भारत की सामासिक संस्कृृति और हिन्दी का विकास -डॉ. हरदेव बाहरी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Icon-edit.gif yah lekh svatntr lekhan shreni ka lekh hai. is lekh men prayukt samagri, jaise ki tathy, ankade, vichar, chitr adi ka, snpoorn uttaradayitv is lekh ke lekhak/lekhakon ka hai bharatakosh ka nahin.
lekhak- daau. haradev bahari

          bharatiy snvidhan ki dhara 351 ka ek adesh hai jisaka abhi tak palan nahin hua, isalie avashyak jan padata hai ki isaki or dhyan dilaya jae. adesh yah hai -
‘hindi bhasha ki prasar-vriddhi karana, usaka vikas karana taki vah bharat ki samasik snskriti ke sab tatvon ki abhivyakti ka madhyam ban sake, tatha usaki mool prakriti ko akshunn rakhate hue hindustani aur ashtam anusoochi men ullikhit any bharatiy bhashaon ke roopon, shaili aur padavali ko atmasat karake tatha jahan avashyak ya vanchhaniy ho vahan usake shabdabhndar ke lie mukhyatah snskrit se aur gaunatah in ullikhit bhashaon se shabd grahan karake usaki samriddhi sunishchit karana sngh ka kartavy hoga.’
          is ek lnbe chaude़ vaky men kee mudde uthaye ge hain:-

  • hindi ka prachar prasar karana sngh ka kartavy hoga.
  • hindi ka vikas karana sngh ka kartavy hoga. kya hindi avikasit hai?
  • hindi ke vikas karane ka vishesh sndarbh yah hai ki vah bharat ki samasik snskriti ke sab angon ka vahan ho sakee.
  • bharat ki samasik snskriti usaki nana bhashaon me nihit hai, jinaki ganana snvidhan ki ashtam anusoochi men kar di gee hai, arthat (varnakram se) asamiya, udiya, urdoo, kannad, kashmiri, gujarati, tamil, telugoo, pnjabi, bangla, marathi, malayalam, snskrit, sindhi aur hindi.
  • in bhashaon ke avashyak roopon, shaili aur padavali ko hindi atmasat kar legi.
  • snskrit se mukhy roop se aur ukt bhashaon se gaun roop se avashyak aur vanchhit shabdavali lekar hindi ko samriddh karana hai.
  • hindi ke shabd bhndar aur usaki abhivyaktiyon ko samriddh karane men is bat ka dhyan rakhana hai ki usaki mool prakriti akshunn bani rahe.
  • hindustani se bhi shabd aur prayog grahan karane hain. yah samajhana kathin hai ki ‘hindustani’ ka nam kyon liya gaya, kyonki usamen hindi urdoo se bhinn apana kuchh hai hi nahin, to usase lena kya.

          hindi ki mool prakriti kya he ? kisi bhasha ki mool prakriti usake kin tatvon men nihit hai ? isaka thik-thik uttar nahin milata. kya koee bhasha akshunn bani rah sakati hai ? bhasha to svatah vikasashil aur parivartanashil hoti hai. vah desh kal ki paristhiyon ke anusar dhalati rahati hai. samaj aur snskriti men jitana vikas ya raddobadal hota hai, utana bhasha men bhi avashy hota hai. pratyek samaj par kee dishaon se kee tarah ke dharmik, rajanitik prashasanik, arthik sahityik adi prabhav padate rahate hain. jinake phalasvaroop bhasha men parivartan anivaryatah ho jata hai. atah koee bhasha akshunn nahin rah sakati. grik, laitin, snskrit, pali, prakrit ya apabhrnsh ki mool prakriti ko surakshit nahin kiya ja saka. snskrit ke tin vachan, tin ling, ath vibhakti roop, kriya ke atmanepad, das lakar, das gan kahan gaye ? prakrit men svaraguchchhon ki jo bharamar thi, vah nahin rahi. prakrit ne sabhi napunsak ling sngyapadon ko pulling man liya tha; kya hindi men bhi yah sthiti shesh hai ? snskrit, pali aur prakrit ke kriya roopon men lingabhed nahin tha, parntu hindi men kridntiy roopon ka bahuly ho jane se ling bhed avashk ho gaya. aisa lagata hai ki bhasha ke lie kuchh bhi aparihary nahin hai, kuchh bhi purana chhoda ja sakata hai ya chhoot jata hai aur kuchh bhi naya grahan kiya ja sakata hai. bharatendu yug ki hindi kya akshunn banin rahi ? mukhy bat yah hai ki hindi ki