संस्कृत-हिन्दी काव्यशास्त्र में उपमा की सर्वालंकारबीजता का विचार -डॉ. महेन्द्र मधुकर  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Icon-edit.gif yah lekh svatntr lekhan shreni ka lekh hai. is lekh men prayukt samagri, jaise ki tathy, ankade, vichar, chitr adi ka, snpoorn uttaradayitv is lekh ke lekhak/lekhakon ka hai bharatakosh ka nahin.
lekhak- daau. mahendr madhukar

bharatiy kavyashastr men alnkar ke prati mukhy roop se do prakar ke drishtikon upalabdh hote hain. pratham ke anusar alnkar ko vyapak aur dvitiy ke anusar snkirn upamadi alnkaron ke roop men grahan kiya gaya hai. apane vyapak arth men alnkar kavyagat saundary ke paryay ke roop men svikrit hua hai. yah saundary keval alnkar ke grahan se nahin apitu dosh-tyag aur gunotpadan se snbhav hota hai, yah vaman ka mat hai.[1] bhamah, dndi, vaman adi ne sabhi prakar ke kavy saundary ko alnkar roop men dekha hain.[2] prarnbhik kavyashastriy chintan men alnkar ramaniyata aur kavyatmak chamatkar ke roop men dekhe ge. isi drishti in acharyon ne samast ras-prapnch ko rasavadadi alnkar-chakr men antarbhoot kar liya. bhamah ke mat se kavy ka prastut paksh amaraniy ya chamatkar rahit hone par kavy n hokar varta matr rah jata hai.[3] bhamah ne alnkar ko kavy shobha ka adhayak tattv svikar kiya tha.[4]

yah smaraniy tathy hai ki bhamah ke samay men ya unake bad bhi alnkar ke shabd ka prayog keval upama, roopak adi ke snkuchit arth men n hokar kavy saundary ke nishpadak sabhi tatvon ke lie hota tha. dndi ne bhi apane kathy dvara alnkar ko ek vyapak parivesh pradan kiya. unhonne gun aur alnkar men bhed nahin manate hue mukh adi panch sndhiyon, upakshep adi chaunsath sndhyngon, kaishiki adi char vrittiyon, narm adi solah vrityngon aur bhooshan adi chhattis lakshanon ko bhi alnkar men gin liya.[5] vastut: bharatiy kavyashastr men dndi ki manisha prayogatmak aur vishad roop men prakat huee hai.

apane snkirn arth men alnkar upamadi alnkaron ka vachak hai, jo vaman ki drishti men kavyagat shabha men atishay lane vala dharm hai.[6] alnkar ka yah snkirn roop kramash: mahattv prapt karata gaya aur usake vyapak roop ki manyata ghatati gee. yadyapi bad ke kuchh acharyon bhoj, jayadev adi ne pun: usake vyapak roop ko svikar kiya.[7]
kavyatm-tattv ke anveshan-kram men upamadi alnkaron ko ek navin adhar par pratishthit karane ka prayatn karata hai. prarnbhik sthiti men kavy ki abhivyakti par hi adhik bal diya gaya tha, bad men abhivyakti prasadhanon par bhi dhyan diya gaya. at: riti, vakrokti, dhvani, rasadi ko jab kavy ki atma ke roop men pratishthit kiya gaya to alnkar kavy ke pranabhoot saundary se snbaddh n hokar usake sharir se snbaddh ho ge. rudrat aur anndavarddhan ne abhidhan prakar vishesh ko alnkar[8] mana tatha mammat aur vishvanath ne unhen 'haradivath' ya 'angadadivath' kavy ke sharir shabdarth ki shobha badhane vala aur ang dvar se kabhi kabhi ras ka utkarsh karane vala asthir ya anity dharm man liya.[9]

hindi ke acharyon ne bhi alnkar ka lakshan-niroopan snskrit ke acharyon ke saman hi kiya hai. hindi men alnkaron ke pratham vivechak achary keshavadas ne bhi alnkarahin kavita ko nagn mana hai. dev ne bhi keshav ke saman 'mritak kavy binu arth ko' kaha hai. doolah ne bhi ise 'bin bhooshan nahin bhooshee kavita' aur bhikharidas ne 'bhooshan hai bhooshan sakal' kaha hai. spasht hai ki hindi ke riti kalin acharyon ke mat men alnkar shobhavarddhak chamatkarashali aur anivary tattv ke roop men prastut hote hain. nishchay hi isake pichhe, abhivyakti ko atyadhik ramaniy banane ka agrah aur kaushal nihit hai.

