चित्रकला  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

krishn janm vasudev, krishn ko kns ke karagar mathura se gokul le jate hue, dvara- raja ravi varma

atmabhivyakti manav ki prakritik pravritti hai. apane andar ke bhav prakat kie bina vah rah nahin sakata. aur, bhavon ka adhar hota hai, manushy ka parivesh. vidvanon ki manyata hai ki adim kal men jab bhasha aur lipi-chihnon ka avirbhav nahin hua tha, rekhaon ke snket se hi vyakti svayn ko abhivyakt karata tha. guphaon ke andar aj jo shilachitr milate hain, ve hi chitrakala ke adi praman hain. tab ka manavajivan pashuon adi ke adhik nikat tha, jivan ke any paksh abhi vikasit hone the, isalie tatkalin bharatiy chitrankan bhi itane tak hi simit milata hai.

bharat ki chitrakala

  • sabhyata ke vikas ke sath paristhitiyan badalati gee. bharat dharm aur adhyatm ki or akrisht hua. yahan bahy saundary ki apeksha antarik bhavon ko pradhanata di gee. isalie bharat ki chitrakala men bhav-bhngima, mudra tatha angapratyngon ke akarshan ke andar se bhavapaksh adhik spasht ubharakar samane aya.
  • kalantar men rajanitik karanon se bharat ki chitrakala par grik kala ka prabhav pada. phir aya bharatiy snskriti ka svarn yug. is yug ki chitrakala ki sarvottam kritiyan hain- ajnta ke chitr, devi-devataon ki moortiyan adi jinako dekhakar log ashcharyachakit rah jate hain.
  • islam dharm chitrakala ke prati udasin hi nahin varanh varjana-bhavavala raha hai. isalie muslim shasan ke arnbhik kal men bharatiy chitrakala ka vikas ruk sa gaya. kintu akabar ke samay men isamen parivartan hua. dharmagrnthon ke alnkaran ke roop men chitrakala phir panapane lagi. sath hi farasi shaili ka bhi us par prabhav pada. mugal shasan ke avasan ke bad yah chitrakala deshi rajyon tak simit rah gee. isi bich rajasthani shaili, kangada ya pahadi shaili ke chitr bane. rag-raganiyon ke chitron ke nirman ka bhi yahi samay hai.
  • angrez yatharthavadi bhautik snskriti lekar bharat ae. unaki chitrakala bahy ko hi yathavat utarati hai. isaka prabhav bharat ke chitrakaron par bhi pada. ravi varma (1848-1905 ee.) ke chitr isake praman hain.
  • vartaman samay men abhivyakti aur alnkaran ke adhar par chitrakala do mote bhagon men banti jati hai- 'fain art' jisamen bhavabhivyakti ki pradhanata hai aur 'kamarshiyal art' jo alnkaran pradhan hai.

itihas

  • bharatiy chitrakala ka itihas atynt prachin hai. yadyapi adhunik shaili ki chitrakala ko adhik purani ghatana nahin mana jata, parntu bharat men chitrakala ke bij to adimanav ne hi dal diye the. pashan kal men hi manav ne gufa chitran karana prarambh kar diya tha, jisake praman hoshngabad aur bhimavetaka adi sthanon ki kndaraon aur gufaon men mile hain. in chitron men shikar, striyon tatha pashu-pakshiyon adi ke drishy chitrit hain.
  • sindhu ghati sabhyata men bhavanon ke dhvast ho jane ke karan chitrakala ke praman spasht nahin hain. tatpashchath pratham sadi eesa poorv se chitrakala ke adhik spasht praman milana shuroo ho gaye. ajnta ki gufaon men ki gee chitrakari kee shatabdiyon men taiyar huee thi, parntu isaki sabase prachin chitrakala ee. poo. pratham shatabdi ki hai. in chitron ki vishay vastu bhagavan buddh ke vibhinn janmon ki kathaon arthath jatak ko banaya gaya hai.
  • chhathi shatabdi men chalukyon dvara badami men, satavin shatabdi men pallavon dvara panamalai men, navin shatabdi men pandyon dvara sittannavasal men barahavin barahavin shatabdi men cholon dvara tnjaur men tatha solahavin shatabdi ke vijayanagar samrajy ke shasakon dvara lepakshi men bhitti chitrakari ke utkrisht namoone taiyar karavaye gaye. isi prakar keral men bhi is kala ke kee utkrisht udaharan milate hain. bngal ke pal shasakon ke kal dasavin aur barahavin shatabdi men tad ke patton tatha bad men kagaz par laghu chitrakari ka prachalan badha.
  • mugal kal ki chitrakala apani utkrishtata ke lie vishv vikhyat hai. akabar ke darabar men anek farasi tatha bharatiy chitrakar maujood the. is kal ki kala ki ek ullekhaniy visheshata thi ek hi chitr ko vibhinn kalakaron dvara milakar taiyar kiya jana. ek kalakar chitr ka rekhankan karata tha, doosara usamen rng bharata tha aur tisara taphasil taiyar karata tha. akabar ne ramayan aur mahabharat ka anuvad taiyar karake use chitrakari se sajane ka adesh diya tha. jahangir ke kal men chitrakala apani parakashtha kar pahunch gee.
  • mugal darabar men anek naye chitrakala bhi prashikshit hue aur ve vibhinn rajapoot rajyon ki rajadhaniyon men apani kala ka pradarshan karane lage. in chitrakaron ne desh ki mahanh kathaon aur akhyanon ram tatha krishn ki kathaon, bhagavat tatha gitagovind ke akhyanon adi ka akarshak chitran kiya. kishanagadh shaili tatha kota shaili aisi hi chitrakala shaili thi. isi prakar himalay, kulloo aur kangada ghatiyon men bhi utkrisht chitrakala ka vikas hua.