paribhasha dena hi kathin hiai. ek yug men braj bhasha hindi thi, aj khadi boli hindi hai aur vah bhi khadi boli pradesh ki boli se bhinn ho gee hai. hamare dekhate dekhate hindi badal rahi hai. hindi ki prakriti ki talash usake dhvani gathan ya uchcharan me ki ja sakati hai ya pad rachana (vyakaran) men ya vakyagathan men. ri, sh, gy, ka uchcharan bilkul badal gaya hai. n, n ka koee prayog nahin rah gaya hai. poorvi hindi aur brajabhasha men n nahin raha. ai, au ka naya uchcharan jud़ gaya hai. sh ki dhvati hindi tak ate ate samapt ho gee thi, ab snskrit arabi pharasi tatha angreji ke prabhav se phir a gayi hai. yahan tak ki ab as, saran, sikh ya sog jaise saikadon shabd mano hindi ke nahin rah gaye, inaka sthan punah asha, sharan, shiksha aur shok ne le liya hai. hamane q ko k men, g ko g men, kh ko kh men tatha z ko j men tatha f ko ph men dhal lene ka bharasak prayatn kiya, lekin akashavani ki avazon se lagata hai ki sabhy samaj men in sab ne ghar kar liya hai. vartani ki bat yah hai ki abhi kuchh varsh pahale tak ‘rakkha’, ‘likkhoo’, ‘usne’, ‘usko’ adi roop chalate rahe hain. vyakaran bhi bahut kuchh badala hai. pachas sal pahale tak ‘karane pai’, ‘ghar ki naee’, ‘avainge’ adi prayog milate the. aj ‘mere ko’, ‘mere se’, ‘tere men’, mainen jana hai ko hindi ki prakriti ke viruddh mana jata hai, lekin ye roop chha rahe hain, aur vah din door nahin jab yahi shuddh prayog mane jaenge. pahale sundar purush ka striling ‘sundari stri’ aur patit purush ka patita nari sahi hindi mana jata tha, ab sundar stri aur patit nari sushthu prayog hai. shrimati indira gandhi pradhanamntri hain, shrimati mnjula vishvavidyalay ki kulapati hain, shrimati saroj hindi adhikari hain, ku. sarala vyakhyata hain, ku. kanta pulis adhikshak niyukt hueen hai, mahadevi varma kavi hain, malati devi vibhagadhyaksh hain, kamala adhivakta hain adi prayog kuchh logon ko khatakate hoenge, parntu ab yahi hindi hai. kal adhyapika, acharya, lekhika, vasini adi roop nahin rah paenge. jaise jaise hindi prasoot hogi, isaki pravritti men vividhita aegi aur kee pradeshik visheshataen samavisht hongi.
          bhasha vaigyanikon ka kahana hai ki koee bhi bhasha avikasit nahin hoti. pratyek bhasha apane parivesh, apane samaj ki snskriti aur us samaj ke logon ke bhavon aur vicharon ko abhivyakt karane men poornatayah samarth hoti hai. kisi tapoo jngal ya pahad par basane vale lagon ki bhasha bhi, bhale hi hamen pichhadi huee lagati ho, un logon ke vyavahar ke lie paryapt hoti hai. jab vahan log any snskritiyon ke sampark men ate hain, tab unaki bhasha men ne tatv ane lagate hain. jivit bhasha kisi bhi jiv ki tarah nirntar vikasit hoti rahati hai, usaka shabd bhndar, roop vidhan aur abhivyakti ka prakar age badhata rahata hai vah anavashyak tatvon ko chhodati jati hai aur avashyak ya vanchhaniy tatv grahan karati jati hai. parntu yah bahut kuchh nirbhar karata hai usaki sanskritik pragati par, usaki bhautik aur adhyatmik avashyakataon par. hindi ki sthiti yah rahi hai ki pachas-sath varsh poorv tak isamen dharmik aur lalit sahity to likha jata raha, parntu upayogi aur gyan vigyan snbndhi sahity ka abhav sa tha. hindi ko madhyam ke roop men kahin kisi vishvavidyalay men manyata prapt nahin thi. prashasan men isaka koee vishesh sthan nahin tha. navajagaran ke sath aur desh ke svatntr ho jane par hindi ka uttaradayitv badha aur naye naye vishayon par sahity likhane ki avashyakata mahasoos huee. yah uttaradayitv a padane par aur avashkata ki poorti ke lie hindi ka shabdabhndar samriddh hone laga aur ab hota chala ja raha hai. hindi rajabhasha bani. sngh aur rajyon ke prashasan ke lie sainkadon hajaron shabd aur prayog a gaye. hindi pradesh ke vidyalayon aur vishvavidyalayon men manaviki, vigyan, vidhi, vanijy ke vishayon ki shiksha ke lie paribhashik shabdavali ka vikas hua. pichhale 30 varshon men hindi ne anumanatah dedh lakh shabd apane bhndar men bhare hain. snsar ki kisi bhi bhasha ke itihas men itane thode samay men itana bhari aur bahumukhi vikas nahin hua. bharat sarakar ke shiksha mntralay ne, vidhayi ayog aur akashavani ne bade़ bade shabd sngrah prakashit kiye, jinake adhar par sainkadon grnth likhe ge hain. hindi pradesh ki sarakaron ne apane apane star par atynt shram kiya hai. nagari pracharini sabha, rashtrabhasha prachar sabha, hindi sahity sammelan, kendriy sachivalay hindi parishad, katipay vishvavidyalayon aur snsthanon aur kuchh ne (in pnktiyon ke lekhak samet) apana apana anshadan diya hai. rediyo aur samachar patron ne is shabdavali ke bahut bade ansh ko janasadharan tak pahunchane men bahut yogadan diya hai.
          yah nee shabdavali prayah snskrit aur angrezi se ayi hai. snskrit men upasarg aur pratyay ki itani prachurata aur arthavatta hai ki ek dhatu se pachason shabd banaye ja sakate hain. hindi ne snskrit ki is samarthy ka labh uthaya hai. doosare sthan par angreji ke shabd hain, visheshatah vigyan ke kshetr men, jinaka vyavahar antarrashtriy star par hota hai. adhunik vigyan ka vikas pashchim men hua hai, isalie laitin, grik aur jarman ke adhar bani shabdavali ka vyapak ho jana svabhavik hai. ise apanane men koee hani nahin hai. bharat ke lie angreji aitihasik majaboooori bhi hai pashchim ki bhashaon men hamane isi ko jana hai aur pashchim ka gyan hamen isi ke madhyam se prapt hua hai. kuchh logon ka kahana hai ki ham snskrit aur angreji par avashyakata se adhik ashrit rahe hain. urdoo ke sainkadon shabd jo arabi, pharasi srot ke hain, pahale se hi paryapt hain aur hindi men poori tarah ras bas gaye hain. snskrit ke badhate prabhav ke karan unaka anupat kam ho gaya hai. bharat ki any bhashaon se bahut thode shabd apanae gaye hain, itane thode़ ki unheen ungaliyon par gina ja sakata hai.
          bharat anek snskritiyon ka sngam hai. yahan ke adivasi kol, snthal, nishad adi the. ary ae, yoonani, eerani kushan, yoochi, jat, arab, turk, yooropiy adi ae aur apani apani snskriti lae. ye sab snskritiyan ghul milakar ek mishrit ya samasik snskriti ban gee hain, jisaka nam bharatiy snskriti hai. bharatiy snskriti ek hai, jisake anek ang ya tatv hain. isake vikas men hindoo muslim aur eesaee ka hi nahin, yug-yug men uthane vale snpradayon, visheshatah bauddh, jain aur sikh, shaiv aur vaishnav snpradayon ne aur shahari, gramin vyapari, vakil daaktar, shikshak kisan, mazadoor shilpi aur any vargon ne bhi apana apana anshadan diya hai. bharatiy snskriti ke itane sare ang idhar udhar bikhare pade hain. pratyek bhasha aur boli men apane kshetr ki snskriti ya kuchh ek vargon ki snskriti pratibinbit hai, parntu koee ek bhasha nahin hai, jisane sabhi angon ya tatvon ko ek jagah snjo rakha ho, yah kary hindi ko karana hai, snvidhan ne yah uttaradayitv hindi ko saunpa hai, jise sachche arthon men rashtrabhasha banana hai aur snvidhan ne snghiy sarakar ka yah kartavy thaharaya hai ki vah un sanskritik tatvon ki khoj karake hindi ke bhndar ko bhare. 33 varsh ho gaye is or dhyan nahin diya gaya. yahan kuchh snket, thode se udaharan dekar prastut karane ka abhipray yah hai ki bharat ki vartaman bhashaon men jo shabd snpatti padi hai usaka sarvekshan ho jana chahie. bharat ki shabd sampatti karodon tak hai. usamen hindi vah vab kuchh grahan kare, jo usake lie avashyak aur vanchhaniy hai.
          hamane muslim snskriti se snbndhit sainkadon shabd apane koshon men bhar rakhe hain. hamari adalati shabdavali ab bhi urdoo pradhan hai. ‘hindi shabdasagar’ (11 bhag) hindi ka sabase bada kosh mana jata hai, lekin mujhe usamen ‘ammi’ (man), baji (bahan), talavat (quran ka path), valima (bhoj) adi bison shabd nahin milate. urdoo men ek sachitr paribhashik kosh hai ‘istalahat-e-peshavara’. isamen udyog dhndhon se snbndhit lagabhag das hajar shabd hain, jinhen hindi pradesh se snkalit kiya gaya. inamen pachas pratishat shabd hamare ‘sagar’ men nahin hai. urdoo ka bahut sara sahity devanagari lipi men prakashit hai. ham log mushayaron men bada annd lete hain. parntu abhi tak urdoo ki si aupacharikata, snkshiptata, sookshm abhivynjana ya chasani hindi men nahin a payi.
          is nibndh ke lekhak ne bhojapuri, avadhi aur chhattisagadhi ki gramin shabdavali ka sngrah kiya hai. hariyanavi, brajabhasha aur kauravi ke paribhashik shabd hi anveshanakartaon ne sngrahit kar lie hai. rajasthani ka kosh prakashit hai. in sngrahon men saikadon hajaron shabd hindi ke abhav ki poorti kar sakate hain, lekin ham hain ki krishi jaise vishayon ki shabdavali ka anuvad angreji se kar rahe hain jabaki hamara desh krishi pradhan hai. hindi ko sampann karane ke lie pahale to apani upabhashaon aur boliyon ki shabd snpada ka lekha jokha taiyar karana hoga.
hindi pradesh ke bahar pratyek pradesh se bahumooly samagri prapt ho sakati hai. pnjab ke in giton ke nam tak hindi shabdakoshon men prapt nahin hote: gidd, tappe, dohe, mahiya, dhola, badhave, ghodiyan, suhag, kaman, chhnd, chhalla, sithaniyan, vain, siharaphi. dhadh, rabab, sarngi, aur alagoja़ pnjab ke vishisht vadyayntr hain. luddi, summi, ballo, dndakade aur bhangada vahan ke prasiddh nrityabhed hain. bhangada hindi pradesh men ab jana jata hai. pnjab ke kuchh gahanon ke nam sunie-bali, chaink, bnd, gajara, baladevata, hasali chhalla, phull morani, davani, nauli. pnjab men nahari bastiyon hain jinaki paribhashik shabdavali sngrahani hai. pnjabi sahity men vir ras aur shrringar ras ki jis dhng se huee hai, vah bhi anveshan aur sngrahan ka vishay hai. udisa men jo khane prachalit hain- pakhal, mahur, vesar, pitha, bhaja, mandua, jirada, ye kya hain ? ham vahan ke hirakathi, kusumajhara, jhalaka, badali, taji, kanichav, pahud, chanasari adi gahanon ke namon se parichit nahin hain. vahan ke bntu, gotipua, pallavi, tarium adi nrity hain. in nrityon se snbndhit uthi, bithi, thiya, chali, buda bhasan, bhadari, pali, chuk, chira kothi, churas adi paribhashik shabd hain. udisa men prapt moortiyon se snbndhit bison shabd hain ham nahin janate ki pnchamatrika aur saptamatrika kaun-kaun hain. hamen mndiron ke sthapaty men rekhadeul aur pidhareul ka parichay nahin hai. kya ap ne udisa ke in devi devataon ke nam sune hain ? - chhayadevi, bhoodevi, svarnajalehavar, patalehavar. kya ap jagamohan mndiron ki shaili ko samajhate hain ?