achary ramachndr shukl ne rudrat tatha anndavardhan ke hi mat ka ashray grahan karate hue anek chamatkarapoorn shailiyon ka nam alnkar mana hai. unaki drishti men alnkar prastut ya varny vastu nahin, balki varnan ki bhinn pranaliyan hain, kahane ke khas-khas dhng hain.[10] unhonne bhavon ka utkarsh aur vastuon ke roop, gun aur kriya ka adhik tivr anubhav karane men kabhi kabhi sahayak hone vali ukti ko alnkar mana hai. vastut: chamatkarayukt saphal abhivynjana se adhik ramaniy shabd aur arth ke samnjasy kavy nihit hai. spasht hai ki alnkar kavy ke bhav paksh aur abhivyakti paksh ko ramaniy banane ke asthit sadhan hain.

kavi apani kavyagat ukti ko prabhavatmak banane ke lie alnkaron ka prayog karata hai. vah ishtarth ke sath bahy jagat ki vastuon ke sadrishy ki sthapana karake unaka preshan karata hai. alnkar hamare bhavon ki preshaniyata ke saphal madhyam hote hain. kavi arth ko atishayokti ke roop men prakat karake pathak ke man ka vistar karata hai, vaishamy dvara ashchary ka udbhavan aur samy ki or akarshan hota hai. auchity ke dvara pathak ki vrittiyan anvit hoti hain. bat ki vakrata pathak ki jigyasa chadhati hai tatha chamatkar dvara man men kutuhal aur annd ki prapti hoti hai.

vastut: kavyanubhooti samnjasyamayi hoti hai. svabhavat: is samnjasy se ek abhinav layatmakata ki srishti hoti hai. shabdagat nadon ki layatmakata par adharit shabdalnkar apane dhvani samy ya shrutimadhur pad-yojana se hamen prabhavit hi nahin karate apitu apani jhnkriti se man ki ekagrata men bhi poori sahayata pradan karate hain. arth ki saghanata ke lie shlesh ka prayog kiya jata hai, shlesh ek prakar se hamare shlisht manobhavon ka sngrah hai. prayog-vaichitry ki nootanata yamak alnkar ke roop men abhivyakt hoti hai. saman nad yojana se bhi arthagat vaibhinn ko prakat karana ashcharyamishrit prasannata aur prasadan ke nimitt hota hai. virodh ki is vichitrata men man ki 'kautukavritti' (ple instinkt) ki jhalak dikhaee padati hai. yah aisi apoorv sthiti men bhi bhinnata ki pratiti hoti hai. is bhav-dasha men abhivyakti atishayata se yukt hoti hai.

sabhi alnkaron ke mool men kisi ek alnkar ki manyata ki vaicharik avatarana svabhavik roop se huee hai. bharatiy chintan anekata men ekata ka anveshak raha hai. snsar ki pratiyaman vividhata men atm-tattv ka sndhan isi tathy ka dyotak hai. anek prakar ki alnkarik shailiyan alag alag pravritti ya manasik sthiti ki prerana se utpann hoti hai, kintu un sabake mool men ek maulik vritti paee ja sakati hai ya nahin, yah prashn bharatiy kavyashastr ke acharyon ke vichar-mnthan ka vishay bana aur unhonne is mool tattv ka abhidhan dene ki cheshta nahin ki apitu anek alnkaron men usaki vyapti dikhane ka bhi prayas kiya. bharatiy kavyashastr men is mool tattv ko lekar mat-vaibhinn paya jata hai. kisi ne vakrata ko, kisi ne atishayata ko to kisi ne samy ko sabhi alnkaron ke mool men dekha. jinhonne samy athava aupamy ko sabhi alnkaron ke mool men lakshit kiya, unake matanusar sare alnkar 'upama-prapnch' pratit hue. is drishti se upama hi sarvalnkar bij ke roop men sabhi acharyon dvara many nahin huee, kuchh doosare paksh bhi prastut hue.

bhamah se poorv bharatiy kavyashastr ka atynt vyavasthit aur suchintit shastriy prayatn nahin prapt hota. bharat ke natyashastr men kavyashastriy soochanaen aur prarnbhik chintak ke maryadit sootr avashy prapt hain, kintu unamen vargikaran vibhajan ya anveshanatmak tatha kalpanatmak vyapak drishti ki nyoonata milati hai. bhamah ke poorvakal men alnkaron ka vargikaran ya anek alnkaron ke mool men kisi ek alnkar ki sthiti siddhi nahin dikhaee padati. isaka spasht karan hai ki us yug men alnkaron ki atyalpata. bharat ke natyashastr men keval char alnkaron- upama, roopak, dipak aur yamak ki charcha prapt hoti hai, aisi sthiti men upama ki sarvalnkarabijata ka prashn hi nahin uthata. sarvalnkarabijata ka prashn vastut: manav ki kramash: vikasanashil chetana aur manisha se snbaddh hai. alnkaron ka prakalp aur vistar usake sookshm chintan ke nishkarsh roop hain. sabhi alnkaron ke mool men kisi ek alnkar ko sthir karane ka prayatn us kendr ke anusndhan ka prayatn tha, jahan se vividh ragatmak anubhootiyan vyakt hoti hain. kavy ki atma ke anveshan men jis maulik buddhi se kam liya gaya tha, lagabhag usi maulikata ka prayog sarvalnkarabijata ke sndhan ke vishay men hua. samanyataya sarvalnkarabijata ke anusndhayak acharyon men bhamah, dndi, vaman, anndavardhan, kuntak, appayadikshit, achary keshavadas, kulapati mishr, dev, daauktar shashi bhooshan dasagupt adi achary aur vicharak pramukh hain, to alnkaron ke vargikaran aur vibhajan ki drishti se rudrat, ruyyak adi mahattvapoorn hain.

yadyapi samy, virodh tarkanyay adi ke adhar par alnkaron ke varg niroopit ho sakate hain aur us vargikaran se alnkaron ki prakriti par upayogi prakash pad sakata hai, kintu sabhi alnkaron ke mool men kisi ek alnkar ki sthiti ya kisi ek samany mool pravritti ki satta ka anusndhan hamare yahan ke kavyashastriy chintan ki sookshmata aur gaharaee ko dekhate hue uchit hi nahin, avashyak hai. alnkarik abhivyakti ke mool men manovaigyanik pravrittiyan rahati hain aur un sari pravrittiyon men kisi ek maulik vritti ki prerana aur vyapti dekhana aur dikhana alnkaron ke adhyayan ka paryapt mahattvapoorn ang hai, isalie bharatiy kavyashastr ke jin acharyon ne kisi ek alnkar ko sarvalnkar ke roop men dekha hai, unaki pratibha adhik sookshm-maulik aur saragrahini rahi hai- yah sahaj hi kaha ja sakata hai. alnkaron ka varg-vibhajan unaki maulik vritti ke anusndhan ki tulana men sthool hi kaha jaega. yah spasht hota hai ki acharyon ne mukhy roop se atishayokti, vakrokti evn upama ko pray: sabhi alnkaron ke mool men dekha hai. atishayokti ka paksh pratishthit karane vale achary devendranath sharma adi. vakrokti ke paksh men bhamah aur kuntak hain. upama ke paksh men vaman, appayadikshit, narendraprabhasoori aur daauktar shashibhooshan dasagupt hain.

yah spasht karana avashyak hai ki upama ko sarvalnkarabij kahane ka arth upama alnkar ke roop men sadharmy ka jo vachy dhancha hai, use svikar karana nahin hai, apitu isaka arth mool tattv sadharmy ki sarvalnkarabij ke roop men svikriti hai. jaise 'mukh chand sa hai' men sadhyarmy ko vachy banakar vyakt karane ka jo dhng hai, vahi utpreksha men bhi nahin hai, lekin mukh aur chand ke sadharmy ki anubhooti donon men hai. yahan par ek prashn uthata hai ki tab upama ko hi kyon, kisi bhi doosare sadrishy moolak alnkar ko sarvalnkarabij ka shrey kyon nahin diya ja sakata hai, to isaka samadhan yahi hai ki sadrishy ki abhivyakti ki sabase sidhi aur pratyaksh vidhi upama hai, isalie vah usaka ady roop hai. isi prakar atishayokti aur vakrokti ke sath bhi samajha jana chahie. yahan atishayokti aur vakrokti vishishth alnkar ke roop men grihit nahin hai. yahan atishayokti ka arth hai atishayata aur vakrokti ka vakrata. donon ko spasht karate hue achary devendranath sharma ke anusar kaha ja sakata hai ki atishayokti ka lakshy hai 'gunatishay yog' aur vakrokti ka abhivynjana.[11] spashth hai ki atishayokti aur vakrokti ke arth vishishth alnkaron ke roop men hi simit nahin hain.

atishayokti paksh 

kavy ki ukti asadharan hoti hai. is asadharanata men atishayy rahata hai. alnkarik abhivyakti ke mool men yahi asadharanata aur atishayata hoti hai. pratyek alnkar men isaki vyapti dikhaee ja sakati hai, chahe ve samy moolak alnkar hon ya virodh moolak alnkar ya any koee.

achary dndi ne moolat: isi atishayokti ko alnkaron ka mooladhar mana hai. anndavardhan ne isaki upadeyata ko svikar karate hue kaha hai ki sabhi alnkaron men atishayoktigarbhata ko svikrit kiya ja sakata hai (dhvanyalok, prishth 59). kavyaprakash ke dasham ullas men vishesh alnkar ke niroopan-prasng men mammat ne bhi atishayokti ko alnkaron ka pran svikar kiya hai. (kavyaprakash, prishth 549). yah atishayokti atishayokti namak alnkar nahin, balki alnkaratv ka bijabhoot tattv hai. atishayokti namak alnkar men atishayokti shabd yogaroodh hai aur yahan yaugik.

atishayokti ke mahattv aur usake vyapak parivesh ki charcha karate hue daauktar nagendr[12] ne nimnalikhit tathy prastut kie hain- 1- bhavodridipan se hamari vani uddipt aur alnkri4 ho jati hai. 2- oj bhavana ke uddipan ka mool karan hota hai, jo man ke sath vani ko bhi uddipt karata hai. 3- man ke oj ka sahaj madhyam aveg hai, aur 4- vani ke oj ka sahaj madhyam hai atishayokti 5- atmadarshan ki bhavana alnkaran ke prati ruchi jagati hai aur pradarshan men atishay ka tattv anivaryat: hota hai. 6- is prakar alnkrit vani (spasht shabdon men) alnkar ka roop atishayokti thaharati hai. 7- atishayokti ka arth hai – asadharan ukti.

achary devendranath sharma upama ki vyapakata ke mool men sabhi alnkaron men vyapt sadrishy bhavana ko svikar karate tatha upama ke mool men bhi atishayokti ko mahattv dete hain. ve atishayokti ke bina alnkar ki kalpana bhi nahin karate. upama ke prasng men kaha gaya hai ki sare arthalnkaron ka bij upama hi hai aur vahi bhinn bhinn roop dharan kar bhinn bhinn namon se pukari jati hai, par yadi atishayokti par dhyan den to yah siddh ho jata hai ki upama ki jad men bhi atishayokti hi kam karati hai. atishayokti ke bina alnkar snbhav hi nahin hai. upama ki vyapakata men keval itana hi tathy hai ki sabhi alnkaron men sadrishy ki bhavana vyapt rahati hai par upama ka bhi alnkaratv atishayokti ke karan hi nishpann hota hai.[13]
vakrokti paksh : vakrokti paksh asadharanata ka atishayy arthan hokar bhngima ya vichchhitti se use snbaddh manata hai. vakrokti ke kavy men chamatkar aur ramaniyata donon ki pushti hoti hai. isalie bhamah ne vakrokti ko kavyatv ke nishpadak tattv ke roop men svikar kiya hai. unake anusar vakrokti men atishayokti avashy rahati hai, par ramaniyata utpann karana atishayokti ka nahin vakrokti ka vyapar hai. ise unhonne 'anayartho vibhavyate' aur 'koalnkaronanayabina' se spasht kiya hai. achary kuntak ne bhi 'vaidagdhy-bhaniti' ko vakrokti mana hai. vakrokti ko unhonne prasiddh kathan se bhinn vilakshan prakar ki varnan shaili kaha hai. kuntak ne vakrokti ko hi sabhi alnkaron ke mool men mana hai.
 

aupamy paksh 

kavy aur kavyashastr men prayukt aur vivechit upama ki prachinata aur pradhanata nirvivad hai. upama ke vaidik prayog usake prachin, adim aur aitihasik roop ka snket dete hain. upama, roopak, dipak, yamak ye alnkar vaidik ary kavy yug ke priy alnkar rahe hain. is soochi men bhi aupamy paksh hi prabal hai.

aupamy ki isi visheshata aur prayog bahuly ki isi satarkata ko dekhakar vaman ne upama ko sabhi alnkaron ke mool men man liya (tanmooln chopameti) aur tarkapoorn drishti se siddh karane ka prayatn bhi kiya. dndi ne 'upama prapnch'[14] ke dvara sadrishyamoolak alnkaron ke mool men upamabij ka snket diya tha. yah bij hi vaman ki dharanaon men pushpit aur phalit hua hai. narendraprabhasoori ne apane 'alnkar-mahodadhi' (prishth 234) men upama ko sabhi alnkaron ka bijabhoot mana hai (athatishayokti saurabh tarngitamev sakalalnkar bijabhootamupaman lakshayati). 'sarvalnkritiupadanakaran' ka arth roopakadi alnkar se joda gaya hai- isase 'sakalalnkar bijabhoot ki shnka ka nivaran hota hua pratit hota hai aur upama roopakadi sadrishyamoolak alnkaron ka mool thaharati hai.[15]

appayadikshit ne bhi 'chitramimansa' men upama ko sabhi sadrishyamoolak alnkaron ke mool men manate hue ise 'upama shailooshi'[16] ki sngya di hai. upama-nati hi roop badal-badal kar vibhinn bhoomikaon men kavy mnch par avatirn hoti aur annd pradan karati hai. upama ki mahatta ke pratipadan men unhonne to yahan tak kah diya hai ki brahmgyan se jaise vichitr vishv ka gyan hota hai, vaise hi upama ke gyan se bhi usaka gyan hota hai (tadidn chitrn vishvn brahm gyanadivopama gyanath. gyatn bhavati...).

hindi alnkarashastr men bhi acharyon ne upama ki mahatta ko svikar kiya hai. achary keshavadas ne to upama ko 'vividh prakaravati' kahakar prakarantar se use anekalnkaravartini' mana hai. achary kulapati mishr ne apane 'ras-rahasy' men upama alnkar ko 'siramaur' kaha hai. upama alnkaron ki siramaur hai, yah kathan rajashekhar ka anuvad-sa jan padata hai. shiroratn ke sthan par unhonne 'siramaur' ka prayog kiya hai. upama se unaka abhipray upamamoolak (samyamoolak) sabhi alnkaron ke sath upama alnkar se bhi hai. dev ne bhi apane shabd rasayan (kavy rasayan) men upama chakr ka ullekh kiya hai, kintu lakshan n hone se ye upama bhed maulik vivechan n hokar pishtapeshan matr rah ge hain. dev ne upama yogy sthalon ki charcha karate hue upama ki bhav vyapti abhay dikhaee hai. ve sthal hain- vair, priti, mad, eershya, krida, vachan-vilas, stuti, ninda, karuna, daya, harsh, has, upahas, smriti, sndeh adi (shabd rasayan, prishth 96). uparyukt varnit bhav kisi n kisi roop men manovaigyanik adharon ke nirman men sahayog dete hain. dev ne upama ko prathamik mahatta di hai.