chitrakar

parntu british kal men chitrakala ke vikas men kuchh mndi a gayi. isake bad bharat ke navajagaran se prabhavit chitrakala ka naya roop samane aya. isake mukhy pravartak rahe hain- ravivarma, avanindranath thakur, nndalal bos, ravindranath thakur, yamini ray, asit haladar, amrita sheragil adi ne dhire-dhire is kala ko pun: pragati ki lik par lane ka prayas kiya. is yug se kala rajapootana ya kangada shaili ke nakh-shikh chitran se hatakar rng aur rekhaon ke madhyam se bhavanaon ko vyakt karane ki or abhimukh huee aur aj ke bharatiy chitrakaron ki kritiyan is prayogavadi shaili se prabhavit hain. tatpashchath gaganendranath taigor, amrita sheragil, nndalal bos, jaimini ray tatha ravindranath taigor adi kalakaron ne bharatiy chitrakala ko naye ayam pradan kiye. maqabool phida husain, chitrakala ke pramukh unnayak hain.

bharatiy chitrakala shailiyan

'jamuna' (gopiyon ke sath krishn), dvara- raja ravi varma

jain chitrakala

  • 7vin se 12vin shatabdi tak sampoorn bharat ko prabhavit karane vali shailiyon men jain shaili ka pramukh sthan hai.
  • jain chitrakala shaili men jain tirthnkaron-parshvanath, neminath, rishabhanath, mahavir svami adi ke chitr sarvadhik prachin hain.
  • jain chitrakala ka namoona jain grnthon ke oopar lagi daphtiyon ya lakadi ki patariyon par bhi milata hai jisamen simit rekhaon ke madhyam se tivr bhavabhivyakti tatha ankhon ke bade sundar chitr banaye gaye hai.

pal chitrakala

  • 9vin se 12vin shatabdi tak bngal men pal vnsh ke shasakon dharmapal aur devapal ke shasan men vishesh roop se vikasit hone vali pal shaili ki chitrakala ki vishayavastu bauddh dharm se prabhavit rahi hai.
  • prarambh men tad patr aur bad men kagaz par banaye jane vale chitron men vajrayan bauddh dharm ke drishy chitrit hain.

apabhrnsh chitrakala

  • apabhrnsh shaili 11 vin se 15 vin shatabdi ke bich prarambh men tad patron par aur bad men kagaz par chitrit huee.
  • apabhrnsh shaili ke chitron ki sarvapramukh visheshata hai:- chehare ki vishesh banavat, nukili nak tatha abhooshanon ki atyadhik sajja.

mugal chitrakala

patana ya kampani chitrakala

  • janasamany ke am pahaluon ke chitran ke lie prasiddh patana ya kampani chitrakala shaili ka vikas mugal samrajy ke patan ke bad hua jab chitrakaron ne patana evn usake samipavarti kshetr ko apana kary-kshetr banaya.
  • in chitrakaron dvara chitr banakar briten bhi bheje gaye jo aj bhi vahan ke sngrahalayon men vidyaman hain.

dakkan chitrakala

  • dakkan chitrakala shaili ka pradhan kendr bijapur tha parntu isaka vistar golakunda evn ahamadanagar rajyon men bhi tha.
  • 'ragamala' ke chitron ka chitrankan dakkan chitrakala shaili men vishesh roop se kiya gaya hai.