          gujarati se hame jain (shraman) snskriti aur samudri jivan tatha kapada udyog se snbaddh bharapoor shabd aur prayog mil sakate hain. samudri jivan se snbaddh shabdavali bngal, tamilanadu aur keral se bhi prapt ho sakati hai. tamilanadu aur keral ka nariyal udyog prasiddh hai. malayalam bahut madhur bhasha hai. usaka madhury snjone ki apeksha hai. kannad men muhavaron aur lokoktiyon ke bade bade sngrah prapt hain. dakshin ke mndiron aur tirth sthanon se dharmik kathaon aur pooja vidhiyon ka adhyayan karane ki avashyakata hai. kashmiri aur uttari pahadi pradeshon men bahut purane arthath vaidik shabd surakshit hain. shaiv, nath aur bauddh snpradayon ki vishisht shabdavali ko vahan se ekatr kar lena chahie. barph, phal-phool, vanaspati adi se snbndhit shabdavali ka sngrah kiya ja sakata hai. bngala se hindi ne bahut kuchh grahan kiya hai. hindi ka adhunik gady aur pady sahity visheshatah bngala se prabhavit raha hai. hamane bangla ke bison grnth anoodit kar dale hain. unamen us bhasha ke vishisht shabd aur prayog uddhrit hain. parntu ham abhi tak unhe atmasat nahin kar sake. bngala men lalit kalaon ke vishay men bhashagat shailiyan sngrahaniy hain.
          hindi ke sarvagrahi vikas ke lie bharat bhar ki vishisht bhasha samagri ka snkalan karana sngh ka kartavy hai. vishisht ka arth hai aisi sanskritik aur vyavaharik samagri, jisaka abhav hai aur jo isamen khap sake. kendriy aur pradeshik mntralay abhi tak angrezi se hindi men anuvad karate rahe hain aur snskrit ki urvara shakti ke bal par shabd gadhate jodate rahe hain. avashyakata hai apane desh ki niji snpatti se labh uthane ki. sngoshthiyon aur karyashalaon men niyam tay karake karyakartaon ko prashikshit kiya jae. bharat sarakar ka hindi nideshalay do pnchavarshiy yojanaon men karyakram nishchit karake is abhiyan ko sampann kare. isake lie rajy sarakaron ka sahayog apekshit hoga. kshetriy paddhati men prashikshit hindi aur satath pradesh ki boli/bhasha ke dvibhashi karyakarta isame isamen bahut sahayak ho sakenge. bad men ye shabdavaliyan ek kosh ke roop men aur vishayavar alag alag shabdasngrahon ke roop men prakashit karaee jaen. yah kahane ki avashyakata nahin hai ki shabdoen ke sath prayogon, shailiyon aur abhivyaktiyon , muhavaron aur kahavaton ka sngrah kar lena hoga
          ab is samagri ko hindi men pachane ki, atmasat karane ki sthiti aegi. andhadhundh grahan karane ya keval kosh men shabdadi bhar lene se kya labh ? hindi men pratyek pradesh, pratyek sanskritik vishay ke bare men grnth likhane likhavane honge. angrezi ka udaharan hamare samane hai. mujhe bharatiy sikke ikattha karane ka shauk hai, angreji men sachitr pustaken milengi jinamen yug yug ke sikkon ki janakari prapt hogi. apako bharat ke mndiron ki janakari chahie, angreji men bharapoor sahity milega. kisi ko bharat ke melon tyoharon ya lok ritiyon ke bare men pustak chahie, ek nahin anek mil jaengi. bharat hi kyon sabhi deshon ki snskriti, lokachar, sahity, dharm, shiksha, vyapar adi se snbnddh sahity angreji men upalabdh hain. tabhi to vah vishv yaha antarrashtriy bhasha kahalati hai. hindi ko kam se kam samooche desh ki bhasha banana hai, to usame desh ka gyan vigyan bhar lena hoga, use sare desh ki baten kahani hongi, keval hindi pradesh ki nahin. yah bhi yad rahe ki keval kavy, upanyas, kahani, natak adi se koee bhasha apane pradesh ke bahar adar nahin pa sakati. skool aur kaalejon ki pathyapustakon ke dher lag jane se bhi koee bhasha apane kshetr ke bahar samadoot nahin ho sakati. sarvadeshik bhasha banane ke lie hindi men akhil bharat mukharit hona chahie aur vishv bhasha banane ke lie usamen sara vishv pratibinbit hona chahie.
          oopar kaha gaya hai ki jab hindi par vishvavidyalayon men shiksha ka madhyam hone ka dayitv aya, to pratyek vishay par hamane shabdavali ka vikas kiya aur pathyapusken likhin. ab yah is akhil bharatiy uttaradayitv ka anubhav karegi, to nishchay hi isamen yah samarthy aegi. hindi men bharapoor sahishnuta, udarata grahanashita aur pachanashakti hai. inhin gunon se yah apane kshetr se bahar door door tak phailati rahi hai . hindi ka kshitij bada hai, isilie usaki drishti bhi vishal hai aur isi lie jo avashyak aur vanchhaniy hai, use atmasat karane ki isame adbhut antarik shakti hai. hai to yah khadi boli pradesh ki boli, parntu isake vikas men sabhi boliyon, sabhi bharatiy bhashaon ka avashyakata anusar yogadan raha hai. ab yah matr khadi boli kshetr ki bhasha nahin rah gee hai.
          shiksha, sahity, prashasan aur gyan vigyan ke kshetr me hindi ne pichhale tis varshaen men sntoshajanak pragati ki hai. ab sanskritik dharatal par uthakar aur sarvadeshik roop men use apana vikas karana hai isase hindi ka hi nahin, sare desh ka hit hoga. bhasha ke vikas ko jo rajariti ke adhar par socha samajha jata raha hai usase desh men vighatanakari pravrittiyan panapin hain. rajaniti todati hai, to snskriti jodati hai. snskriti hamen ek doosare ke nikat lati hai rajaniti prithakh karati hai. hindi ka sarvadeshik roop hone par aur usamen bharatiy snskriti ke sabhi angon ka samavesh ho jane par aur usamen bharatiy snskriti ke sabhi angon ka samavesh ho jane par usake shabd lality aur artharsashthav men vriddhi hogi, use ne ne alnkar milenge, jinase vibhooshit hokar vah adhik sundar hogi. parntu sabase badi bat yah hogi ki bhashaon ke bich khaee pat jaegi. vah sare desh ka pratinidhitv karegi aur usake prati bndhuutv ki bhavana jagrit hogi kyonki tab sabhi pradeshon ke logon ko vah apani pratit hogi. jab desh ke vibhinn bhagon ke bhashabhashi usamen apani bhasha ke ansh paenge tab unamen hindi ke prati atmiyata badhe़gi.

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

tritiy vishv hindi sammelan 1983
kramank lekh ka nam lekhak
hindi aur samasik snskriti
1. hindi sahity aur samasik snskriti daau. karn rajasheshagiri rav
2. hindi sahity men samasik snskriti ki sarjanatmak abhivyakti pro. kesarikumar
3. hindi sahity aur samasik snskriti daau. chndrakant bandivadekar
4. hindi ki samasik evn sanskritik ekata daau. jagadish gupt
5. rajabhasha: karyacharan aur samasik snskriti daau. en.es. dakshinamoorti
6. hindi ki akhil bharatiyata ka itihas pro. dineshvar prasad
7. hindi sahity men samasik snskriti daau. munshiram sharma
8. bharatiy vyaktitv ke snshlesh ki bhasha daau. raghuvnsh
9. desh ki samasik snskriti ki abhivyakti men hindi ka yogadan daau. rajakishor pandey
10. sanskritik samanvay ki prakriya aur hindi sahity shri rajeshvar gngavar
11. hindi sahity men samasik snskriti ke tattv daau. shivanndan prasad
12. hindi:samasik snskriti ki snvahika shri shivasagar mishr
13. bharat ki samasik snskririti aur hindi ka vikas daau. haradev bahari
hindi ka vikasashil svaroop
14. hindi ka vikasashil svaroop daau. anndaprakash dikshit
15. hindi ke vikas men bhojapuri ka yogadan daau. udayanarayan tivari
16. hindi ka vikasashil svaroop (shabdavali ke sndarbh men) daau. kailashachndr bhatiya
17. manak bhasha ki snkalpana aur hindi daau. krishnakumar gosvami
18. rajabhasha ke roop men hindi ka vikas, mahattv tatha prakash ki dishaen shri jayanarayan tivari
19. sanskritik bhasha ke roop men hindi ka vikas daau. trilochan pandey
20. hindi ka saralikaran achary devendranath sharma
21. prashasanik hindi ka vikas daau. narayanadatt palival
22. jan ki vikasashil bhasha hindi shri bhagavat jha azad
23. bharat ki bhashik ekata: parnpara aur hindi pro. manik govind chaturvedi
24. hindi bhasha aur rashtriy ekikaran pro. ravindranath shrivastav
25. hindi ki snvaidhanik sthiti aur usaka vikasashil svaroop pro. vijayendr snatak
devanagari lipi ki bhoomika
26. rashtriy aur antarrashtriy sndarbh men devanagari shri jivan nayak
27. devanagari pro. devishnkar dvivedi
28. hindi men lekhan snbndhi ekaroopata ki samasya pro. p. ba. jain
29. devanagari lipi ki bhoomika daau. babooram saksena
30. devanagari lipi (kashmiri bhasha ke sndarbh men) daau. mohanalal sar
31. rashtriy aur antarrashtriy sndarbh men devanagari lipi pn. rameshvaradayal dube
videshon men hindi
32. vishv ki hindi patr-patrikaen daau. kamata kamalesh
33. videshon men hindi:prachar-prasar aur sthiti ke kuchh pahaloo pro. premasvaroop gupt
34. hindi ka ek apanaya-sa kshetr: snyukt rajy daau. ar. es. megregar
35. hindi bhasha ki bhoomika : vishv ke sndarbh men shri rajendr avasthi
36. marishas ka hindi sahity daau. lata
37. hindi ki bhavi antarrashtriy bhoomika daau. brajeshvar varma
38. antarrashtriy sndarbh men hindi pro. siddheshvar prasad
39. nepal men hindi aur hindi sahity shri sooryanath gop
vividha
40. tulanatmak bharatiy sahity evn paddhati vigyan ka prashn daau. indranath chaudhuri
41. bharat ki bhasha samasya aur hindi daau. kumar vimal
42. bharat ki rajabhasha niti shri krishnakumar shrivastav
43. videsh doorasnchar seva shri ke.si. katiyar
44. kashmir men hindi : sthiti aur snbhavanaen pro. chamanalal saproo
45. bharat ki rajabhasha niti aur usaka karyanvayan shri devendracharan mishr
46. bhashayi samasya : ek rashtriy samadhan shri narmadeshvar chaturvedi
47. snskrit-hindi kavyashastr men upama ki sarvalnkarabijata ka vichar daau. mahendr madhukar
48. dvitiy vishv hindi sammelan : nirnay aur kriyanvayan shri rajamani tivari
49. vishv ki pramukh bhashaon men hindi ka sthan daau. ramajilal jangid
50. bharatiy adivasiyon ki matribhasha tatha hindi se inaka samipy daau. lakshmanaprasad sinha
51. main lekhak nahin hoon shri vimal mitr
52. lokgyta sarvgyta (lokavartta vigyan ke sndarbh men) daau. haradvarilal sharma
53. desh ki ekata ka mool: hamari rashtrabhasha shri kshemachnd ‘suman’
videshi sndarbh
54. marishas: sagar ke par laghu bharat shri es. bhuvaneshvar
55. amarika men hindi -daau. kerin shomar
56. lipazing vishvavidyalay men hindi daau. (shrimati) marget gatslaf
57. jarmani snghiy ganarajy men hindi daau. lothar lutse
58. soorinam desh aur hindi shri sooryaprasad bire
59. hindi ka antarrashtriy pariprekshy shri bachchooprasad sinh
svaichchhik snstha sndarbh
60. hindi ki svaichchhik snsthaen shri shnkararav londhe
61. rashtriy prachar samiti, vardha shri shnkararav londhe
sammelan sndarbh
62. pratham aur dvitiy vishv hindi sammelan: uddeshy evn upalabdhiyan shri madhukararav chaudhari
smriti-shraddhanjali
63. svargiy bharatiy sahityakaron ko smriti-shraddhanjali daau. prabhakar machave

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