snskrit aur hindi kavyashastr men upama ki sarvalnkar bijata ki charcha ke samahar svaroop kaha ja sakata hai ki upama ki prachinata, shreshthata, sadrishyamoolak alnkaron ke kavyatmak aur shastriy prayogon ke bahuly dvara pratipadit usaki shakti ritikalin acharyon dvara samarthit upama ki shreshthata ki svikriti men sabaka mataiky ho sakata hai, par jab sabhi alnkaron ke mool men upama ke sadrishy ko dekha jata hai to sthiti sngatipoorn nahin rah jati. virodhamoolak alnkaron ke asadrishy ko bhi sadrishy aur sadharmy ka doosara pahaloo manane vale tatha upama ko vasanalok se snbaddh karane vale daau. dasagupt ke rahasyatmak kavy tattv ko tarkik drishti se svikar karan snbhav nahin ho pata. vastut: atishayata samy men bhi hai aur samy pradarshan ke mool men bhi nihit hai. kisi vastu ke roop, gun aur kriya adi ki atishayata dikhate hue prakritabhav ka uddipan karaya jata hai, kintu aisi har sthiti men sadrishy anivaryat: nahin hota. isalie sadrishy ki apeksha atishayata alnkar ka adhik vyapak gun hai. usake kshetr men sabhi alnkar samahit ho sakate hain. alnkaron ki alag alag visheshata unake alag alag abhivyakti prakar men hai, par, atishayata unaka samany mool tattv ya dharm hai. nishkarshat: kaha ja sakata hai ki upama ke sadrishy ko isaki apeksha kinchit simit vyapakata prapt hai, isalie use sadrishyamoolak alnkaron ka samany mool dharm (vaishishty) hi manana uchit hai, sarvalnkarabijata ka pad use dena snbhav nahin.



tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. sadosh gunalnkar hanadanabhyamh. - kavyalnkar sootravritti, 1/1/3
  2. (k) kavy shobhakaranh dharmanh alnkaranh prachakshate – kavyadarsh – 2/1, (kh) saundaryalnkar : 1 – kavyalnkar – sootravritti -1/2
  3. kavyalnkar, 2/86
  4. kavyalnkar, 1/14
  5. kavyadarsh, 2/367
  6. tadatishay hetavastvalnkara : 1 – kavyalnkar sootravritti – 3/1/2
  7. sarasvati knthabharan – 5/11 tatha chndralok, 1/8
  8. (k) abhidhan prakaravishesha ev chalnkara : 1 (a. s. 6), (kh) dhvanyalok – 3/37 vritti
  9. sadosh gunalnkar hanadanabhyamh. - kavyalnkar sootravritti, 1/1/3
  10. ras-mimansa – achary ramachndr shukl, prishth 27
  11. bhamah virachit kavyalnkar – pro. devendranath sharma – bhoomika, prishth 42
  12. ritikavy ki bhoomika – daauktar nagendr, prishth 86
  13. alnkar muktavali – devendranath sharma, prishth 72
  14. kavyadarsh – dndi, dvitiy parichchhed : 57-65
  15. alnkar-mahodadhi – narendraprabhasoori, prishth 234
  16. chitr mimansa, prishth 20

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

tritiy vishv hindi sammelan 1983
kramank lekh ka nam lekhak
hindi aur samasik snskriti
1. hindi sahity aur samasik snskriti daau. karn rajasheshagiri rav
2. hindi sahity men samasik snskriti ki sarjanatmak abhivyakti pro. kesarikumar
3. hindi sahity aur samasik snskriti daau. chndrakant bandivadekar
4. hindi ki samasik evn sanskritik ekata daau. jagadish gupt
5. rajabhasha: karyacharan aur samasik snskriti daau. en.es. dakshinamoorti
6. hindi ki akhil bharatiyata ka itihas pro. dineshvar prasad
7. hindi sahity men samasik snskriti daau. munshiram sharma
8. bharatiy vyaktitv ke snshlesh ki bhasha daau. raghuvnsh
9. desh ki samasik snskriti ki abhivyakti men hindi ka yogadan daau. rajakishor pandey
10. sanskritik samanvay ki prakriya aur hindi sahity shri rajeshvar gngavar
11. hindi sahity men samasik snskriti ke tattv daau. shivanndan prasad
12. hindi:samasik snskriti ki snvahika shri shivasagar mishr
13. bharat ki samasik snskririti aur hindi ka vikas daau. haradev bahari
hindi ka vikasashil svaroop
14. hindi ka vikasashil svaroop daau. anndaprakash dikshit
15. hindi ke vikas men bhojapuri ka yogadan daau. udayanarayan tivari
16. hindi ka vikasashil svaroop (shabdavali ke sndarbh men) daau. kailashachndr bhatiya
17. manak bhasha ki snkalpana aur hindi daau. krishnakumar gosvami
18. rajabhasha ke roop men hindi ka vikas, mahattv tatha prakash ki dishaen shri jayanarayan tivari
19. sanskritik bhasha ke roop men hindi ka vikas daau. trilochan pandey
20. hindi ka saralikaran achary devendranath sharma
21. prashasanik hindi ka vikas daau. narayanadatt palival
22. jan ki vikasashil bhasha hindi shri bhagavat jha azad
23. bharat ki bhashik ekata: parnpara aur hindi pro. manik govind chaturvedi
24. hindi bhasha aur rashtriy ekikaran pro. ravindranath shrivastav
25. hindi ki snvaidhanik sthiti aur usaka vikasashil svaroop pro. vijayendr snatak
devanagari lipi ki bhoomika
26. rashtriy aur antarrashtriy sndarbh men devanagari shri jivan nayak
27. devanagari pro. devishnkar dvivedi
28. hindi men lekhan snbndhi ekaroopata ki samasya pro. p. ba. jain
29. devanagari lipi ki bhoomika daau. babooram saksena
30. devanagari lipi (kashmiri bhasha ke sndarbh men) daau. mohanalal sar
31. rashtriy aur antarrashtriy sndarbh men devanagari lipi pn. rameshvaradayal dube
videshon men hindi
32. vishv ki hindi patr-patrikaen daau. kamata kamalesh
33. videshon men hindi:prachar-prasar aur sthiti ke kuchh pahaloo pro. premasvaroop gupt
34. hindi ka ek apanaya-sa kshetr: snyukt rajy daau. ar. es. megregar
35. hindi bhasha ki bhoomika : vishv ke sndarbh men shri rajendr avasthi
36. marishas ka hindi sahity daau. lata
37. hindi ki bhavi antarrashtriy bhoomika daau. brajeshvar varma
38. antarrashtriy sndarbh men hindi pro. siddheshvar prasad
39. nepal men hindi aur hindi sahity shri sooryanath gop
vividha
40. tulanatmak bharatiy sahity evn paddhati vigyan ka prashn daau. indranath chaudhuri
41. bharat ki bhasha samasya aur hindi daau. kumar vimal
42. bharat ki rajabhasha niti shri krishnakumar shrivastav
43. videsh doorasnchar seva shri ke.si. katiyar
44. kashmir men hindi : sthiti aur snbhavanaen pro. chamanalal saproo
45. bharat ki rajabhasha niti aur usaka karyanvayan shri devendracharan mishr
46. bhashayi samasya : ek rashtriy samadhan shri narmadeshvar chaturvedi
47. snskrit-hindi kavyashastr men upama ki sarvalnkarabijata ka vichar daau. mahendr madhukar
48. dvitiy vishv hindi sammelan : nirnay aur kriyanvayan shri rajamani tivari
49. vishv ki pramukh bhashaon men hindi ka sthan daau. ramajilal jangid
50. bharatiy adivasiyon ki matribhasha tatha hindi se inaka samipy daau. lakshmanaprasad sinha
51. main lekhak nahin hoon shri vimal mitr
52. lokgyta sarvgyta (lokavartta vigyan ke sndarbh men) daau. haradvarilal sharma
53. desh ki ekata ka mool: hamari rashtrabhasha shri kshemachnd ‘suman’
videshi sndarbh
54. marishas: sagar ke par laghu bharat shri es. bhuvaneshvar
55. amarika men hindi -daau. kerin shomar
56. lipazing vishvavidyalay men hindi daau. (shrimati) marget gatslaf
57. jarmani snghiy ganarajy men hindi daau. lothar lutse
58. soorinam desh aur hindi shri sooryaprasad bire
59. hindi ka antarrashtriy pariprekshy shri bachchooprasad sinh
svaichchhik snstha sndarbh
60. hindi ki svaichchhik snsthaen shri shnkararav londhe
61. rashtriy prachar samiti, vardha shri shnkararav londhe
sammelan sndarbh
62. pratham aur dvitiy vishv hindi sammelan: uddeshy evn upalabdhiyan shri madhukararav chaudhari
smriti-shraddhanjali
63. svargiy bharatiy sahityakaron ko smriti-shraddhanjali daau. prabhakar machave

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