gujarat chitrakala

  • gurjar ya gujarat shaili ke nam se abhihit ki jane vali chitrakala ki is shaili men parvat, nadi, sagar, prithvi, agri, badal, kshitij, vriksh adi vishesharoop se banaye gaye hain.
  • gujarat chitrakala shaili ke chitron ki prapti maravad, ahamadanagar, malava, jaunapur, avadh, pnjab, nepal, udisa, tak hoti hai. jisase siddh hota hai ki isaka prabhav kshetr kafi vistrit tha.

rajapoot chitrakala

  • mugal kal ke antim dinon men bharat ke vibhinn kshetron men anek rajapoot rajyon ki utpatti ho gee.
  • rajapoot chitrakala men mevad, boondi, malava adi ullekhaniy hain. in rajyon men vishisht prakar ki chitrakala shaili ka vikas hua.
  • in vibhinn shailiyon men kuchh visheshataen, ubhayanisht dikhaee din, jisake adhar par unhen 'rajapoot' shaili nam pradan kiya gaya.
  • chitrakala ki yah shaili kafi prachin pratit hoti hai kintu isaka vastavik svaroop 15vin shatabdi ke bad hi prapt hota hai.
  • yah vastav men rajadarabaron se prabhavit shaili hai jisake vikas men kannauj, bundelakhand tatha chandel rajaon ka sarahaniy yogadan raha hai.
  • rajapoot chitrakala shaili vishuddh hindoo paramparaon par adharit hai.

pahadi chitrakala

  • rajapoot shaili se hi prabhavit pahadi chitrakala himalay ke taraee men sthit vibhinn kshetron men vikasit huee. parntu is par mugalakalin chitrakala ka bhi prabhav drishtigat hota hai.
  • panch nadiyon-sataluj, ravi, vyas, jhelam tatha chinav ka kshetr pnjab, tatha any parvatiy kendron jaise jammoo, kangada, gadhaval adi men vikasit is chitrakala shaili par parvatiy kshetr ke nivasiyon ki bhavanaon tatha sngit v dharm sambandhi paramparaon ki spasht chhap dekhi ja sakati hai.
  • pahadi shaili ke chitron men prem ka vishisht chitran drishtigat hota hain. krishn-radha ke prem ke chitron ke madhyam se inamen stri-purush prem sambndhon ko badi bariki evn sahajata se darshane ka prayas kiya gaya hai.

nathadvar chitrakala

  • 1671 men braj se shrinathaji ko moorti ke nathadvar laye jane ke pashchath brajavasi chitrakaron dvara mevad men hi chitrakala ki svatntr nathadvara shaili ka vikas kiya gaya hai.
  • is shaili men bane chitron men shrinathaji ki prakaty chhaviyon, acharyon ke dainik jivan sambndhi vishayon tatha krishn ki vividh lilaon ko darshaya gaya hai.

sikkh chitrakala

  • sikkh shaili ka vikas lahaur stet ke raja maharaja ranajit sinh ke shasan kal (1803 se 1839) men hua.
  • sikkh shaili ke vishayon ka chayan pauranik mahakavyon se kiya gaya hai jabaki isaka svaroop poornat: bharatiy hai.

basholi chitrakala

pustak chitran ki pahadi shaili, jo bharatiy pahadi rajyon men 17vin shatabdi ke ant v 18vin shatabdi men phali-phooli basholi chitrakala apane rngon aur rekhaon ki sajivata ke lie jani jati hai. yadyapi is shaili ka nam ek chhote se svatntr rajy basholi ke nam par pada, jo is shaili ka mukhy kendr hai, isake namoone kshetr men pae jate hain.

mevad ki chitrakala

mevad ki chitrakala kafi lambe samay se hi logon ka dhyan akarshit karati rahi hai. yahan chitrankan ki apani ek vishisht parnpara hai, jise yahan ke chitrakar pidhiyon se apanate rahe hain. 'chitare' apane anubhavon evn suvidhaon ke anusar chitran ke kee ne tarike bhi khojate rahe. rochak tathy yah hai ki yahan ke kee sthaniy chitran kendron men ve parnparagat takanik aj bhi jivit hain. rekha, rng, roop evn snyojan ka vishleshanatmak prayog mevad chitr shaili men sntulit dhng se kiya gaya hai. yahi mevad ke parnparagat chitrakaron ki kushal sujh-bujh ka pratik hai. chitr snyojan ke sath atmik satvikata ke adhar par shrringarik evn ritikalin rag-raginiyon ka chitran hua hai, unamen bhi vahi satvik kaumary bhav hai, jinhen darshak eeshvariy gunon ke anuroop man leta hai. yah is chitr shaili ke chitron ki manovaigyanik snyojan pranali ki visheshata hai. parnparagat mevad chitrashaili men sabhi prerak tatv is chitrashaili ke kalavadi drishtikon ko prastut karate hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

vithika

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah