897, kashmir shabdamritam snpadit griyarsan, eshiyatik sosayati, kalakatta
  • gosvami, krishnakumar 1981, shaikshik vyakaran aur vyavaharik hindi alekh prakashan, dilli.
  • 1979, rivyoo-devanagari lipi, lekhak, shivashnkar prasad varma, indiyan lingvistik valyum 40 ank 2
  • pattanayak di. pi. ‘sapark lipi devanagari’ smarika nagari lipi sammelan.
  • prasad siddheshvar 1982, ‘vishv nagari lipi’ smarika nagari lipi sammelan,
  • bahari, haradev 1982, ‘roman lipi kyon nahin’ smarika nagari lipi sammalen, 1982 men
  • boolmaphalde, liyonaee 1933, lengvej elen end anavin, shikago
  • bhatiya, kailashachndr sn. 2027, hindi bhasha ke akshar tatha shabd ki sima kashi nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi.
  • machave, prabhakar 1962, ‘devanagari lipi’ smarika nagari lipi sammelan
  • liyon, jon 1969, introdakshan tu thiyoretikal lingvistiks kenbrij yoonivarsiti pres kenbrij.
  • varma, siddheshvar 1964 ‘selebkishan in kashmiri lengvej in anar aph deniyal jonj lndan
  • shrivastav ravindranath 1975, ‘di soshyolaji aph phnkshanal hindi, prayojanamoolak hindi, kendriy snsthan, agara.
  • 1977 bhasha shikshan, maikamilan, nee dilli.
  • sar, sushila 1977, kashmir shabdamritamityasy samalochanatmak kamadhyayanam pi. ech. di. thrisis snpoornannd snskrit vishvavidyalay varanasi (aprakashit),
  • haket, si. eph. 1958, ek kors in madarn lingvistiks maikamilan, nyooyark.

snbndhit lekh

tritiy vishv hindi sammelan 1983
kramank lekh ka nam lekhak
hindi aur samasik snskriti
1. hindi sahity aur samasik snskriti daau. karn rajasheshagiri rav
2. hindi sahity men samasik snskriti ki sarjanatmak abhivyakti pro. kesarikumar
3. hindi sahity aur samasik snskriti daau. chndrakant bandivadekar
4. hindi ki samasik evn sanskritik ekata daau. jagadish gupt
5. rajabhasha: karyacharan aur samasik snskriti daau. en.es. dakshinamoorti
6. hindi ki akhil bharatiyata ka itihas pro. dineshvar prasad
7. hindi sahity men samasik snskriti daau. munshiram sharma
8. bharatiy vyaktitv ke snshlesh ki bhasha daau. raghuvnsh
9. desh ki samasik snskriti ki abhivyakti men hindi ka yogadan daau. rajakishor pandey
10. sanskritik samanvay ki prakriya aur hindi sahity shri rajeshvar gngavar
11. hindi sahity men samasik snskriti ke tattv daau. shivanndan prasad
12. hindi:samasik snskriti ki snvahika shri shivasagar mishr
13. bharat ki samasik snskririti aur hindi ka vikas daau. haradev bahari
hindi ka vikasashil svaroop
14. hindi ka vikasashil svaroop daau. anndaprakash dikshit
15. hindi ke vikas men bhojapuri ka yogadan daau. udayanarayan tivari
16. hindi ka vikasashil svaroop (shabdavali ke sndarbh men) daau. kailashachndr bhatiya
17. manak bhasha ki snkalpana aur hindi daau. krishnakumar gosvami
18. rajabhasha ke roop men hindi ka vikas, mahattv tatha prakash ki dishaen shri jayanarayan tivari
19. sanskritik bhasha ke roop men hindi ka vikas daau. trilochan pandey
20. hindi ka saralikaran achary devendranath sharma
21. prashasanik hindi ka vikas daau. narayanadatt palival
22. jan ki vikasashil bhasha hindi shri bhagavat jha azad
23. bharat ki bhashik ekata: parnpara aur hindi pro. manik govind chaturvedi
24. hindi bhasha aur rashtriy ekikaran pro. ravindranath shrivastav
25. hindi ki snvaidhanik sthiti aur usaka vikasashil svaroop pro. vijayendr snatak
devanagari lipi ki bhoomika
26. rashtriy aur antarrashtriy sndarbh men devanagari shri jivan nayak
27. devanagari pro. devishnkar dvivedi
28. hindi men lekhan snbndhi ekaroopata ki samasya pro. p. ba. jain
29. devanagari lipi ki bhoomika daau. babooram saksena
30. devanagari lipi (kashmiri bhasha ke sndarbh men) daau. mohanalal sar
31. rashtriy aur antarrashtriy sndarbh men devanagari lipi pn. rameshvaradayal dube
videshon men hindi
32. vishv ki hindi patr-patrikaen daau. kamata kamalesh
33. videshon men hindi:prachar-prasar aur sthiti ke kuchh pahaloo pro. premasvaroop gupt
34. hindi ka ek apanaya-sa kshetr: snyukt rajy daau. ar. es. megregar
35. hindi bhasha ki bhoomika : vishv ke sndarbh men shri rajendr avasthi
36. marishas ka hindi sahity daau. lata
37. hindi ki bhavi antarrashtriy bhoomika daau. brajeshvar varma
38. antarrashtriy sndarbh men hindi pro. siddheshvar prasad
39. nepal men hindi aur hindi sahity shri sooryanath gop
vividha
40. tulanatmak bharatiy sahity evn paddhati vigyan ka prashn daau. indranath chaudhuri
41. bharat ki bhasha samasya aur hindi daau. kumar vimal
42. bharat ki rajabhasha niti shri krishnakumar shrivastav
43. videsh doorasnchar seva shri ke.si. katiyar
44. kashmir men hindi : sthiti aur snbhavanaen pro. chamanalal saproo
45. bharat ki rajabhasha niti aur usaka karyanvayan shri devendracharan mishr
46. bhashayi samasya : ek rashtriy samadhan shri narmadeshvar chaturvedi
47. snskrit-hindi kavyashastr men upama ki sarvalnkarabijata ka vichar daau. mahendr madhukar
48. dvitiy vishv hindi sammelan : nirnay aur kriyanvayan shri rajamani tivari
49. vishv ki pramukh bhashaon men hindi ka sthan daau. ramajilal jangid
50. bharatiy adivasiyon ki matribhasha tatha hindi se inaka samipy daau. lakshmanaprasad sinha
51. main lekhak nahin hoon shri vimal mitr
52. lokgyta sarvgyta (lokavartta vigyan ke sndarbh men) daau. haradvarilal sharma
53. desh ki ekata ka mool: hamari rashtrabhasha shri kshemachnd ‘suman’
videshi sndarbh
54. marishas: sagar ke par laghu bharat shri es. bhuvaneshvar
55. amarika men hindi -daau. kerin shomar
56. lipazing vishvavidyalay men hindi daau. (shrimati) marget gatslaf
57. jarmani snghiy ganarajy men hindi daau. lothar lutse
58. soorinam desh aur hindi shri sooryaprasad bire
59. hindi ka antarrashtriy pariprekshy shri bachchooprasad sinh
svaichchhik snstha sndarbh
60. hindi ki svaichchhik snsthaen shri shnkararav londhe
61. rashtriy prachar samiti, vardha shri shnkararav londhe
sammelan sndarbh
62. pratham aur dvitiy vishv hindi sammelan: uddeshy evn upalabdhiyan shri madhukararav chaudhari
smriti-shraddhanjali
63. svargiy bharatiy sahityakaron ko smriti-shraddhanjali daau. prabhakar machave

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah